Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sultan Qaboos University
  • Country of publisher: oman
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Sep/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biochemistry, Biomedicine, Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Biomedicine, Community Health, Family Medicine, Health Sciences, Biochemistry
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 1999
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '1136' articles

In-vitro activity of synercid and related drugs against Streptococcus oralis isolated from septicaemia and endocarditis cases

In-vitro activity of synercid and related drugs against Streptococcus oralis isolated from septicaemia and endocarditis cases

Authors: Rafay A M| Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

 – The increase in resistance to gram positive organisms and seriousness of infective endocarditis, makes it necessary to look for an alternate treatment.  – In-vitro activity of synercid was compared with penicillin, amoxycillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, clindamycin and erythromycin.  – Synercid showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) within the narrow range of 0.06 – 0.5 mg/l. MIC50 and mode values were both 0.25 mg/l. There was just two-fold difference between the MIC50 (0.25 mg/l) and the MIC90, (0.5 mg/l). Although the MICs of synercid for S. oralis were relatively high compared to penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and teicoplanin, the in-vitro bactericidal activity of synercid was much greater. Synercid MBC values were < 4 mg/l for most of the isolates, except for one of 16 mg/l and the other >64 mg/l. Killing curve was performed on six isolates of S. oralis from infective endocarditis, two from septicaemia patients and two from the oral flora of normal individuals.    – Synercid showed superior bactericidal activity when compared to penicillin and vancomycin against all ten isolates of S. oralis tested. Synercid was bactericidal (99.9% kill) against all ten isolates of S. oralis within six hours of contact.

Keywords: streptococcus oralis, synercid, penicillin, amoxycillin, erythromycin, vancomycin
Minimal stimulation protocol: a cheap and effective method of ovulation induction

Minimal stimulation protocol: a cheap and effective method of ovulation induction

Authors: Mathew M| Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 35 Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Al-Busaidi F| Departmen...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

  – To determine the effectiveness and cost of Minimal Stimulation Protocol (MSP), a new combination of human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) and clomiphene citrate (CC), for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.  – The ovulation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates and the cost of medication were assessed in respect of 67 women who underwent MSP.  – Ovulation rate in the study group was 82%, pregnancy rate 21% and multiple pregnancies 7%. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 36% of the pregnancies. The average cost of MSP stimulation was one-third of hMG protocol.    – MSP protocol, while substantially cheaper than hMG, gives comparable pregnancy rates with less need for monitoring and better patient comfort. These justify further evaluation of its role in the treatment of infertility.

Keywords: clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotrophin, minimal stimulation protocol
Physical fitness and fatness among Omani schoolboys: a pilot study

Physical fitness and fatness among Omani schoolboys: a pilot study

Authors: Hassan M O| Department of Physiology, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 38, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Al-Kharusy W| Department of...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

 To study the applicability of simple field measurements of physical fitness in a sample of Omani boys and their relationships to selected variables.   Two field measures of physical fitness—the time to complete 1.6–km run/walk and the sum of 5 skinfold thicknesses—were correlated with personal and family physical activity–related and other variables in a sample of 109 Omani boys aged 9–11 years.  Obesity in parents, especially in the mother, showed significant correlation with both fitness measures. The waist/buttocks ratio showed no significant correlation with the 1.6–km time. The number of siblings and siblings sharing a room, number of T.V–watching hours and the number of servants in the family showed no correlation with the chosen fitness indices.    The results of this pilot study indicate that simple field fitness tests can be used in children and they can yield valuable information related to physical fitness. The same protocol used in this study could be applied to a national study in Oman.

Keywords: fitness, obesity, anthropometry, questionnaire, exercise, cardiorespiratory endurance
Psychiatric morbidity in Northern Jordan: a ten-year review

Psychiatric morbidity in Northern Jordan: a ten-year review

Authors: Zaidan Z| Department of Behavioural Medicine, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman,...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

 – To study the psychiatric morbidity in the northern part of Jordan and to determine the frequency distribution of various psychiatric disorders, for planning services.  – All records of 2,335 psychiatric patients attending the only psychiatric clinic in Northern part of Jordan during a ten-year period from 1984 to 1993 were extensively reviewed and subjected to computerized analysis. Diagnosis was made as per ICD-9.  – Out of the 2335 patients who attended the clinic, 55% were males and 45% were females. Those in the age group 25–44 recorded the maximum attendance. Among the male attendees of the clinic, schizophrenia was the commonest diagnosis(19.9%), while among females, affective disorders were the commonest(15.9%).    – Schizophrenia was found to be the commonest diagnosis in general among attendance of the clinic for the ten-year research period, while anxiety disorders were the commonest diagnosis among attendance of the clinic for the year 1993.

Keywords: attendance rate, schizophrenia, anxiety, affective psychosis
Laparoscopic surgery at Sultan Qaboos University Hospita

Laparoscopic surgery at Sultan Qaboos University Hospita

Authors: Grant C S| Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Al-Kindy N|...
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Laparoscopic surgery, which gained prominence in the late 1980s, became an established surgical practice in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in 1992. Drawing on available literature and the authors’ own experiences, this paper gives an overview of various laparoscopic surgical techniques currently available at SQUH, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendicectomy, diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic varicocoelectomy. It also highlights the role of surgical endoscopic training centre at SQUH, which provides a laboratory setting for surgical trainees and practising physicians. Laparoscopic surgery at SQUH would continue to evolve spurred on by surgical innovations and advances in technology.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, Oman
Unilateral uterine artery embolization and systemic methotrexate therapy in cervical pregnancy

Unilateral uterine artery embolization and systemic methotrexate therapy in cervical pregnancy

Authors: Sejekan P| Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vaclavinkova V| Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Leven H| Department of Radiology College of...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The authors report a case of cervical pregnancy successfully treated with combined methods of uterine artery embolization and systemic methotrexate therapy. Unilateral selective embolization may play a role in preserving reproductive functions.

Keywords: Cervical pregnancy, Omani, methotrexate, uterine artery embolization
Supraventricular tachycardia in children: a report of three cases, diagnosis and current management

Supraventricular tachycardia in children: a report of three cases, diagnosis and current management

Authors: Venugopalan P| Department of Child Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P.O.Box: 38, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Shakeel A| Dep...
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The article presents three Omani children with supraventricular tachycardia and discusses the diagnosis and management. Clinical features along with ECG help diagnosis of this common paediatric arrhythmia. Acute management has been facilitated with the introduction of adenosine. However, longterm management continues to be a topic for debate.

Keywords: tachycardia, supraventricular, pathophysiology, case report, diagnosis, drug therapy
Development of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a Child with Hyper-Ige Syndrome

Development of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a Child with Hyper-Ige Syndrome

Authors: Elnour I B| Department of Child Health, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box: 35, Postal Code: 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman , Bama...
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

This paper reports development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a 7'/2-year-old patient with hyper IgE syndrome. This rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome is characterized by markedly elevated serum IgE levels, chronic atypical dermatitis and serious recurrent infections. Laboratory features include exceptionally high levels of IgE, near normal levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, with pronounced eosinophilia.

Keywords: Hyper IgE syndrome, tumours, lymphoid
Therapy with radionuclides, clinical acceptance is overdue

Therapy with radionuclides, clinical acceptance is overdue

Authors: Lamki L M| The University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

In this issue, Drs. Bererhi and Constable‘ have published an important paper on the radiation doses received by relatives of patients after radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer or for hyperthyroid Graves' disease. Basically, they have shown that the radiation doses to the relatives are too small to be an important consideration in radioiodine therapy. The authors are, thus, suggesting much less restrictive precautions, and justifiably so. They have rightly pointed out that in other countries-at least in the United States and in Britain- the regulations are much less demanding as a result of similar earlier studies done in those countries. The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) no longer dic- tates the exact load of radioactive drug within the patient as the limiting factor prior to being discharged from the hospital. Instead, the exposure to the relatives and members of the public is the limiting factor. A patient may be released as long as ‘the effective dose equivalent to any other individual from exposure to the released individual is not likely to exceed 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem).2 It is up to the treating physician to decide whether the risk of exposure to other people is low enough, (under 0.5 rem) before releasing the treated individual from his / her control.2 In fact, in the United States, it is now possible to treat patients with thyroid cancer using 3700-7400 MBq (100-200 mCi) of radioiodine-131 (1311) without admission to hospital. Dr. Bererhi’s article‘ will go a long way towards alleviating the anxieties of the public and physicians in Oman and elsewhere.

Keywords: null
Antimicrobial potential of honey on some microbial isolates

Antimicrobial potential of honey on some microbial isolates

Authors: Nzeako B C| Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 35 Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman,...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

 – To assess the antimicrobial potential of honey against certain microbial isolates.  – Samples of commercial honeys sold in Makkah area of Saudi Arabia were checked for their antimicrobial activities using standard organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimal inhibitory concentration end points of six honey samples found to possess antimicrobial activities were used to determine the sensitivity patterns of some isolates from the laboratory. The temperature stabilities of the honey samples were also determined.  – The six honey samples had differing levels of antimicrobial activities with the standard organisms and with the laboratory isolates. Black Forest honey showed the highest activity followed respectively by Turkish, Orange Flower, Forest Honey and Summer Flower. The antimicrobial activities of the samples were stable after storing at 2–8° C for six months and after boiling for 15 minutes.    – The study shows that honey, like antibiotics, has certain organisms sensitive to it while others are resistant, and the sensitivity varies depending on the source of the honey.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, honey, antibiotics, sensitivity
Practical proof of the validity of the Target Theory by simulating cellular targets

Practical proof of the validity of the Target Theory by simulating cellular targets

Authors: Salih F M| Department of Clinical and Biomedical Physics, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 35 Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objective – To practically prove the validity of the target theory as a mathematical model to describe and understand the mechanisms involved in cell killing by ionising radiation. Method – Experimental validation of the target theory was attempted using Bacillus megaterium spores. Sets of 100 vials containing averages of 1, 2, 5, 50 and 500 spores per vial was exposed to varying gamma radiation doses in presence (oxic) and absence (anoxic) of oxygen (O2). The percentage of the vials that exhibited bacterial growth after 6 days of incubation was taken as containing one spore or more, which survived a given dose. For the purpose of simulation each vial was considered to represent one living cell, as a unit, containing a given number of targets (spores) each of which needed a single hit to be inactivated. The need for single hit was assumed depending on the shape of the dose ln-survival curve of B. megaterium spores, which has a nonzero slope at zero dose. Result – The dose ln-survival curves derived from these radiation experiments are characterized by a shoulder followed by an exponential part. The size of the shoulder increases with increasing number of spores per vial. However, the slope of the exponential parts stays the same. Conclusion – Despite some assumptions imposed to easily manipulate the simulation process, the data obtained from the present study correlate well with those calculated using the multitarget single hit (MTSH) equation: P = 1 – (1 – e–KD)N where P is the surviving fraction, K is the radiation inactivation constant, D is the radiation dose and N is the number of target. This proves the validity of the target theory model as a tool to provide a better understanding of the observed notorious effects of radiation.

Keywords: Target theory, bacterial spore, gamma radiation, simulation
Radiation exposure levels in relatives of patients after radioiodine therapy

Radiation exposure levels in relatives of patients after radioiodine therapy

Authors: Bererhi H| Department of Clinical and Biomedical Physics, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 35 Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Objective – To assess whether the level of radioactivity received by relatives of patients treated with radioiodine (131I) is low enough to allow the patients leave the hospital earlier, thus reducing their hospital stay. Method – Forty seven relatives of thyrotoxic patients and 23 relatives of thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy were monitored for 7 days for radiation after discharging the patients at 30 MBq residual 131I. Results – The doses measured in spouses and children were less than 1 mSv except for one child who received 1.46 mSv. Conclusion – In view of the low radiation doses received by the relatives, regulations could be made less stringent, thus reducing the hospital stay of the patients.

Keywords: radioiodine, relatives, radiation, dosimeter
Outcome of pregnancy in patients possessing anticardiolipin antibodies

Outcome of pregnancy in patients possessing anticardiolipin antibodies

Authors: Al Abri S| Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Armed Forces Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Vaclavinkova V| Department of Obstetrics and Gy...
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Objective – To analyse the outcome of pregnancy in a sample of patients with a history of fetal loss, and possessing anticardiolipin antibodies (ACAs), and to assess the effectiveness of therapy with aspirin and prednisolone. Method – Data on a cohort of 21 Arab and 4 other Asian patients who had one or more episodes of fetal loss associated with raised levels of ACAs were analysed retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test for assessment of isotype data and the Fischer test for assessment of the effects of therapeutic intervention. Results –Where immunoglobulin G (IgG) ACAs were found alone, abortion rates occurred at the same rate in the first and second trimesters, which was significantly higher than in the third trimester. In the few cases where IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) ACAs coexisted, the rate of pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the first trimester than the second and the third. In the group who had received both aspirin and prednisolone, 75% pregnancies were successful compared to 54% in the group receiving aspirin alone and 17% in those who received no therapy. Conclusion – The presence of IgG antibodies appears to increase the risk of abortions. Low dose aspirin, either alone or with prednisolone, appears to significantly improve the chances for successful pregnancies in patients with ACAs. Further clinical trials are needed to ascertain optimal therapeutic protocols.

Keywords: anticardiolipin, antibody, aspirin, prednisolone, pregnancy
Evaluation of Applicability of Standard Growth Curves to Healthy Native Omani Women by Fetal Biometry at Selected Gestational Ages

Evaluation of Applicability of Standard Growth Curves to Healthy Native Omani Women by Fetal Biometry at Selected Gestational Ages

Authors: Machado L S M| Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P 0 Box 38, Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Vaclavin...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objective – To verify the applicability of standard fetal growth curves proposed for Western populations to an Omani population. Method – Ultrasound scans were performed at selected stages of gestation on 165 healthy Omani pregnant women to measure fetal growth parameters of biparietal diameter, head circumference, cephalic index, abdominal circumference and femur length. The data were compared with the commonly recommended standards of Hadlock, Campbell, Sabbagha, Wexler, Jeanty and others. Results – None of the standard charts agreed with the data in the present study except those of Sabbagha and Wexler for biparietal diameter and of Jeanty for femur length. Conclusion – Since most parameters of the standard growth curves developed in the West are not applicable for assessing the intra-uterine growth of Omani babies, it is necessary to develop growth curves for the Omani population to prevent over-diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, bi-parietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, fetal growth
Psychological morbidity in primary health care in Oman a preliminary study

Psychological morbidity in primary health care in Oman a preliminary study

Authors: Al-Lawati J| Department of Medicine,College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 35, Al-Khod, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Al-Lawati N| De...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Objective – To assess the prevalence of somatization and psychological morbidity presenting to primary health care in Oman and to examine the correlation between the indices of somatization and psychological disorders. Method – Consecutive primary care patients (n = 100) were screened with Bradford Somatic Inventory which gauges psychosomatic morbidity, and Self Reporting Questionnaire, which measures psychological distress. Result – Somatization disorder as defined by Bradford, and psychological morbidity were relatively common in primary care settings. There was significant positive correlation between indices of somatization and psychological morbidity. Conclusion – Omani patients seeking primary health care equally experience both psychological distress as well as somatic ones. This finding challenges the old notion that people in developing countries generally express distress somatically

Keywords: somatization, cross-cultural, psychological distresses, primary-health care, Oman

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