Scientific Journal of Review

Scientific Journal of Review

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sjournals
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Feb/19

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Computer and Information Science, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics
  • Publisher's keywords: Engineering, Mathematics, Computer and Information Science, Agricultural Science
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 EUR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2012
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '206' articles

Prospects and challenges of increasing the development impact of agricultural research in enhancing food and nutrition s

Prospects and challenges of increasing the development impact of agricultural research in enhancing food and nutrition s

Authors: N. Assan*| Open University, Zimbabwe.
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Increasing the development impact of agricultural research as it relates to promoting food and nutrition security continues to be a major challenge in Sub Saharan Africa. The preceding review explores the opportunities and constraints that are associated with increasing the development impact of agricultural research in enhancing food and nutrition security in Sub Saharan Africa. The engendered agricultural research approach in promoting food production and security is examined. There is an attempt to describe the impact of gender-sensitive agricultural research on food production and its implication for food and nutrition security. The influence of policy environment, inclusion of micro-livestock and insects farming in the mainstream agriculture production and agricultural research priorities in increasing the development impact of agricultural research are highlighted. It is also suggested that incorporating indigenous knowledge as the basis of agricultural research may promote increasing development impact of agricultural research in the region. Climate smart agricultural research should become increasingly important such that it influences food production and achieve the primary objective of achieving food and nutrition security. Sub Saharan Africa is endowed with potential good agricultural space which can be put in good use through increasing the development impact of agricultural research in a manner that the ultimate goal of self food and nutrition sustenance is attained. The review concludes that in the planning and implementation of agricultural research to enhance food and nutrition security, gender sensitive agricultural policies should be put in place such that women become the focal point of food production in Sub Saharan Africa. The sustainable development goals aimed at achieving food security and improved nutrition and promoting sustainable agriculture can be only realized through increasing the development impact of agricultural research in Sub Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Prospects, Challenges, Development, Agricultural research, Sub Saharan Africa
Immunoglobulin in colostrum and health of newborn Calves

Immunoglobulin in colostrum and health of newborn Calves

Authors: S. Kaskous| Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria and Expert in the Siliconform Company, 86842 Tuerkheim...
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

Cow’s colostrum contains the basic alimentary constituents; fat, protein, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins, in addition to immunoglobulin, biological factors, hormones and other biological particles. These constituents play an important role in immunity and health of the newborn calves, as they are born with weak immunity and acquire their immunity after birth within three weeks continuously after being fed the colostrums. Feeding colostrums immediately after birth is found to protect the calves from the pathological factors which are around them at birth and at the beginning of breath. The synthesis of the colostrum takes place at the end of pregnancy during the dry period after increasing the hormones receptors on the epithelial cells in the udder. Colostrum production continues after birth for five days and it is the source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and a part of IgA, IgM, in colostrums is the blood, whereas the plasma of the epithelial cells in udder synthesizes 50% of IgA and IgM. IgG forms the greatest part in colostrum approximately 85-90% and the remaining parts are IgM at rate 7% and IgA at rate 5%. Controlling udder within the dry period is basic to prevent inflammation especially subclinical mastitis, because it will lead to retard the colostrum quantity after birth and decrease its concentration of Ig especially IgG. It is important to determine immunoglobulin level produced after birth using different methods especially the field ones, which are simple and available. These methods will help to categorize and freeze the good quality surplus colostrum to feed the newborn of low quality colostrum producing cows.

Keywords: Colostrum, Immunoglobulin, Calves, Milking cow, IgG, IgM
Counterfeit drugs set alarm bells ringing: comparative analysis of drug policies

Counterfeit drugs set alarm bells ringing: comparative analysis of drug policies

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Occupational Health Administration, Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan.
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

The strategy of price liberalisation and privatisation had been implemented in Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatisation policy, the government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. To improve the effectiveness of the public pharmacy, resources should be switched towards areas of need, reducing inequalities and promoting better health conditions. Medicines are financed either through cost sharing or full private. The role of the private services is significant. A review of reform of financing medicines in Sudan is given in this communication. Also, it highlights the current drug supply system in the public sector, which is currently responsibility of the Central Medical Supplies Public Corporation (CMS). In Sudan, the researchers did not identify any rigorous evaluations or quantitative studies about the impact of drug regulations on the quality of medicines and how to protect public health against counterfeit or low quality medicines, although it is practically possible. However, the regulations must be continually evaluated to ensure the public health is protected against by marketing high quality medicines rather than commercial interests, and the drug companies are held accountable for their conduct.

Keywords: Counterfeits medicines, Drug importers, Quality of medicines, Regulatory authorities
Wind energy development: Innovation and new prospective

Wind energy development: Innovation and new prospective

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham, United Kingdom.
( 27 downloads)
Abstract

The imminent exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the increasing demand for energy were the motives for those reasonable in world to put into practice an energy policy based on rational use of energy; and on exploitation of new and renewable energy sources. After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of the world, a renewed interest for the application of solar and wind energy has shown in many places. Therefore, the researchers and engineers began to pay more attention to wind and solar energy utilisation in rural areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and as fuel is insufficient, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large-scale in the near future. Wind is a form of renewable energy, which is always in a non-steady state due to the wide temporal and spatial variations of wind velocity. The need for the provision of new data stations in order to enable a complete and reliable assessment of the overall wind power potential of the country is to be identified and specific locations suggested. This article presents the background and ideas of the development of the concept as well as the main results and experience gained during ongoing projects up to now. In the world, various designs of wind machines for water pumping have been developed and some designs are presently manufactured commercially. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local and small-scale applications especially for remote rural areas. It is concluded that many parts of the world is enjoyed with abundant wind and solar energy resources.

Keywords: Renewable energy technologies, Wind and solar resources, Utilisation and development
Groundwater potential and sustainable management in the Nile valley: an overview

Groundwater potential and sustainable management in the Nile valley: an overview

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK.
( 29 downloads)
Abstract

Sudan is dependent upon groundwater aquifers for its supply of water, both for human consumption and irrigation. The present minimum annual requirements of water for human and animal consumption in the rural areas of Sudan are estimated to be 275 x 106 m3 (23% of this amount is provided from groundwater). About 1381 x 106 m3 are estimated to recharge from the major basins annually. Only 143 x 106 m3 of this recharged water is used because of lack of proper policies, technical manpower, inadequacy of knowledge and absence of appropriate research to develop new technologies and approaches. In this chapter the groundwater resources management in Sudan is presented. It can be concluded that the groundwater potentialities of the basins are extremely high. Finally, large quantities of groundwater are available for future development in irrigation and domestic supply.

Keywords: Sudan, Geological formation, Groundwater, Water-pumping
Sustainability criteria for water resource systems: sustainable development and management

Sustainability criteria for water resource systems: sustainable development and management

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK.
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

For the thirty-nine million people, who live in Sudan, environmental pollution is a major concern; therefore industry, communities, local authorities and central government, to deal with pollution issues, should adopt an integrated approach. Most polluters pay little or no attention to the control and proper management of polluting effluents. This may be due to a lack of enforceable legislation and/or the fear of spending money on the treatment of their effluent prior to discharge. Furthermore, the imposed fines are generally low and therefore do not deter potential offenders.

Keywords: Sudan, Water resources development, Community water supply, Effective water-supply management, Environment
Mathematical models of polymer-dentin physicochemical interactions and their biological effects

Mathematical models of polymer-dentin physicochemical interactions and their biological effects

Authors: Paula Alejandra Baldión*| Department of Oral Health. Universidad Nacional de Colombia., Carlos Julio Cortés| Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic...
( 57 downloads)
Abstract

Dental adhesion is the result of a physicochemical interaction between tooth structure and the adhesive polymeric restorative material. Adhesion involves molecular interactions at the interface between these constituents. Furthermore, mechanical interlocking is a common type of adhesion important in dental materials. This type of bonding involves the penetration of the adhesive into the dental surface and requires different energetic considerations for an optimal interface. An adequate infiltration of adhesive monomers into demineralized dentin depends on several factors that are determined by the atoms on the surface of the structures and the effects of surface energy on the thermodynamic work of adhesion. The polarity, solubility and viscosity of the adhesive system and the surface energy and moisture of dentin tissue are key factors that contribute to adhesion energy. The main goal of dental material adhesion is to produce an interface that is strong and durable. Thus, it is important to optimize the infiltration of adhesive monomers into exposed collagen fiber networks and dentinal tubules in order to increase the strength of the Resin-dentin bonds and produce adequate dentin sealing.

Keywords: Adhesive monomers, Interface, Dentin, Wettability, Contact degree, Surface energy
Attitude of Pakistan’s individual investor towards risk during bull and bear markets

Attitude of Pakistan’s individual investor towards risk during bull and bear markets

Authors: Khakan Najaf*| Department of Accounting & Finance, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan., Shumraiz Ashraf| Department of Accounting & Fina...
( 55 downloads)
Abstract

The prime objectives of this study is to analysis the individual behavior in both bull and bear markets of paksitan. In this paper, we have examined the preferences, attitude towards risk and varying market condition. We have taken the data of 100 companies from various sectors. For this purpose the data of four years have been collected. Empirical evidences have shown that we have used the abnormal returns, volatility and systematic risk for the purpose of measure of risk. Due to various behavior biases, the overall individual behaviors are the different. This study is showing that bull and bear behaviors are associated with the Book to market valuation .we are also trying to show that overconfidence has impact on the investment decision. The objectives of this study are 1) to analyze the individuals behavior in the different market condition.2) In the Bull and Bear market individuals towards risk.3) impact of overconfidence on the different market situation. This study is the related to bull and bear market of Pakistan. It is limited till four years. In 2007 Karachi stock exchange was high growth it was reached till 14075.84 and with annual return of 33.54%. There have observed the significant effect of overconfidence on the risk attitudes. Our studies have taken the stock market of Karachi. Our study is showing very clearly that investor’s behaviors are different in both markets. In this study level of the ownership is taken dependent variable and independent are the no of outstanding shares, EPS, abnormal returns; we have measured the volatility through sigma.

Keywords: Karachi stock exchange, Risk, Abnormal return, Systematic risk
Federalism in Nigeria: A critique

Federalism in Nigeria: A critique

Authors: Odisu Terry–Andrews*| School of Marine Technology, Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria.
( 53 downloads)
Abstract

The paper looks at federalism as a political system and how it is being practisedin Nigeria. Using the descriptive method of data gathering, the paper reveals that there are contradictions in its practice in Nigeria. What obtains here is a disguised unitary system. There are many differences between the US and Nigeria in the practice of federalism. It is recommended that since some states are not economically viable, full autonomy be granted to the six regions as federating units as well as derecognizing local governments in the constitution.

Keywords: Federalism, Autonomy, Constituent units, Resource control
Some biochemical markers that can predict pre-eclampsia

Some biochemical markers that can predict pre-eclampsia

Authors: Mohammad Sayyed Bakheet*| Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt., Mohamed Ismail Seddik| Department of c...
( 62 downloads)
Abstract

TNF– α directly damages the vascular endothelial cells, reduces regional blood flow, causes occlusion of vessels and increases endothelial permeability. Endothelial cell injury after TNF– α mediated activation of immune system may result in secretion of vasoactive substances and increase in vascular permeability and intravascular coagulation. TNF-α may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and may identify the patients who are at high risk of PE and can be a potential marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. Preeclamptic women had deranged lipid profile due to abnormal lipid metabolism; this alteration of lipid metabolism may play a key role in the development of symptoms of Pre-eclampsia. Furthermore, changes to lipid metabolism may contribute towards the endothelial lesions observed in pre-eclampsia.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, TNF– α, Lipid per-oxidation, Nitric oxide
Solar thermal fluids – why it is so important to choose the right fluid

Solar thermal fluids – why it is so important to choose the right fluid

Authors: Christopher Wright*| Global Group of Companies, Cold Meece Estate, Cold Meece, Staffordshire, United Kingdom.
( 57 downloads)
Abstract

In 2011 the global heat transfer (HTF) market was estimated to be worth $1,684 and is projected to be worth $2,557 million by 2017. The generation of energy from the solar sector is one area that is growing with a projected output of 630 GW by 2050. In the concentrated closer power (CSP) sector, the most commonly used HTF is the eutectic mixture of biphenyl diphenyl oxide (BDO). The chemistry of this fluid means that CSP plants can operate up to 400 degrees Celsius. However, this is not the only key feature of a HTF as other parameters need to be considered. This article discusses the key features of a BDO fluid.

Keywords: Heat transfer fluid, Closer power, Biphenyl diphenyl oxide, Solar thermal fluids
The effect of nickel doping on the structural, defect structural, optical and magnetic properties of zinc oxide nanopart

The effect of nickel doping on the structural, defect structural, optical and magnetic properties of zinc oxide nanopart

Authors: Mona Mohsen| Physics Department Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt., Mohammed Mohammed El Okr| Physics Department, Faculty of Scie...
( 53 downloads)
Abstract

Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been applied in the present work to study the defect structure changes of the Zn1-xNixO (0% ≤ x ≤ 10%). This system has been synthesized in nanosize by coprecipitation method. Nanostructure features of the prepared samples have been investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM. The XRD data has revealed that the prepared samples are crystalline and belong to space group P63mc. The deduced estimated average crystallite size is varying from 20 nm to 96 nm in agreement with TEM measurements The variation of lattice parameters and internal strain that have been deduced from XRD data, have shown that the solubility limit of NiO in ZnO does not exceed 5% and are correlated with PAL parameters. At 7% and 10% concentrations the XRD spectra has revealed the presence of secondary peaks due to creation of a new NiO phase, which indicates that Ni is no more incorporated in the ZnO structure. This has been also confirmed by the variation of the energy gap Eg deduced from the UV absorbance spectra and the variation of FTIR absorption bands. The (M-H) curves have shown that the saturation magnetization Ms suggest the presence of ferromagnetism which decreases with increasing Ni content up to 5%. This is associated with an increase in the formation of vacancy clusters and positron trapping rate in the interface region. In addition, the vacancy defects play an important role in mediating the ferromagnetism behavior in agreement with the polaron model.

Keywords: Zinc oxide, PALS, Magnetization, Nanoparticles, Energy gap
Demand for biogas: state of the art and future prospective

Demand for biogas: state of the art and future prospective

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Energy Research Institute (ERI) Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, UK.
( 53 downloads)
Abstract

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Energy sources are divided into two main types; conventional energy (woody biomass, petroleum products, and electricity); and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). Sudan possesses a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, moderate wind speeds, hydro, and biomass energy resources. Like many tropical countries, Sudan has ample biomass resources that can be efficiently exploited in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Fuel-wood farming offers cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions for Sudan, with the added benefit of providing sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biomass technology in Sudan. This current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This chapter provides an overview of biomass energy activities and highlights future plans concerning optimum technical and economical utilisation of biomass energy available in Sudan. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

Keywords: Sudan, Energy, Consumption patterns, Renewable energy potential, Biomass, Biogas
Energy efficiency and building environment

Energy efficiency and building environment

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer*| Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, UK.
( 57 downloads)
Abstract

With the environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but reducing his energy consumption, one way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in the hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against stress of climate. Buildings should be designed according to climate of the site for reducing the need of mechanical heating or cooling hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress of the last decade diffused electronic and informatics’ devices in many human activities and now appear also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addiction to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building demotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. 43% reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and the consumption is increasing. Most industrialised countries are in addition becoming more and more dependent on external supplies of conventional energy carriers, i.e., fossil fuels. Energy for heating and cooling can be replaced by new renewable energy sources. New renewable energy sources, however, are usually not economically feasible compared with the traditional carriers. In order to achieve the major changes needed to alleviate the environmental impacts of the building sector, it is necessary to change and develop both the processes in the industry itself, and to build a favourable framework to overcome the present economic, regulatory and institutional barriers.

Keywords: Renewable energy technologies, Energy efficiency, Sustainable development, Emissions, Built environment
Effects of terrorism on the international business in Nigeria

Effects of terrorism on the international business in Nigeria

Authors: Khakan Najaf*| Department of Accounting & Finance, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan., Rabia Najaf| Department of Accounting & Finance,...
( 59 downloads)
Abstract

In this paper, we are exploring that terrorism has influenced on the international business. We are showing that day by day business is become vulnerable due to terrorist activates to carry out this research we have used the Random sampling method for checking the reliability of the test we have used the Pearson s product moment. The results is showing that 73% balance of payment, 0.69 foreign exchange rate, 67.13% foreign investors, 84 % financial market. We have formulated the four hypotheses which are proving that there is significant relationship between terrorism and international business. We have provided the some recommendations that there must be very public enlightenment and opportunity of jobs. There should be proper laws against the terrorism activities.

Keywords: Terrorism, Pearsons product moment, Random sampling, Balance of payment, International business

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