Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sultan Qaboos University
  • Country of publisher: oman
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Sep/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biochemistry, Biomedicine, Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Biomedicine, Community Health, Family Medicine, Health Sciences, Biochemistry
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 1999
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '1136' articles

Unusual Branching Pattern of the Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus Associated with Neurovascular Compression Case report

Unusual Branching Pattern of the Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus Associated with Neurovascular Compression Case report

Authors: Hitendra K. Loh| Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India, Shikha Singh| Department of Anatomy,...
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Te brachial plexus consists of a network of nerves that innervates the upper limbs and its musculature. We report a rare formation of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus observed during the dissection of a 47-year-old male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, India, in 2016. Te lateral cord was exceptionally long with twin lateral pectoral nerves and twin lateral roots of the median nerve. Te proximal lateral root of the median nerve was thin in comparison to the medial root of the median nerve. Te distal lateral root of the median nerve was thicker and followed an unusual course through the coracobrachialis muscle. In the lower third of the arm, the median nerve and the brachial artery—along with its vena comitans—spanned through the brachialis muscle. Surgeons, anaesthesiologists, radiologists and anatomists should be aware of such anatomical variations as they may result in neurovascular compression.

Keywords: Anatomic Variation, Dissection, Brachial Plexus, Pectoral Nerves, Median Nerve, Musculocutaneous Nerve
Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant

Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant

Authors: Pramod Kumar| Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artifcially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron defciency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. Te area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up.

Keywords: Pigmentation Disorders, Hair Color, Hair Diseases, Mosaicism, Infant, Case Report
Hepatic or Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysms Following a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Literature review of aetiopathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis and management

Hepatic or Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysms Following a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Literature review of aetiopathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis and management

Authors: Norman O. Machado| Departments of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, Adil Al-Zadjali| Departments of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos Uni...
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Pseudoaneurysms (PSAs) of the hepatic and/or cystic artery are a rare complication following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Generally, PSA cases present with haemobilia several weeks following the procedure. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) is considered the optimal management approach. We report a 70-year-old woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2016 with massive hemoperitoneum two weeks after undergoing a LC procedure in another hospital. She was successfully managed using coil TAE. An extensive literature review revealed 101 cases of hepatic or cystic artery PSAs following a LC procedure. Haemobilia was the main presentation (85.1%) and the mean time of postoperative presentation was 36 days. Te hepatic artery was involved in most cases (88.1%), followed by the cystic artery (7.9%) and a combination of both (4.0%). Most cases were managed with TAE (72.3%), with a 94.5% success rate. Te overall mortality rate was 2.0%.

Keywords: Hepatic Artery, Pseudoaneurysm, Hemoperitoneum, Terapeutic Embolization, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Cancer Research in the Arab World A review of publications from seven countries between 2000–2013

Cancer Research in the Arab World A review of publications from seven countries between 2000–2013

Authors: Randah R. Hamadeh| Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine & Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain, Saif M...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Tis review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identifed, with a signifcant increase in yearly publications over time (P <0.005). Only 30.6% of the publications included subjects over the age of 50 years old. Tere was a dearth of cross-sectional/correlational studies (8.8%), randomised controlled trials (2.4%) and systematic reviews/meta-analyses (1.3%). Research exploring cancer associations mainly considered social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet.

Keywords: Chronic Diseases, Cancer, Research, Publications, Arab World
Breastfeeding Trends and Determinants Implications and recommendations for Gulf Cooperation Council countries

Breastfeeding Trends and Determinants Implications and recommendations for Gulf Cooperation Council countries

Authors: Nisreen Al-Nuaimi| Departments of Maternal & Child Health, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, Godfrey Katende| Departments of...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Optimal breastfeeding practices entail the early initiation of breastfeeding soon after delivery of the baby, exclusive breastfeeding for the frst six months of life and the continuation of breastfeeding complemented by solid food up until two years of age. Breastfeeding has wide-ranging health benefts for both the mother and her child; however, many factors contribute to low rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Tis article highlights the benefts of optimal breastfeeding as well as trends and determinants associated with breastfeeding both worldwide and in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Strategies to optimise breastfeeding and overcome breastfeeding barriers in the GCC region are recommended, including community health and education programmes and ‘baby-friendly’ hospital initiatives. Advocates of breastfeeding are needed at the national, community and family levels. In addition, more systematic research should be conducted to examine breastfeeding practices and the best strategies to promote breastfeeding in this region.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Trends, Maternal-Child Health Services, Health Planning Recommendations, Arab World
Prevention of γ-Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes Using a Serine-Magnesium Sulfate Mixture

Prevention of γ-Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes Using a Serine-Magnesium Sulfate Mixture

Authors: Vahid Changizi| Department of Technology of Radiology & Radiotherapy, Allied Medical Sciences School, Mona Bahrami| Department of Technology of Radiol...
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Ionising radiation has deleterious effects on human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and cysteine, the active metabolite of NAC, are well-known radioprotective agents. Recently, a serine-magnesium sulfate combination was proposed as an antidote for organophosphate toxicity. Tis study aimed to investigate the use of a serine-magnesium sulfate mixture in the prevention of γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes as compared to NAC and cysteine. Methods: Tis study was carried out at the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2016. Citrated blood samples of 7 mL each were taken from 22 healthy subjects. Each sample was divided into 1 mL aliquots, with the frst aliquot acting as the control while the second was exposed to 2 Gy of γ-radiation at a dose rate of 102.7 cGy/minute. Te remaining aliquots were separately incubated with 600 μM concentrations each of serine, magnesium sulfate, serine-magnesium sulfate, NAC and cysteine before being exposed to 2 Gy of γ-radiation. Lymphocytes were isolated using a separation medium and methyl-thiazole-tetrazolium and comet assays were used to evaluate cell viability and DNA damage, respectively. Results: Te serine-magnesium sulfate mixture signifcantly increased lymphocyte viability and reduced DNA damage in comparison to serine, magnesium sulfate, NAC or cysteine alone (P <0.01 each). Conclusion: Te fndings of the present study support the use of a serine-magnesium sulfate mixture as a new, non-toxic, potent and efcient radioprotective agent.

Keywords: Ionizing Radiation, Gamma Rays, DNA Damage, Radioprotective Agents, Serine, Magnesium Sulfate
Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers Comparative study

Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers Comparative study

Authors: Jacopo Cambi| Department of Ear, Nose & Troat, University of Siena, Siena, Italy, Ludovica Livi| Department of Ear, Nose & Troat, University of Siena,...
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Many blind individuals demonstrate enhanced auditory spatial discrimination or localisation of sound sources in comparison to sighted subjects. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confrmed with regards to underwater spatial localisation. Tis study therefore aimed to investigate underwater acoustic source localisation among blind and sighted scuba divers. Methods: Tis study took place between February and June 2015 in Elba, Italy, and involved two experimental groups of divers with either acquired (n = 20) or congenital (n = 10) blindness and a control group of 30 sighted divers. Each subject took part in fve attempts at an under-water acoustic source localisation task, in which the divers were requested to swim to the source of a sound originating from one of 24 potential locations. Te control group had their sight obscured during the task. Results: Te congenitally blind divers demonstrated signifcantly better underwater sound localisation compared to the control group or those with acquired blindness (P = 0.0007). In addition, there was a signifcant correlation between years of blindness and underwater sound localisation (P <0.0001). Conclusion: Congenital blindness was found to positively affect the ability of a diver to recognise the source of a sound in an underwater environment. As the correct localisation of sounds underwater may help individuals to avoid imminent danger, divers should perform sound localisation tests during training sessions.

Keywords: Blindness, Auditory Perception, Sound Localization, Spatial Processing, Diving
Imbalances in T Cell-Related Transcription Factors Among Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Imbalances in T Cell-Related Transcription Factors Among Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Authors: Vahid Safdari| Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology and Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Para-Medicine, Kerman Unive...
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Imbalances in effector T cell functioning have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). Differentiation of effector T helper (T) 1, T2, T17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lymphocytes is regulated by transcription factors, including T1-specifc T box (T-bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA3), retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-α and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). Tis study aimed to investigate T1/T2, T1/Treg, T2/Treg and T17/Treg balances at the level of these transcription factors. Methods: Tis study took place between October 2015 and August 2016. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from a control group of 40 healthy women recruited from the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, and a patient group of 40 women with HT referred to the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital, Zahedan. Total ribonucleic acid extraction was performed and the gene expression of transcription factors was quantitated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Expression of T-bet and GATA3 was signifcantly elevated, while FOXP3 expression was signifcantly diminished among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P = 0.03, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Expression of RORα was higher among HT patients, although this difference was not signifcant (P = 0.15). Expression of T-bet/FOXP3, GATA3/FOXP3 and RORα/FOXP3 ratios were increased among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P <0.02, <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Tese results indicate that HT patients have imbalances in T1/Treg, T2/Treg and T17/Treg lymphocytes at the level of the transcription factors, deviating towards T1, T2 and T17 cells. Correction of these imbalances may therefore be therapeutic.

Keywords: Hashimoto Tyroiditis, Transcription Factors, Lymphocytes, T1 Cells, T2 Cells, T17 Cells
Development and Validation of a Culturally-Tailored Breast Cancer Health Education Programme for Arab Women

Development and Validation of a Culturally-Tailored Breast Cancer Health Education Programme for Arab Women

Authors: Esra Alkhasawneh| Departments of Maternal & Child Health Nursing, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, Yahya Al-Farsi| Departm...
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Tis study aimed to develop and validate a health education programme to encourage breast cancer awareness and early detection behaviours among Arab women. Methods: Tis study took place between December 2015 and March 2016. Te Enabling Systems Raising Awareness model was used to develop a breast cancer health education programme which was subsequently implemented by trained health educators at three female-only ftness clubs in Muscat, Oman. Breast cancer knowledge among 53 women was assessed using the breast module of the Cancer Awareness Measure before and after each health education session. Overall pre- and post-session knowledge scores were then compared. Additionally, three focus group discussions were conducted with 10 participants from each location. Tematic analysis was used to analyse the transcribed discussions and collect feedback on the programme. Results: Te health education sessions resulted in a statistically signifcant increase in overall mean knowledge scores (P <0.001). Participants also reported signifcantly improved intentions to undertake early detection practices (P <0.001). Te focus group discussions yielded distinct themes and valuable feedback which can be utilised in the future to create an improved version of the programme. Conclusion: While the health education programme signifcantly improved breast cancer and early detection knowledge among a cohort of Arab women, it still required critical improvements in terms of structure and administration. Additional studies are required in order to evaluate long-term behavioural outcomes resulting from the improved programme.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Preventive Health Services, Health Behavior, Health Education, Health Promotion, Validation Studies

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