The aim of this paper is to present the organizational settings of health care on all levels (primary, secondary and tertiary), the personnel with university, college and high school education which gives health care for the children. Children's diseases will be presented, especially those which leave traces in the psychophysical status of the child and pose social and medical problem for the family and the whole community. Death rate of children will also be presented according to the causes of death, in the period of 1987-95. Health care of children aged 0-6 years in the primary health care is organized through well-child clinics for infants and preschool children in 18 health facilities and 16 medical centers in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as through rural medical units, with a total of 157 locations. The number of physicians in 1995 has increased 9% compared with 1987 and the number of specialists is 66% higher compared with 1987.