Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sultan Qaboos University
  • Country of publisher: oman
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Sep/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biochemistry, Biomedicine, Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Biomedicine, Community Health, Family Medicine, Health Sciences, Biochemistry
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 1999
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '1136' articles

A Tribute to Professor Musallem EIBuaIy: A Pioneer in Child Health Services

A Tribute to Professor Musallem EIBuaIy: A Pioneer in Child Health Services

Authors: Zakia Al-Lamki
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

Losing a hero in the early hours of June 25th 1997 filled our heart with sorrow, but also with a great sense of pride for having known and worked with this extraordinary man who transformed health care for children in the Sultanate. It has not been an easy task for Child Health Services to reach where it is now for this program hardly existed before the 80's. Much of what has been achieved, we owe to Prof. Musallam ElBualy. A U.K. medical graduate from Durham University, Prof. ElBualy moved to the USA where he undertook his postgraduate qualifications in Paediatrics. Being an Omani with a deep sense of moral obligation, Prof. ElBualy soon joined the Ministry of Health (MOH) in 1981 where, as Chief of Child Health services, he committed himself to the improvement of Maternal and Child Health Care in the country. In 1986, he was appointed as the first Omani Professor of Paediatrics at Sultan Qaboos University and was involved in the setting up of the curriculum. In 1989 in addition to his teaching responsibilities, he was appointed Director of Curative Services at MOH. His brilliant ideas and missionary real contributed to a number of developments, including the rapid decline in Infant Mortality, expansion of the immunization program, and anti-smoking drives. Thanks in great part to his dedication and hard work, Oman achieved significant advances in all the three areas. His strong views on breast feeding policies led to the success of the “Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative" throughout the country. Besides his participation in a number of national Committees, he was also a Coordinator in many research activities, including Growth Studies in Omani Children, work in Nutritional Status, and a Gulf Health Survey. He was involved in the National Survey on Iodine Deficiency Disorder, a study on Vitamin A Deficiencies, and the National Survey on Genetic and Hereditary Blood Disorders. He established links in training programs with the Institute of Child Health, London, U.K. He was closely associated with the Royal College of Physicians, U.K. and as a result, Oman became a Centre for Diploma in Child Health (DCH) and later MRCP Examinations. He was nominated as a member and an examiner for the Arab Board. He had an excellent working relationship with WHO and UNICEF and received the WHO Award for Anti- smoking Campaign. His achievements were hailed throughout the Gulf Countries, and he was conferred with the AGCC Medal of honor award in Medicine for his contribution and a Merit Award of the MOH by His Majesty Sultan Qaboos. The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta awarded him for his excellent contribution to research related to the control of communicable diseases. its 4 Prof. ElBualy’s illness never interfered with his academic enthusiasm and clinical dedication. He was a good friend to others and a fatherly figure, inspiring great affection from ,his junior staff. His high expectations and straight forward, “no nonsense” attitude kept one in fear of not coming up to his gear - standards. Many a time he would rumble when you dared make mistakes. We still hear those roars echoing across the corridors - something to keep us going. something to remember him by. This was a talented man with excellent leadership qualities and a wealth of knowledge and rich experience. In January 1996, he was diagnosed as having a Glioblastma. a problem which he typically kept from his friends and family with braveness and calmness. His happy spirit always made his physical problems seem distant. to the extent that few realised his illness had returned and progressed after treatment with surgery and radiotherapy. He died in his beloved home at the age of 58.

Keywords: null
Medical Education in Arab Universities: A Time for Questions?

Medical Education in Arab Universities: A Time for Questions?

Authors: A. Al-Hussaini| Department of Behavioural Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P. O.Box 35, AI-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

The medieal edueatian facilities in the Arab world are becoming -or perhaps already are - equivalent ta these at" the developed enuntties. Mare than 50 modem niedieal sehedls, designed an the western style and supparted by state-of-the- haspitals, provide high quality training far theusands at" students each year. This is heartening, but in the process of imparting a westernized medical edueatian, are we ignoring the rich Arab legaey in the field ef medicine?

Keywords: null
Non-dipping blood pressure in normotensive patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Non-dipping blood pressure in normotensive patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Authors: Bazdawi Al-Riyami| Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P. O.Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Suitanate of Oma, Hussain S. Al-Khatim| Departm...
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

To investigate circadian blood pressure profiles in normotensive patients with moderate te severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in relatien te their apnea indices and left ventricular parameters, we studied twenty one male patients with clinic bleed pressures of 140/90 mmHg. They were matched for age and body mass index (BMI) and all were heavy snorers. They underwent overnight polysomnography, 24 h non-invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography. Patients with a nocturnal reductien in average daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure of‘ less than 10% were considered non-dippers. Nine patients were non-clippers and 12 were clippers. In the non-dipper group asleep systolic and blood pressure were significantly higher than in the dipper group, (P< 0.0001 and P< 0.01 respectively), There were at significant differences between the apne of hypopnea (AHI) and the oxygen desaturatien (ODI) indices of the dipper and the non-dipper groups. However, left ventricular parameters were significantly higher in the non-dipper than in the dipper group: left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p< 0.001, posterier wall thickness (PWT, p< 0.00 1 ), interventricular septal thickness (IVST, P < 0.00 1 ) and relative wall thickness (RWT, P< 0.01). In this preliminary study an absent or reduced blood pressure fall during sleep in normotensive patients with moderate to severe 0SA cannot be explained by the severity of the apnea alone. Left ventricular hypertrephy, though may be a sequel te the non-dipper situation may also be the cause of it.

Keywords: Normotensive non-dipper, sleep apnea, left ventricular hypertrophy
Pre-Implantation Immunosuppression in the Pregnant Rat:A Possible Role of Seminal Fluid

Pre-Implantation Immunosuppression in the Pregnant Rat:A Possible Role of Seminal Fluid

Authors: Omar A. Habbal| Department of Human and Clinical Anatomy, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University. P.O.Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of...
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Successful reproduction involves exposure of the female in significant antigenic challenge. These experiments were done to test the possibility/hypothesis that seminal fluid has an immunosuppressive role in the early stages cf pregnancy, which cculd pretect the conceptus from immonological attack. A highly inbred strain cf rat AO(RTI“) was used in this study. Eleven groups of animals were examined, one during the estrous phase of the ovarian cycle to provide base-line data, five during pseudopregnancy, designated as controls, and five groups during syngeneic pregnancy. Each group contained a minimum of six animals. For each animal, body weight and organ/tissue weightsocf the uterus, thymus, uterine and popliteal lymph nodes, were recorded together with total cell counts of the lympocid tissues and their proliferating cell counts. The material was collected during each of the first five days of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy. The present study supports an immunological suppression by seminal fluid during early pregnancy as shown by a significant sustained depresson of the proliferative lymphocyte response in the uterine regional lymph nodes.

Keywords: null
Intrinsic Lymphatics of the Thymus in the Rat: A Detailed Light and Electron Microscopic Study using Serial Sections

Intrinsic Lymphatics of the Thymus in the Rat: A Detailed Light and Electron Microscopic Study using Serial Sections

Authors: M.F. Abu-Hijleh| Department of Human and Clinical Anatomy, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box 35 Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, O. Reid| Depar...
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

The morphology and distribution of intrinsic lymphatics of the thymus gland of adult Swiss-Albino rats was studied by light and transmisson electron microscopy. Lymphatic channels were traced, in serial semithin sections, progressively from the hilar region into the medullary region. The results show the presence of true lymphatic vessels in the connective tissue septa and close to blood vessels. When traced internally, these lymphatics were only identified in the corticomedullary junction , to a lesser extent in the outer medulla, but never in the inner medulla or cortex. Afferent lymphatics to the thymus observed. Transmission electron microscopy, frequently showed concentric layers of small lymphocytcs connective tissue spaces. Perivascular lymphocytcs were smaller and more pachychromatic than those in the thymic parenchyma. They were enclosed by long mesenchymal/fibroblastic processes which formed a system of irregular" extra-lymphatic" channels or spaces located close te lymphatic vessels which contained many small lymphocytes closely resembling perivascular lymphocytes. These “extra-lymphatic“ channels may be pre-lymphatic that may be concerned in the passage of thymocytes and interstitial fluid from the deep regions of the medulla to the nearest lymphatic in the perivascular connective tissue. This may provide an additional route for migration of lymphocytes from the rat thymus gland supplementimg the venous route. Further timed injection studies to trace the continuity of these "pre-lymphatic channels" will offer more precise results.

Keywords: null
Abulia: The Pathology of "Will" and Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Brain-Injured Patients

Abulia: The Pathology of "Will" and Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Brain-Injured Patients

Authors: Samir ALl-Adawi| College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Institute of Psychiatry, Kings Col...
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

The present paper describes a series of single-case evaluations of the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 post-synaptic receptor agonist in 13 patients with clinical features cf abulia. Method - An open trial in seven males and six females who had either traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid haemorrhage between two months and five years previously. After repeated baseline assessments, bromocriptine was administered in gradually increasing doses, Assessments were repeated at increasing doses, during maintenance, and after withdrawal. Same newly developed structured instruments for quantifying motivation were used; measures of anxiety and depression, and cognitive tests sensitive to motivation were also administered. Results- Following bromocriptine treatment improved on all scores measured other than mood. Improvement was maintained after bromocriptine withdrawal in nine of the patients. Conclusion- Abulia in patients with brain injury may result from dysfunction in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic cirucity, giving rise to associated deficiencies in reward responsiveness and cognitive function. New rating are propsed of motivation in brain injured patients.

Keywords: Abulia, motivation, rewards, dopamine, bromocriptine, functional recovery
Malignant Otitis Externa and Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: Complete Recovery Following the Adjunctive use of Hyperbaric Oxygen and Antibiotics

Malignant Otitis Externa and Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: Complete Recovery Following the Adjunctive use of Hyperbaric Oxygen and Antibiotics

Authors: Deepa Bhargava| Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of O...
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

Malignant otitis externas is an uncommon potentially fatal infectien ef the external ear caused by Pseudomona aeruginosa. It occurs usually in elderly diabetics and is followed by rapid invasion of the deep perisuricular tissue and bone leading to osteomyelitis. We Present such a patient whose disease persisted inspite of twe months antibiotic therapy until the concomitant of hyperbaric oxygen therapy was given over a period ef four weeks. Cemplete recovery followed.

Keywords: null
A Review of the Use of Lead Compounds in Medicines, Cosmetics and Food Additives

A Review of the Use of Lead Compounds in Medicines, Cosmetics and Food Additives

Authors: A. D. Hardy| College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box 36, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, R. Vaishnav| College of Medicine, Sulta...
( 26 downloads)
Abstract

A review on the usage ef lead compounds in medicines, cosmetics and food/drink additives is presented. Examples cover a large time-scale (from antiquity te the present day) and come from many parts of the world. Only examples where lead compounds have been deliberately added are covered in this review. Lead’s toxicology is briefly mentioned, as is the current usage of lead compounds in traditional remedies/cosmetics in the Middle Eastern countries.

Keywords: null
Teaching of Clinical Physiology in the Medical Curriculum. The Omani Model

Teaching of Clinical Physiology in the Medical Curriculum. The Omani Model

Authors: M. O. Hassan| Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P. 0.Box: 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, S.E. Lind...
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

In recent years, Physiology, as a medical discipline is continuously drifting away from the study of the complex, integrated whole body functions towards cellular and molecular levels. This has resulted in a steady increase in molecular biologists and a steady decline in medical physiologists in departments at Physiology in medical schools, Such change is already having its impact on the teaching at body systems and integrative Physiology to medical students, as evident the shifting of such teaching frcm Physiology departments to the respective clinical departments where Physiology is being taught by physicians of the respective clinical departments where Physiology is being taught by physicians of the reapective clinical disciplines. The aim of this presentaticn is to show that the introduction of the teaching of Physiology in medical schools and teaching hospitals can help to restore the intergrity of medical Physiology as an entity in medicine.

Keywords: null
Cryptosporidiosis in Children from the Sultanate of Oman

Cryptosporidiosis in Children from the Sultanate of Oman

Authors: J. J. Windsor| Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of...
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

Over a one year period, 807 faecal samples from children (0-12 years) were submitted for routine microbiological examination and screening for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A Phenol-auramine stain was used and putative oocysts were measured afler confirmatory staining with the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. Cryptosporidium were identified in 16 (1.9%) of the samples, and was the third most common enteropathogen after Giardio lamlia (6.0%) and Entomoeba histolytica/dispar (2.3 %). With the exception of two patients with underlying immunodeficiency disorders, all were immunocompetent. No cases of Cryprosporidium were diagnosed during the hottest months of May and June.

Keywords: null
Thoughts for the future

Thoughts for the future

Authors: Tanira M.O.M| SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY, Oman
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The three most significant health-related issues raised in the past year were, presumably, the introduction of drugs for ‘lifestyle improvement’, certain new medical interventions and a renewed interest in utilizing alternative medicine in medical care. These issues are expected to significantly influence medical practice in the future and contribute to modify its present pattern.

Keywords: null
Taurine Levels in Human Aqueous Humour

Taurine Levels in Human Aqueous Humour

Authors: Dias P L R| Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, Marikar F A| University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, Mubarak A M| University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Objective - To determine whether taurine is present in normal human aqueous humour and whether these levels are altered in patients with retinoblastoma. Method - Taun'ne levels were estimated in aqueous humour of 3 children with a clinical diagnosis of retinoblastoma and in a control group of 12 patients with senile cataract and 5 children with congenital cataract. Results - Though there was no significant difference in taurine levels in the aqueous humour of children and adults with cataract, the taurine levels were significantly elevated (p<0.0001) in patients with retinoblastoma as compared with the control group of cataract patients Conclusion - The results indicate that taurine is present in normal human aqueous humour, albeit in much smaller quantities than in other body fluids.

Keywords: Amino acids, aqueous humour, cataract, retinoblastoma, taurine
Antibodies against Rickettsia in Humans and Potential Vector Ticks from Dhofar, Oman

Antibodies against Rickettsia in Humans and Potential Vector Ticks from Dhofar, Oman

Authors: Idris M A| Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, Ruppel A| University of Heidelberg, Germany, Petney T| University of Heidelberg, Germany
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

Objective: To determine the extent of rickettsial infections prevalence of potential vector ticks in the rural population of Dhofar, Oman Methods: Human sera (n = 347) were obtained from six rural localities (school children, farmers, outpatients) in Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman. Sera were tested by mmunofluorescence for the presence of antibodies reacting with Rickettsia conorii antigen. Results: More than half the samples (59%) gave positive reactions (titres of at least 1:64). Ticks (n=707) were collected from cattle, camels and goats (n=102) and included Amblyomma variegatum, Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. dromedarii, H. rufipes and Rhipicephalus spp., all of which can potentially transmit rickettsiae to humans. Conclusions: The results suggest that rickettsial infections are common among the rural population of Dhofar.

Keywords: Rickettsia, antibodies, immunofluorescence, vector ticks, cattle, camels
Effect of single mismatches at 3′–end of primers on polymerase chain reaction

Effect of single mismatches at 3′–end of primers on polymerase chain reaction

Authors: Simsek M| Department of Biochemistry, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Adnan H| Department of Bioch...
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

Objective and Method – To investigate the effect of three different mismatches (G/T, G/A or G/G) at the 3•– end of a primer to amplify a 268 bp (base pair) region of the human •–globin gene using different annealing temperatures (45 to 65•C). Results – The primer with the G/T mismatch was as efficient as the normal primer (G/C match) in the amplification of a 268 bp product at all temperatures tested. However, the primers having G/A or G/G mismatches at the 3'- end did not produce any specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment at all the annealing temperatures used, except a barely detectable 268 bp product for the G/G mismatch at 45 and 50•C. Conclusion – We conclude that our PCR system was refractory to amplification when one of the primers contained a G/A or G/G mismatch at the 3•–end with template DNA.

Keywords: PCR, mismatched primers, β−globin gene
Thymic proliferativeresponseduring different physiologicalstates: a comparative study

Thymic proliferativeresponseduring different physiologicalstates: a comparative study

Authors: Habbal O A| Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, McLean I M...
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

  –To study the thymic proliferative response during different physiological states to distinguish those changes due to alterations in steroid hormone secretion from those resulting from the presence of spermatozoa and/or early conceptual products in the female reproductive tract.   Using mature female rats of an inbred AO(RT1u) strain, observations on the thymus were made at 24 hour intervals during the oestrous cycle, early pseudopregnancy and early syngeneic pregnancy. Each daily group contained a minimum of 6 animals.  – During the oestrous cycle, a significant mid-cycle increase of thymocyte proliferation occurred during dioestrus which peaked on day 2, and as a repetitive response may be a preparation for a coital challenge. This response may be oestrogen-dependent since oestrogen levels begin to increase during early dioestrus. The induction of pseudopregnancy generates a comparable but delayed increase in thymic proliferative activity. Since thymocyte proliferation and oestrogen secretion both peak on day 3 of pseudopregnancy, such a response may indeed also be oestrogen-dependent. After syngeneic mating, there was a significant depression in thymic proliferative activity on day 3 followed by a significant increase on day 5 compared with the same days of pseudopregnancy.    – This initial depression of proliferative activity may be induced by the immunosuppressive action of seminal plasma, to safeguard the preimplantation conceptus while the day 5 increase in cellular proliferation suggests a response to implantation.

Keywords: oestrous cycle, pseudopregnancy, implantation, seminal fluid, thymus

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