International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Science Explorer Publications
  • Country of publisher: united kingdom
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/14

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Public Health and Community Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

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  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2010
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS, CLOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '2581' articles

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF FINE AND AROMATIC RICE UNDER RAINFED CONDITION OF PARWANIPUR, BARA, NEPAL

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF FINE AND AROMATIC RICE UNDER RAINFED CONDITION OF PARWANIPUR, BARA, NEPAL

Authors: P. SHAH| Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal, T. AKHTAR| Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Twenty entries were tested in RCB design having three replications in coordinated varietal trial fine and aromatic rice (CVT-FAR) during 2010 at RARS Parwanipur. Among the tested entries of CVT-FAR, the top grain yield produced by SPR 86035-52-5-1-1 (2100 kg ha-1) followed by IR 48725-B-B-99-3 (1882 kg ha-1).So, these varieties will be tested in farmer’s field for further recommendation.

Keywords: CVT, Aromatic and Grain yield
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND VARIETIES ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE IN TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND VARIETIES ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE IN TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

Authors: D. B. GURUNG| National Maize Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, B. BHANDARI| National Maize Research Progr...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

An experiment was conducted in two years (2009/10-2010/11) at Rampur, Chitwan Nepal to study effect of sowing date and varieties on yield of maize. Three varieties namely Rampur Composite, Arun-2 and Gaurav were sown at every week from April to March. The design was randomized complete block design with four replications (week as replication). The result showed that interaction effect of variety and sowing date on grain yield of maize was significant. Rampur Composite and Arun-2 produced highest yield in August and lowest yield in May and Gaurav yielded highest in September and lowest in November. The sowing date was highly significant for grain yield. The highest production was 5.120 tha-1 in August followed by February (4.922 ton ha-1), September (4.626 ton ha-1) and March (4.395 ton ha-1) respectively. The lowest yield was of month May (2.376 ton ha-1).Therefore it was concluded that August planting was best for higher grain production.

Keywords: Grain yield and sowing dates and varieties
Analysis of Tolerance Indices in Some Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes at Salt Stress Condition

Analysis of Tolerance Indices in Some Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes at Salt Stress Condition

Authors: Seyyed Jaber Hosseini| Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, Zeiniolabedin Tahmasebi Sarvestani| Department of Agronomy, T...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

Rice improvement for salt tolerance requires reliable assessment of salt tolerance variability among segregation genotypes. Sixty five genotypes of rice (traditional, improved and promising lines grown in north of Iran conditions) were evaluated under salt condition containing 0, 3, 6 and 8 dS/m levels during 2010. Five salt tolerance indices comprising: stress tolerances (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) were used. The indices were adjusted based on shoot length and root dry weight under normal and salt conditions. Analysis of variance for shoot length and root dry weight showed that there was a significant genetic variation among genotypes. Cluster analysis of genotypes using Ys, Yp and five other indices categorized genotypes into five groups for both shoot length and root dry weight. Results of cluster analysis distinguished tolerance and susceptible genotypes. It was concluded that the potential of these genotypes to tolerate salt stress was found to high MP, STI and low SSI for both shoot length and root dry weight. Also, based on broad-sense heritability Ys, TOL and MP for shoot length and Ys, TOL and STI for root dry weight can be used as the best indices for breeding program. Also, by cluster analysis based on tolerant indices, all genotypes were segregated into 4 and 3 groups based on both Yp, Ys, MP, GMP and STI and TOL or SSI, respectively. Therefore, genotypes such as IR56, Yosen, 8803, IR58, R3, 8802 and 8810 as tolerant and Abji Boji, IR30, Amol 2, Neda and 8805 as susceptible can be used in breeding programs.

Keywords: breeding program, cluster analysis, heritability, mean productivity, root dry weight
Common allelochemicals in root exudates of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) and inhibitory potential against rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars

Common allelochemicals in root exudates of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) and inhibitory potential against rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars

Authors: Ayoub Heidarzade*| MSc. of Agronomy, Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

The present study was conducted to analyze allelochemicals by HPLC method in Barnyardgrass root exudates. The pure seeds of barnyardgrass were collected and grown in hydroponics system to study their root exudates effects on germination and seedling growth parameters of four rice cultivars (Neda, Nemat, Dullar and IR60). Experiment was evaluated in a factorial arrangement with two factors in a completely randomized design with four replications. Barnyardgrass root exudates obtained from hydroponics was qualified and quantified with HPLC method. Among of detected phenolic acids, the highest content was related to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4.3 mg/l) and the lowest amount was belong to cinnamic acid (0.91 mg/l). Root exudates had the highest inhibitory activity on root length of Dullar cultivar (by 45.85% inhibition) and the lowest amount was belong to IR60 cultivar (by 31.13% inhibition). the highest inhibition of protein content (by 16.61%) was related to 100% concentration of root exudates on Dullar cltivar and the lowest inhibitions (by 9.63, 9.74 and 9.81%, respectively) were belong to Nemat, IR60 and Neda cultivars in 50% concentration of root exudates. Furthermore root exudates of Dashtisard had a least inhibitory effect on all studied traits. It seems that, if a blend of compounds is responsible for the observed growth inhibition of rice, phenolic acids such as p-hydroxybenzoicacid could play the key roles, because of this compound detected in higher range than the other allelocemicals.

Keywords: Barnyardgrass, HPLC, Inhibitory, protein content, Rice
Effect of two strains of antagonistic yeasts in combination with silicon against two isolates of Penicillium expansum on apple fruit

Effect of two strains of antagonistic yeasts in combination with silicon against two isolates of Penicillium expansum on apple fruit

Authors: Leila Farahani| Plant Protection Department, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Hasan Reza Etebarian| Plant Protection Department,...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

The potential of two antagonistic yeasts Candida membranifaciens (A4) and Pichia guilliermondii (A6) lonely and in combination with different concentration of Silicon (Si) 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% w/v were investigated for control of two isolates of Penicillium expansum P1 and P2 on apple fruit in storage at 5°C. The results indicated that the antagonistic yeasts could control the blue mold caused by both isolates, significantly. Complete control of disease achieved using combination of A6 with Si at 0.1% for P1 and at all concentrations for P2 (P<0.05). While combination of A4 with Si at 0.5% could control the blue mold caused by P1, significantly. Si decreased the growth of the both yeasts A4 and A6 In vitro. Also, Si inhibited the growth of the both isolates P1 and P2 at concentrations above 0.6% w/v. The results of this study emphasized the synergistic effects of the yeasts A4 and A6 in combination with Si and the different behaviors of P. expansum isolates against the combined treatments.

Keywords: Blue mould disease, cold storage, Pichia guilliermondii, Candida membranifaciens, Si
Effect of Biological Nitrogen on the Yield of Dried Flower and Essential Oil of Calendula officinalis L. under End Season Water Deficit Condition

Effect of Biological Nitrogen on the Yield of Dried Flower and Essential Oil of Calendula officinalis L. under End Season Water Deficit Condition

Authors: Fahime shokrani| Urmia University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia-Iran., Alireza pirzad| Urmia University, D...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

To evaluate effect of irrigation disruption on the essential oil content, and yield of dried flower and essential oil of Calendula officinalis L., an experiment was conducted as split plot at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University (latitude 37.53 °N, 45.08 °E, and 1320 m above sea level) in 2010. Treatments; irrigation (irrigation disruption at first, second, third harvest and without disruption as control) as main plot and amount of biological nitrogen (0, 3, 6, and 9 (Liter per hectare) of biological nitrogen included Azotobacter and Azospirillum sp.) as sub plot were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data analysis of variance showed the significant interaction effect between irrigation disruption and biological nitrogen on essential oil content, flower yield and essential oil yield in first harvest, second harvest, third harvest, fourth harvest, fifth harvest and yearly total yield. The maximum yearly total yield of flower (2742.91 kg/ha) was obtained from control treatment of irrigation (without irrigation disruption) and 6 l/ha of biological nitrogen. The highest yearly total yield of essential oil (23.95 kg/ha) and the highest percentage of essential oil (1.03 %) belonged to irrigation disruption after first harvest and 9 l/ha of biological nitrogen. In general, biological nitrogen caused in the higher yield of Calendula officinalis in different amounts for production of dried flower and essential oil compared with control treatment.

Keywords: Azospirillum, Azotobacter, harvest, irrigation disruption, pot marigold
Land use transformation in the mountainous Kurdistanand the role of indigenous knowledge and skills in forest management

Land use transformation in the mountainous Kurdistanand the role of indigenous knowledge and skills in forest management

Authors: HadiFathi| Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali- Sina University- Hamedan, Iran., NeginDowlati| Departme...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

The mountainous Kurdistan that contains the region’s largest remaining tropical forest. The people living in the forested mountains, who belong to a diversity of ethnic minority groups, possess a wealth of local knowledge and skills in forest management. With rapid decrease in forest area, implementation of forest conservation policies, improved access to market and replacement of shifting cultivation with permanent cropping, land use and management in the region has been rapidly changing. Some indigenous knowledge and technology in forest management will inevitably continue to be lost in the process, but not all. This paper shows how local forest management systems have been adapted to deal with the change, with specific focus on deployment and adaptation of indigenous knowledge and skills. First background on the region and its traditional land use systems will be provided. Cases drawn from studies in the region will illustrate how deployment of indigenous technology not only helps the farmers to improve their productivity but can also provide services in forest regeneration and biodiversity conservation. It will also be shown that farmers’ knowledge and skills are not static, but continually revised and integrating modern inputs as well as transfer of new ideas and innovations.

Keywords: Forest management, Shifting cultivation, Indigenous knowledge
Computer-based recognition of severity of apple blue mould using RGB components

Computer-based recognition of severity of apple blue mould using RGB components

Authors: Leila Farahani| Plant Protection Department, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran., Hasan Reza Etebarian| Plant Protection Department...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

In order to estimate the severity of apple blue mould disease which controlled by chemo- biological approach, using RGB channels; the experiment was done using two antagonistic yeasts Pichia guilliermondii (A6) and Candida membranifaciens (A4) in combination with different concentration of silicon (Si) 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% against apple blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum Link, in the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Abourihan Campus, University of Tehran in 2010. The results indicated that combination of the yeasts with Si could control the blue mould significantly (P<0.05). Extraction of statistical moments of RGB channels in infected area showed that Red standard deviation was the most important feature which separated the A and B groups with accuracy of 80% and 100%, respectively. Estimation of disease severity using Standard Deviation and Kurtosis of Red channel achieved the accuracy of 100% for the both groups. The results of this study emphasize the role of color in automated estimation of the severity of apple blue mould in storages.

Keywords: Linear Discriminant Analysis, Penicillium expansum, color, yeasts
Effect of Irrigation and Straw Mulch on Yield and Yield Components of Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.)

Effect of Irrigation and Straw Mulch on Yield and Yield Components of Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.)

Authors: Habib Pirboneh| Rice supervisor in agriculture department, Astaneh Ashrafiyeh, Iran, Moheb Ghasemi| Agricultural expert and member of the Sarcheshmeh...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

The effects of irrigation interval and straw mulch on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in a field trial at Astaneh Ashrafiyeh, Guilan, Iran during 2011 were studied. Experiment was conducted out in split plot based on randomized completely block design with three replications. Irrigation levels were the main-plots consisted of four levels (no irrigation, 6 days interval and 12 days interval). Straw mulch included of four levels of straw mulch (0, 1, 2 and 3 cm per plot) was assigned to sub-plots. The results of this study showed that among irrigation treatments, the highest amounts of all studied traits of eggplant included of plant height, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruit per m2 and fruit yield were observed in 6 days interval irrigation (P0.01). On the other Results also illustrated that plants that received 2 cm mulch in per plat produced the highest fruit yield and yield-determining traits than those in the control treatment. In addition, regarding to the interaction effects between irrigation intervals and straw mulch, it could be concluded that irrigation of eggplants every 6 days and application of 2 cm mulch in per plat resulted in the highest yield with 51.1 ton/ha attributes.

Keywords: Eggplant, Intervals irrigation, straw mulch, yield
Assessing an Ecological Production System for Rice Yield and Quality Improvement (Oryza sativa L. var. Hashemi)

Assessing an Ecological Production System for Rice Yield and Quality Improvement (Oryza sativa L. var. Hashemi)

Authors: Mehdi Ghasemi Gavabar*| Young Researchers Club, Roudsar and Amlash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudsar, Iran,[email protected], Mohammad J...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Ecological systems which are types of organic or integrated farming, aim to improve quality and quantity at the same time. These systems can be used instead of conventional systems. A very important factor in success of these production systems is the application of biofertilizers, e.g., azotobacter and azospirillum. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biological fertilizers of azosprilium and azetobacter on physiological and morphological characteristics and optimal yield of rice. For this purpose, a randomized block experiment design with three replicates was established. Biological fertilizer treatments as main factors consisted of Azosperilium, azetobacter, Azosperilium+azetobacter and standard (without fertilizer) and Nitrogen treatment as a secondary factor consisted in three level of 0, 45 and 90 kg/ha. Analysis of variances indicated that root inoculation with biological fertilizers of azosprilium and azetobacter had significant effect on number of active leaves, tiller in m2, unfilled grain and amount of nitrogen. Different level of nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on above traits and length of panicle. Interaction effect of biological and nitrogen fertilizers had significant effect on number of active leaves and tiller with confidence interval of 99%. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between the numbers of tiller in m2 with length of panicle and between length of panicle with amount of nitrogen with confidence interval of 99%.

Keywords: Azosprilium, Azetobacter, rice, nitrogen, biological fertilizer
Effect of planting date and plant density on morphological traits, LAI and forage corn (Sc. 370) yield in second cultivation

Effect of planting date and plant density on morphological traits, LAI and forage corn (Sc. 370) yield in second cultivation

Authors: Seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi| Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch, Birjand, Iran,Email: [email protected], Mohamad Javad Se...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

In order to study the effect of sowing date and plant density on morphological traits, LAI and forage corn yield, a split-plot experiment was carried out in the research field of Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch, Gonabad, Iran in 2007 based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The sowing dates of the main plot at three levels were July 4, July 21 and August 6. The sub-plot was of plant density at four levels 50, 80, 110 and 140 thousand plants/ha. The results showed that delay in sowing from July 4 to August 6 decreased significantly the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index, total fresh and dry yield by 15.7, 20.9, 42.1, 24.7 and 25.9%, respectively. With increasing plant density from 50000 to 140000 plants/ha, stem diameter decreased by 21.6%, but plant height increased 15.1%. Moreover leaf area index and total dry yield, increased 3.39 and 1.84 times, respectively. According to the results, the treatment of sowing date of July 4 with density of 140000 plants/ha recommended for the cultivation of forage corn in Gonabad, Iran as second cultivation.

Keywords: forage corn, sowing date, plant density, yield, LAI, morphology
Seed N concentration, nitrogen use efficiency and growth of barley under combinations of bio and chemical N fertilizer application

Seed N concentration, nitrogen use efficiency and growth of barley under combinations of bio and chemical N fertilizer application

Authors: Javad Hamzei*| Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code: 6517833131, Hamedan, Iran.j.ham...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production is approximately 33%. Furthermore, increased cereal NUE must accompany increased yields needed to feed a growing world population that has yet to benefit from the promise of N2–fixing cereal crops. Therefore, it is necessary to use bio-fertilizer which contains two strains of bacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter) promotes shoot growth and root development in crops as they ensure better nitrogen consumption. Hence, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of bio-fertilizer infection (inoculation by Nitroxin and non inoculation) with contrasting mineral nitrogen fertilizer (doses of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% recommended nitrogen; RN) on seed N concentration (SNC), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), SPAD index, root dry weight (RDW), number of seed per spike (NS spike-1), seed weight (SW), crop dry weight (CDW), and grain yield (GY) of barley. The ANOVA revealed that the inoculation and N rate treatments, and also their interaction exerted a significant effect on all traits. On average, SPAD index increased from 34.00 at non inoculation by 0%RN to 46.17 at inoculation by 80%RN, RDW from 3.87 to 6.40 g pot-1, NS spike-1 from 11.25 to 22.85 seed, SW from 20.39 to 39.43 mg, GY from 1.42 to 6.40 g pot-1, and CDW from 7.98 to 13.85 g pot-1. Maximum traits of SNC and RUE were observed in inoculation by 80%RN. Therefore, application of 80%RN with inoculation by Nitroxin could reduce the N fertilizer up to 20%.

Keywords: Nitroxin, Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Seed N concentration, Nitrogen use efficiency, Crop dry weight, Grain yield
Effect of nitrogen compounds and tricyclazole on some biochemical and morphological characteristics of waterlogged-canola

Effect of nitrogen compounds and tricyclazole on some biochemical and morphological characteristics of waterlogged-canola

Authors: Farhad Habibzadeh| Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, Ali Sorooshzadeh| Department of Agronomy,...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

Waterlogging causes deleterious physiological changes which restrict canola growth and yield. The objective of this work was to compare the effects of the foliar applications of urea, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and tricyclazole at different times on selected biochemical and morphological characteristics of canola plants (Brassica napus L. cv. Hayola 401) under waterlogging stress conditions. Plants in the 5-leaf growth stage were exposed to the flooding conditions for two weeks. The results showed that the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid in the leaves of canola were reduced after this stress. The flooding stress also significantly decreased the grain yield, number of siliques per plant, plant height, stem width, number of branches and branching position. The higher pigments content in the leaves, the increase in the number of siliques per plant (which was responsible for the significantly greater grain yield over the waterlogged control) and increase in other morphological characteristics were obtained by foliar application of calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and tricyclazole. The foliar spray of urea caused a less significant increase for these characteristics. The foliar application before the stress was more beneficial than the foliar spray after waterlogging. The foliar spray twice (before and after the stress) was slightly superior to the foliar spray before or after waterlogging stress. However, we concluded that the foliar spray of calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and tricyclazole before or after the waterlogging stress was more applicable and cost efficient than the foliar application twice and are advisable to alleviate the flooding damage in canola.

Keywords: calcium, chlorophyll content, leaf senescence, potassium
Impact of sowing date on growth and yield attributes of Pop Corn grown under different densities

Impact of sowing date on growth and yield attributes of Pop Corn grown under different densities

Authors: Babak Peykarestan*| AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF PAYAM NOOR UNIVERSITY,IRAN, P.O. Box. 3813616486, MILAJERD, IRAN, Mohammadreza Seify| AGRICULTURE DEPART...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

The effect of different sowing dates (Jun 5th , Jun 20th, July 6th , July 21th) and densities rates of 60000, 70000, 80000 and 90000 plant/ha on growth and yield components of Popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) was investigated at a research field, in Arak, Iran, during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. The experiment was carried out using split plots based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Results showed that sowing date effect was significant on number of grains per ear, number of nodes per stalk, ear height, ear diameter, husked green ear weight, 1000-grain weight, plant height and grain yield of Pop corn. Densities significantly affected plant height, ear diameter, ear height, grain yield, husked green ear weight and 1000-grain weight. Interaction effect of sowing date × density was only affected 1000-grain weight, grain yield and husked green ear weight. Whereas the rest of studied traits were remained unaffected. The highest grain yield (7815.16 kg ha-1) was that of July 6th coupled with 80000 plants/ha of density. It is concluded that optimum density /sowing date for popcorn crop is 80000 plant/ha. It is also suggested that further research should be done under different environmental conditions.

Keywords: Density, sowing dates, yield and Popcorn
Uv irradiation effects on seed germination and growth, protein content, peroxidase and protease activity in redbean

Uv irradiation effects on seed germination and growth, protein content, peroxidase and protease activity in redbean

Authors: Babak Peykarestan| Agriculture department of payam noor university, iran, p.o. Box. 3813616486, milajerd, iran,Babak Peykarestan, Agriculture Departme...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

Ultraviolet radiation is energetically capable of disrupting proteins. Ultraviolet radiations are divided into three bands included UV-A (320-390 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C(254-280nm). Several studies have indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation can deleteriously affect physiological processes and overall growth in some plants species.Bean Sayad and Bean Derakhshan seeds irradiated with 220 to 400 nm UV rays were grown in incubator for 8 days at 25±°C. Germination, growth (seedling fresh weight, root shoot length and their ratio), lipid peroxidation, protease and peroxidase activity were measured in leaves. Results showed that percent germination of the seeds and the rates of growth of sprouts were inversely related to the irradiation doses. In Derakhshan, peroxidase and protease activities (two folds) and MDA contents were higher as compared to Bean Sayad while vice versa for protein contents, revealing inherent differences between two types. Data for protein contents, peroxidase and protease activities therefore suggested that irradiation dose should not under 300nm UV in Bean Derakhshan and also 300nm UV in Bean Sayad. In Bean Derakhshan 320 to 400 nm UV irradiation dose non-significantly affected the protein contents and peroxidase activity and uppered MDA contents and protease activity. In Bean Sayad 300 nm UV irradiation dose increased the peroxidase activity,uppered the MDA contents and affect the protein content and protease activity. It was concluded that protein contents, protease, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation may be used in early assessment of effectiveness and superiority of radiation dose to induce mutations.

Keywords: Sayad, Derakhshan, UV radiation, protease, proxidase

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