Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances

Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sjournals
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Sjournals
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Feb/20

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Microbiology, Parasitology, Veterinary Science, Pharmacology, Physiology
  • Publisher's keywords: Microbiology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Veterinary Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 EUR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2012
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '87' articles

In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

Authors: V.M. Gholve| Department of Plant Pathology College of Agriculture,Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani – 431 402 (MS), S.M. Jogdand| Department of P...
( 43 downloads)
Abstract

All the six fungicides viz.,Mancozeb (75% WP); Carbendazim (50WP), Copper oxychloride (50WP), Captan (50 WP), Thiram (75 % WP), Chlorothalonil (75 WP) evaluated in vitro (@500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) were found effective against A. macrospora and caused significant inhibition of test pathogen over untreated control. However, Thiram was found most effective and recorded significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (90.42%). This was followed by the fungicides, Captan (82.04%), Mancozeb (79.88%), Carbendazim(77.5%), Chlorothalonil (74.52%) and copper oxychloride (71.75%). All the five fungal and one bacterial bioagents/ antagonists evaluated in vitro against A. macrospora were found antifungal/ antagonistic against the test pathogen. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded least linear mycelial growth (32.72 mm) with corresponding significantly highest mycelial inhibition (63.64%) of the test pathogen. The second and third best bioagents found were T. koningii and P. fluorescens, which recorded linear mycelial growth, respectively of 33.90 mm and 33.95 mm with corresponding mycelial inhibition, respectively of 62.33 and 62.27 per cent. All the six botanicals/plant extracts evaluated in vitro (@5, 10 and 15 % each) were found fungistatic/ fungicidal against. A.macrospora. However, significantly least mean radial mycelial growth (56.18mm) and significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (37.47%) was recorded with Garlic. The second and third best botanicals found were onion and Tulsi which recorded second and third least mean radial mycelial growth, respectively of 58.52 mm and 62.51 mm with corresponding mean mycelial inhibition of 34.97 and 32.86 per cent, respectively.

Keywords: Gossypium spp, Alternaria macrospora, Fungicide, Bioagents, Aqueous leaf extracts, Mycelial inhibition
Host range and transmission of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) causing cotton mosaic disease

Host range and transmission of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) causing cotton mosaic disease

Authors: G.P. Jagtap*| Department of Plant Pathology College of Agriculture, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani – 431 402 (MS), T.H. Jadhav| Department of...
( 40 downloads)
Abstract

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) causing cotton mosaic disease was found to be transmissible by mechanical means specially when extracts were made in neutral phosphate buffer 0.02M containing reducing agent like 2-Mercaptoethanol.The disease was found to be transmitted by Thrips palmi (cotton thrips) and Thrips tobacci (onion thrips). TSV was detected in sample showing mosaic symptoms.TSV was readily graft transmissible but not transmissible by mechanical means, no evidence of its transmission through seed or by thrips was obtained. About 19 plant species belonging to five different families viz.malvaceae, chenopodiaceae, compositeae, leguminoceae and solanaceae were tested for host range and virus isolate causing cotton mosaic disease.

Keywords: Gossypium spp, Tobacco streak virus, Host, Transmission
Participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases in Agidi development area of Nasarawa state Nigeria

Participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases in Agidi development area of Nasarawa state Nigeria

Authors: A. Bala*| National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, L.U. Muhammad| National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau Sta...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

A participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases was carried out in Agidi Development Area of Nasarawa State among 123 farmers, 29 of the respondent were female, while 94 were male. Open-ended interviews were utilized where necessary to clarify information that needed clarifications by the respondents; physical examination of the some affected animals and it surroundings were carried out during the surveillance. The following diseases were established in the study area: Peste des peptits ruminants, Foot rot, helminthosis, mite/lice/flea infestation, tick infestation, bloat, Orf (Contagious ecthyma), poison, mange, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, coccidiosis, infectious bursal disease (Gumboro), chronic respiratory disease, African Swine Fever (ASF), abortion, Dystocia, sudden death, foot and mouth disease, Fascioliasis, trypanosomosis, black quarter disease, babesiosis, and wounds. Some of these diseases have specific period (season) of outbreak, while some occurs at all season. Analysis of data indicated that Newcastle disease was the most important disease of poultry, Peste des peptits ruminants was the disease that lead to high mortality in small ruminants, while African Swine Fever (ASF) is the most devastating disease of pigs, and Lice/flea infestation is the most common disease to poultry, small ruminants and pigs, in the study area.

Keywords: Diseases, Livestock, Participatory surveillance, Poultry, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Kola nut (cola acuminata) extract as a substitute to histological tissue stain eosin

Kola nut (cola acuminata) extract as a substitute to histological tissue stain eosin

Authors: S.A. Shehu| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, M.L. Sonfada| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo Un...
( 46 downloads)
Abstract

The application of natural dyes for staining of various biological tissues from an alternative source will decrease the expense for purchasing the synthetic dye and reduce their effects on human and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the extraction of natural dye from Cola nut (Cola acuminata) using various solvents and its staining property on the rat tissues. The cola nut was pulvized using pestle and mortar, 5gram was used to make 5% of aqueous extract. The rat tissues were processed for paraffin embedding technique and sectioned at 5 μm thicknesses. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and the extracts as secondary stain. The results showed that the natural extract from Cola acuminata stained the cytoplasm of various tissues with yellowish-brown colouration. This finding suggests that Cola acuminata can be used as an alternative dye for histological staining.

Keywords: Kolanut extract, Substitute, Histological tissue, Eosin
Bovine foetal wastage and its economic implication: a six-year (2003 – 2008) retrospective study in an abattoir in northwestern, Nigeria

Bovine foetal wastage and its economic implication: a six-year (2003 – 2008) retrospective study in an abattoir in northwestern, Nigeria

Authors: E.O. Ngbede*| Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria PMB 1069 Kaduna State, Nigeria., S....
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

Pregnancy wastage has been reported to account for about 20-25% of the fall in livestock production in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the light this fact, a six-year (2003 – 2008) retrospective study based on abattoir records was carried out to assess the magnitude of bovine foetal wastage and its economic implication in an abattoir in Kaduna metropolis. A total of 4867 foetuses were encountered during the six year period with an average of 811 foetuses wasted annually. Foetal wastage was observed to occur throughout the year with an increased occurrence (2890) in the first trimester i.e 59.38%. About 3148 (64.68%) of the wastage was encountered in the dry season (November – April) which coincides with the festive periods viz New year, Easter, Sallah and Christmas as well as the advent of the rainy season. Economic analysis of the magnitude of foetal wastage also indicated that about ₦28,390,833.3 - ₦40,558,333.3 ($236,590.278 - $337,986.11) is annually lost to foetal wastage. Full implementation of the legislations against the slaughtering of pregnant animals is advocated in addition to putting in place and strengthening of veterinary structures and services in the abattoirs across the country. Education of the butchers and farmers against slaughtering of pregnant animals and its economic implication is also advocated.

Keywords: Foetal wastage, Abattoir, Cattle, economic loss, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Measurement of chromium (Cr) residue in kidney and liver of slaughtered cattle in Sokoto central abattoir, Sokoto state, Nigeria

Measurement of chromium (Cr) residue in kidney and liver of slaughtered cattle in Sokoto central abattoir, Sokoto state, Nigeria

Authors: A. Bala| National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, A.U. Junaidu| Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UsmanuDanfodiyo, Universit...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

The prevalence of Chromium (Cr) residue in liver and kidney samples of cattle was determined at cattle slaughter section of Sokoto Central abattoir Sokoto State Nigeria. A total of one hundred of each of the liver and kidney samples were collected and processed for the detection of Chromium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. All the samples (liver and kidney) were 100% positive for Chromium. The highest and lowest concentration of Chromium in liver and kidney were found to be among the age groups of ≥9 years and those at 0-2 years respectively. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the concentration of Chromium in liver and kidney samples of the different age groups of the slaughtered cattle. The concentration of Chromium in all the samples are within the permissible level recommended by Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) and World Health Organisation(WHO).It is therefore obvious that the liver and kidney of cattle slaughtered at Sokoto abattoir contain Chromium residue. This study was carried out to determine the level of Chromium residue in liver and kidneys of beef consumed from Sokoto Central abattoir Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Abattoir, Chromium, Kidney, Liver, Nigeria, Slaughter
Prevalence of mastitis in goat herds in some northwestern villages in Nigeria

Prevalence of mastitis in goat herds in some northwestern villages in Nigeria

Authors: B.K. Tanimomo*| Department of Animal health and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja., S.A. Hena| Department of Animal heal...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

In this study 10 different herds were randomly sampled and milk samples obtained from 263 lactating does with normal sized udder and enlarged (unilateral/bilateral) pendulous udders .The obtained milk samples were analyzed for mastitis using a rapid field catalase test (RFCT). From 194 samples obtained from NSU (Normal Size Udder), 164 samples were negative to the test while 30 samples were positive. These represent 84.5% negatives and 15.5% positives of the total sample analyzed. Similarly, 69 samples were obtained from both U/BEU (Unilateral/Bilateral Enlarged Udder), 42 samples were negative to RFCT while 27 samples positive, representing 60.7% negatives and 39.3% positives of the total analyzed samples. The information obtained from this research work is to sensitize farmers on the need for routine examination/screening of their herd for mastitis; since mastitis occurring as the most common and costly disease which could take a heavier toll in animal industry than any single disease through considerable economic loss.

Keywords: Prevalence, Mastitis, Goat, Village, Nigeria
Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia) and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia) and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

Authors: S.A. Hena*| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria., M.L. Sonfada| Department...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails) of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P<0.05 considered significant. The weights of esophagus in quail and pigeon were 1.66±0.15g and 1.62±0.2g respectively (P>0.05), their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05). The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05) and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P<0.05). It was also seen in both absolute and relative terms that the lengths and weights of the small intestines in the pigeon were higher than that of the quail though with no considerable significant differences (P>0.05). The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P<0.05) and their corresponding lengths considered extremely ssignificant (P<0.05). The colon, being the terminal part of the large intestine is located caudal to the ceca, had their weights in both quail and pigeon not significantly different statistically, but in absolute and relative terms they differed from each other similarly the lengths of the colon in both bird types were considered significant (P<0.05). The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication as well as being useful for poultry pathologists and clinician, more especially when carrying out postmortem examination.

Keywords: Comparative, Gastrointestinal tract, Pigeon, Quail
Risk practices and awareness of leptospirosis in an abattoir in northwestern Nigeria

Risk practices and awareness of leptospirosis in an abattoir in northwestern Nigeria

Authors: E.O. Ngbede*| Department of Veterinary Microbiology,Ahmadu Bello University Zaria PMB 1069 Samaru Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria., M.A. Raji| Department...
( 39 downloads)
Abstract

The study was designed to assess the presence of risk practices and level of awareness of leptospirosis among abattoir workers. The study was conducted in an abattoir located in Northwestern Nigeria. Pretested questionnaires were administered via interview to 73 of the abattoir workers willing to participate in the study. There was there was a low level (5.48%) of awareness of leptospirosis among the abattoir workers. Also risk practices for infection by Leptospira were present among the abattoir workers. This study has shown that the abattoir workers are at risk of infection by Leptospira in the course of their work due to the low level of awareness of the disease, the presence of risk practices and inadequate use of protective clothing.

Keywords: Leptospirosis, Abattoir workers, Awareness, Risk practices, Infection, Zoonosis
Lactational cadmium exposure induced alterations in the hematological indices and oxidative status in brain, liver and testes of rat pups

Lactational cadmium exposure induced alterations in the hematological indices and oxidative status in brain, liver and testes of rat pups

Authors: E.E. Elsharkawy*| Department of forensic medicine and toxicology faculty of veterinary medicine. Assuit University, Egypt., N.A. El-Nisr| Animal Healt...
( 88 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of lactational exposure to cadmium (Cd) on suckling male rat pups. Hematological parameters, antioxidant status, some biochemical and pathophysiological indices in brain, liver and testicular tissues of rat offspring were studied. Lactating Sprague–Dawley females received either 0 ppb (control) or 20 ppm Cd as CdCl2 in their drinking water during the lactational period. Suckling male rat pups were weaned and sacrificed on day 24 for performing various biochemical assays. Distortion of the hemopoietic features as decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet values were seen in exposed rat pups. Increased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) and depressed antioxidant defense superoxide dimutase (SOD) levels in brain, liver and testes of exposed rat pups were obtained. Serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed a significant increase, whereas a reduction in the level of testosterone hormone was obtained in cadmium exposed pups. In addition, Cd induces neuronal degeneration, necrosis in hepatocytes and degeneration in semineferous tubules along with interstitial edema. The previous findings are indicative of multiple targets of cadmium to disrupt several organ functions in newly borne rat pups on lactational exposure.

Keywords: Lactational cadmium, Platelets, Antioxidant system, Lactate dehydrogenase, Testosterone, Cerebral cortex
Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of calves in Sokoto northwestern Nigeria

Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of calves in Sokoto northwestern Nigeria

Authors: A. Mahmuda*| Department of Parasitology and Entomology,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria., A.A...
( 47 downloads)
Abstract

This study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of calves in Sokoto metropolis. A total of 216 faecal samples from 54 calves were examined using Simple faecal floatation and Modified McMaster techniques for morphological egg differentiation and count of worm-egg per gram of faeces respectively. Positive samples were cultured to differentiate between morphologically indistinguishable nematode genera. An overall prevalence was found to be 133 (61.57%). The seasonal prevalence was found to be highest 40 (74.07%) during the early dry season, while the lowest prevalence was observed to be 19 (35.18%) in the early rainy season. Eight different nematode genera were identified with Cooperia spp being highest in prevalence (28.78%) followed by Haemonchus spp (26.76%) and the least was Toxocara spp (0.50%). The prevalence was generally higher in females (56.39%) than in males (43.61%). Statistically significant association (p<0.05) between the prevalence of the parasites and the different seasons was observed. Prevalence was low in indigenous breeds, Sokoto Gudali (15.04%) which is relatively resistant to helminthosis compared to crossbreeds (32.33%) and exotic, Friesian (52.63%) breeds. It is concluded that the late rainy and early dry seasons are conducive for the successive perpetuation of these parasites and therefore enhances subsequent transmission to susceptible hosts.

Keywords: Seasonal prevalence, Gastrointestinal, Nematodes, Calves, Sokoto
Prevalence of rare Eimeria canis from the non descript dogs of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

Prevalence of rare Eimeria canis from the non descript dogs of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: V. Sudan*| Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwav...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

A wide range of parasites particularly helminths, arthropods and protozoans affect dogs but when it comes to intestinal coccidians, their number is scanty. Eimeria canis is perhaps the most under reported parasite of dogs. The present paper deals with the prevalence of E.canis in dogs with no possible history of deworming from Mathura region, India. Finally, the morphology of the parasite, present scenario, reasons for under reporting vis-à-vis future projections are being described.

Keywords: Eimeria canis, Mathura, Prevalence
Comparative effect of diclofenac sodium and dexamethasone on incisional wound healing in dogs

Comparative effect of diclofenac sodium and dexamethasone on incisional wound healing in dogs

Authors: A.A. Abubakar*| Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto., J.A. Maiye| Department of Veterinary Surgery and...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

The study was carried out to compare and evaluate the effect of diclofenac sodium, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and dexamethasone, a steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug on incisional wound healing in dogs. Fifteen (15) clinically healthy, mixed sex, intact Nigerian local dogs free of dermatological lesion with mean age of 14.97±3.7 months (Mean ± SD) and mean body weight of 10.73± 2.6kg (Mean ± SD) were used for the study. The dogs were randomly divided into three treatment groups: A, B and C comprising of five dogs per group. A caudal mid-ventral laparotomy skin incision was made to create surgical wounds. Immediately after anesthetic recovery, 7.5% diclofenac sodium injection intramuscularly at standard clinical therapeutic dose rate of 2.5mg kg-1 was administered to group A for three day, 2.5% dexamethasone injection intramuscularly at standard clinical therapeutic dose rate of 0.25mg kg-1 was administered to the group B for three days. Group C were not treated with any anti-inflammatory medication. Subjectively, diclofenac sodium group shows shorter healing interval compare to dexamethasone group (P<0.05). Objective histological evaluation at day 7 and 14 revealed low inflammatory density in group B compared to A and C, fibroblast, collagen fibers, and surface keratinization was higher in group A at day 7 and 14 post surgery compared to B and C suggestive of faster healing in diclofenac sodium group compare to dexamethasone group. There was statistical significant different (P<0.05) among the groups. It is concluded that diclofenac sodium when used as an anti inflammatory agent post operative does not interfere with surgical wound healing.

Keywords: Dexamethasone, Diclofenac sodium, Incisional wound, Histopathology, Healing interval
Evaluation of three suture techniques based on surgical wound assessment in Caprine

Evaluation of three suture techniques based on surgical wound assessment in Caprine

Authors: A.A. Abubakar*| Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto., J.B. Adeyanju| Department of Veterinary Surgery...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

Subcuticular, simple interrupted and ford interlocking suture patterns were used in closing skin incision at paralumbar fossa in fifteen apparently healthy male and female adult goats. The goats were randomly divided into three groups: A (Subcuticular); B(Ford interlocking) and C(Simple interrupted). Clinical appearance of the surgical wound was scored twice post surgery at 18-24 hours and 10-14 days using swelling, erythema, dehiscence and discharge as the parameters. There were no statistical difference (P<0.05) among the three suture patterns at 18-24 hours and 10-14 days post surgery. It was concluded that any of the three suture techniques could be used to close skin incision in goats and result in good healing.

Keywords: Caprine, Suture patterns, Surgical wound, Swelling, Erythema, Dehiscence
Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of one- humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Sokoto central abattoir, Sokoto state, Nigeria

Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of one- humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Sokoto central abattoir, Sokoto state, Nigeria

Authors: S. Ukashatu*| Department of Animal Health and Technology Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina State, Nigeria., M.A. Saulawa| Faculty of Veterinar...
( 45 downloads)
Abstract

A parasitological examination was conducted using a Zinc Sulphate floatation technique which employed on the faecal samples of one hundred and fifty (150) camels comprising of both male and female. The camels were managed extensively together with other livestocks. A total of 131 (87.3%) samples were found to be positive for the three genera of helminthes, namely; Nematodes (77.8%), Trematodes (5.6%) and Cestodes (5.6%) and 19 (12.8%) of the samples were found to be negative for any parasite. Out of 85 (56.7%) number of male sample collected, 80 (53.3%) were found to be positive and out of the 65 (43.3%) of the female samples collected, 51 (34.0%) was found to be positive. Sixteen (16) different types of parasites were found to be infecting the animals examined. Mixed infection with more than one genus of helminthes was also observed. The parasites encountered in this study have economic and public health significance, thus, there is a need for the enlightment of camel owners for the need to deworm their animals in respect to it’s zoonotic potentials in countries with significant population of camels.

Keywords: Abattoir, Camel (Camelus dromedarius), Gastrointestinal parasites, Nigeria, Slaughter, Sokoto

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