International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Science Explorer Publications
  • Country of publisher: united kingdom
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/14

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Public Health and Community Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2010
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS, CLOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '2581' articles

Investigating the effects of Technology and Education on labor productivity in the agricultural sector in Iran (A Nonlinear Approach)

Investigating the effects of Technology and Education on labor productivity in the agricultural sector in Iran (A Nonlinear Approach)

Authors: Safdari Mehdi*| Ph.D in Economics, Associate Professor, University of Qom, Iran,[email protected], Motiee Reza| Department of Economics, Babol b...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

This research is about detecting and investigating effective factors of Technology and Education on labor productivity in the agricultural sector in Iran. In this regards, many opinions was proposed about Technology and Education on labor productivity in economic literature so that according to economic condition of countries, they proposes various opinions about ways of Technology and Education effectiveness on labor productivity in the agricultural sector. This study uses annual time series data (1961-2007) and unit root tests and analyze them using Smooth Transition Regression (STR) model. This nonlinear technique accommodates potential structural breaks that could undermine the existence of a long-run relationship between labor productivity and its main determinants.

Keywords: Technology and Education, labor productivity, Smooth Transition Regression, (STR) model
Effect of nitrogen fertilizers on nitrate leaching from a saline soil profile under corn and barley cultivation

Effect of nitrogen fertilizers on nitrate leaching from a saline soil profile under corn and barley cultivation

Authors: Sina Solhi| MS graduate student of Geomorphology, Department of Geomorphology, College of geography, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran,solhi_sina,@yah...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

Nitrogen as a macronutrient has an eminent role in plant nutrition. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture has resulted in leaching of fertilizers and contaminating groundwater and surface water systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of nitrogen fertilizers on nitrate leaching and soil and plant conditions in a saline soil in Rudasht, Isfahan province. A complete randomized design with four replications was conducted in 12 lysimeters. Three nitrogen fertilizers of urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate were applied. The lysimeters had a silty clay loam soil. Corn and barley were planted in June and October and were harvested in October and June of next year, respectively. Soil chemical characteristics were measured by standard laboratory methods. The results showed that changes of EC during the corn cropping season were negative for depth of 0-30 cm and positive for depths of 30-60 and 60-90 cm as a result of applied fertilizers. Comparison of soil salinity changes during corn and barley cropping seasons confirms that ammonium sulphate has been more effective on soil salinization as compared to ammonium nitrate and urea. Application of these fertilizers didn’t cause significant changes in weight of areal parts of corn plants and grain yield of barley. Corn shoot analysis showed that ammonium sulphate is more effective in enhancement of N and reduction of Na in corn shoot as compared to the other applied fertilizers. Where saline irrigation water contains harmful elements, application of ammonium sulphate is preferred over urea and ammonium nitrate. Ammonium sulphate has the least and ammonium nitrate has the highest NO3-N contamination potential of groundwater.

Keywords: Nitrogen fertilizer, Nitrate leaching, Saline soil, Corn, Barley
Metal extraction of some native plant species in a contaminated sites of Iran

Metal extraction of some native plant species in a contaminated sites of Iran

Authors: Sina Solhi| MS graduate student of Geomorphology, Department of Geomorphology, College of geography, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran,solhi_sina,@yah...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

Some higher plant species develop tolerance strategies to enable surviving and reproducing in highly metal contaminated soils. In order to study the potential of metal accumulation of some native plant species, three natural heavily contaminated sites including Anguran mine in Northwest, Bama mine in central and Sormeh mine in South of Iran were selected. In each site three composite soil samples and dominant native plant species were collected. Soil (total and DTPA extractable) and plant tissues (root and shoot) were analyzed for Zn, Pb and Cd. The average total concentration were 6099.3 mgkg-1for Zn, 5369.6 mgkg-1 for Pb and 25.9mgkg-1 for Cd. Whereas DTPA extractable concentration were 60.5 mgkg-1 for Zn, 32.5 mgkg-1 for Pb and 2.34 mgkg-1 for Cd in study soils. Based on metal concentration and biomass production, eleven native plant species were found to be able to accumulate more metals than the others. The maximum shoot concentration were found in Stipa barbata for Zn (4325.0 mgkg-1), in Kochia chenopodiaceae for Pb (1820.0 mgkg-1) and in Stipa barbata for Cd (28.4 mgkg-1). The maximum root concentration were 2762.0mgkg-1 for Zn in Stipa barbata, 1927.0mgkg-1 for Pb in Kochia chenopodiaceae and 34.5 mgkg-1 for Cd in Stipa Barbata. According to uptake index and shoot root ratio Stipa barbata accumulated more Zn and Cd in aboveground tissues, while Kochia chenopodiaceae accumulated more Pb in root and shoot.

Keywords: stipa barbata, kochia chenopodiaceae, accumulators, phytoremediation, arid and semiarid region
Effect Of Potasium Stress On Seed Germination And Growth Of Popcorn (K.Sc.6o4P.C)

Effect Of Potasium Stress On Seed Germination And Growth Of Popcorn (K.Sc.6o4P.C)

Authors: Babak Peykarestan*| Department of Agronomy - College of Agriculture - University of Milajerd,Payan Noor- Iran. Corresponding author. Mobile:0098918862...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

Environmental factors may influence popcorn germination rates and seedling establishment before seeds are even produced. Evaporation and transpiration remove pure water from the soil. This water loss concentrates solutes in the soil. When irrigation water contains a high concentration of solutes, Potassium can reach rapidly injurious levels vis-à-vis saltsensitive species. One factor limiting Popcorn plant (Zea mays everta Sturt(K.sc.6o4 p.c.)) domestication in the central areas of Iran is the damage caused by salt effect since irrigation enhances salinity in plantation soils. The objectives of this study were to define the effect of various KNO3 concentration levels on plant growth and seed germination. The tolerance to salinity of Popcorn seed and seedlings was assessed at KNO3 concentrations of 0, 1.2,2.4, 3.6, 4.8, and 6 g l−1and the experiment was undertaken in the laboratory under greenhouse conditions. Results obtained show that more than half of the seeds germinated in the presence of 6 g/l of KNO3: whereas 4.8 g/l of KNO3 inhibited completely the emergence of plumules. Concerning Popcorn seedlings, 3.6 g/l of KNO3 marked the start of negative affect on the growth.

Keywords: seedling, Potassium, Popcorn, salinity
Analysis of Effective Communicative and Information Factors on Attracting Public Participation in Conservation of Natural Resources in Zanjan Province, Iran

Analysis of Effective Communicative and Information Factors on Attracting Public Participation in Conservation of Natural Resources in Zanjan Province, Iran

Authors: Seyyed Reza Es`haghi*| M.Sc. student in Agricultural of Extension Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture, Universi...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

The main purpose of this study is the analysis of effective communicative and information factors in attracting of public participation to conservation of natural resources in Zanjan province. A survey was conducted among intermediate managers of the department of natural resources and watershed of Zanjan province (N=132). 105 of managers were surveyed based on random sampling. The main tool of this study was questionnaire; face validity of which was approved by a panel of expert (University of Tehran faculties). For determining the reliability of questionnaire, Cronbaches' alpha coefficient was calculated which was 0.93 for the main scale of questionnaire, that is communicative and information factors. Analysis of the data was done with SPSS software. The results revealed that, from the respondents' perspective, effective communicative and information factors on attracting public participation for conservation of natural resources includes six factors of holding meetings, formation of consulting groups, mass media, printed materials, methods of problem solving and reaching agreement and informing activities. These six factors, in whole, explained approximately 76.039 percent of variance. The results of this study can help managers and planners in designing strategies and plans for improving public participation in conservation of natural resources.

Keywords: Participation, Information and Communicative factors, Conservation, Natural Resources
The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Self-efficacy in Throwing Darts in Adolescents

The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Self-efficacy in Throwing Darts in Adolescents

Authors: Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak| Department of Physical Education, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran,Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak, Email: iran88...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The current study examined the effect of varying combination of positive and negative imagery and self-talk(ST) on self-efficacy in adolescents. seventy five adolescents boy with an age range of 12-16 and a mean age of 13.9 years (SD=1.45) volunteers and after completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (Hall & Martin, 1997) randomly allocated to one of the five evenly sized conditions (n = 15/condition), namely (1) negative imagery & positive ST, (2) positive imagery & negative ST, (3) positive imagery & positive ST, (4) negative imagery & negative ST, or (5) control group. Standard dartboard used for this research that include 0-100 scores and Participants’ self-efficacy was determined by questionnaire of dart throwing’ self-efficacy assessing participants’ expectations about their subsequent performance on the dart-throwing task. Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed that selfefficacy (F=1.55,P0.05), not changed over time as a function of the assigned experimental condition.

Keywords: mental imagery, self-talk, self-efficacy, adolescents
The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Motor Performance in Adolescents

The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Motor Performance in Adolescents

Authors: Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak| Department of Physical Education, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran, Abbas Bahram| Department of Physical...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The current study examined the effect of varying combination of positive and negative imagery and self-talk(ST) on performance in adolescents. seventy five adolescents boy with an age range of 12-16 and a mean age of 13.9 years (SD = 1.45) volunteers and after completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQR; Hall, Martin, 1997) randomly allocated to one of the five evenly sized conditions (n = 15/condition), namely (1) negative imagery , positive ST, (2) positive imagery , negative ST, (3) positive imagery , positive ST, (4) negative imagery , negative ST, or (5) control group. Standard dartboard used for this research that include 0-100 scores. Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed that performance(F=4.99,P=0.05) changed over time as a function of the assigned experimental condition. Participants in the positive imagery/positive ST condition had the best performance and participant in the negative imagery/positive ST condition had the worst performance, also participants in the negative imagery/positive ST was better than control condition. the finding suggest combination of positive mental imagery and ST as a potential technique to improve performance ,combination of negative mental imagery and ST can hamper performance whereas positive ST can remove negative effects of mental imagery.

Keywords: mental imagery, self-talk, performance, adolescents
The Relationship between Coach Leadership Styles and Competitiveness, Win Orientation and Goal Orientation in Iranian Elite Judo Players

The Relationship between Coach Leadership Styles and Competitiveness, Win Orientation and Goal Orientation in Iranian Elite Judo Players

Authors: Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak| Department of Physical Education, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran,Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak, Email: iran88...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the relationship between coach leadership styles and competitiveness, win orientation and goal orientation in Iranian elite judo players. The method of the study was descriptive-correlational, and it was conducted as a field study. The population of the study consisted of all judo players participating in Iranian judo super league (N=162). A sample of 125 judo players was selected as the participants. A demographic data sheet, Leadership Scale for Sport (=0.95) and Sport Orientation Questionnaire (=0.90) were used to collect the data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics including multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The results showed a significant correlation between coach leadership styles and competitiveness, win orientation and goal orientation in the Iranian elite judo players (P<0.01). The results also revealed a significant positive correlation between positive feedback and social support with competitiveness, win orientation and goal orientation in the participants (P<0.01). Overall, coach leadership styles were found to be a good predictor of competitiveness, win orientation and goal orientation the Iranian elite judo players.

Keywords: competitiveness, goal orientation, judo, leadership style, win orientation
Investigating the Effective Organizational Factors in Increasing Manpower Efficiency in Naban Qeshm Industrial Group Company

Investigating the Effective Organizational Factors in Increasing Manpower Efficiency in Naban Qeshm Industrial Group Company

Authors: Hossein Dana| Department Of Management, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran, Jamshid Jafaridarabjerdi| Department Of Management, Hormoz...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the effective factors improving manpower efficiency in Naban Qeshm Industrial Group Company. As to the research objectives, it can be considered as an applied study. The participants of the study consisted of all employees with Naban Qeshm Industrial Group Company. Efficiency questionnaire and employee performance appraisal questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed a significant positive correlation between good wage and salary payment, appropriate organizational culture and employee-management relations with manpower efficiency. The level of significance was set at 0.01.

Keywords: Organizational Factors, Efficiency, Manpower
Performance evaluation of a light tractor during plowing at different levels of depth and soil moisture content

Performance evaluation of a light tractor during plowing at different levels of depth and soil moisture content

Authors: Karimi Inchebron| Department of Agricultural Machinery, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O.Box: 578, S.R. Mousavi Seyedi...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

In this study, the tractive performance of a light tractor (25.8 KW) for 2-bottom moldboard plowwere measured in three soil moisture content ranges of (16-18%,19-22% and 23-25%db) and three different depths (10,15 and 20 cm) in a silty-clay soil. The measured and calculated parameters were: rolling resistance, wheel slip and tractive efficiency. Data were analyzed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. During the tests the forward speed was kept constant at about 3.7±0.15 kmh-1. The results indicated thattillage depth and soil moisture contenthad a significant effects (P<0.01) on the tractive efficiencyand wheel slip. Also, the effect of moisture content on rolling resistance was significant (P<0.01). Interaction effect of depth and moisture content on rolling resistance and wheel slip at 5% and 1% level of probability were significant, respectively. Mean comparison of tractive efficiency with Duncan's multiple range test showed that the tractive efficiency was the least at higher depth and moisture content. Tractive efficiency of tractor was over 46% at shallow plowing and decreased up to 41% with increasing plowing depth. Amount of wheel slip increased from 11.91% up to more than 29.47% by increasing of depth plowing from 10 to 20cm. The overall results of this study showed that light tractor had not desirable tractive efficiency at shallow plowing and it is suitable for medium plowing (15-20 cm).

Keywords: moldboard plow, rolling resistance, tractive efficiency, wheel slip
The Effects of logical positivism in geography and urban planning Sample: Cities of Iran (1921 -2011)

The Effects of logical positivism in geography and urban planning Sample: Cities of Iran (1921 -2011)

Authors: Mostafa khazaee*| M.Sc in Geography and Urban Planning , Shahid Beheshti University,Mostafa khazaee [email protected], Mohammad Taghie Raza...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

In the Persian school of positivism for different terminology is used. Logical realization of such schools, educational, logical orientation, originality School of Science, Pozitivism logical and authenticity of experience. The school knows the only way to experience the scientific understanding and in fact the basic argument is, and your experience. Positivist school of one of the most controversial intellectual and philosophical approach in the twentieth century. Logical positivism In fact, new aspect Positivist school in addition to the unity of the faith the ability to achieve (demonstrating tendency) believes. In terms of social conditions, in certain circumstances, distracted, frustrated after the First World War one of the areas we can expand the school's philosophy. Later expansion was developed by the Vienna circle and as a philosophical school of income and from 1950 to 1970 as the dominant attitude geographical issues and in particular the shadow cast on the urban geography and thus change the direction of descriptive geography of a state mode was a little bit and positivist and a series of mathematical and statistical models were included in discussions of urban geography. This paper reviews the influence of this school of urban geography the general, special effects to the school of logical positivism in town and city planning iran is on the left to review. We will see in the city and urban planning in Iran with its balanced growth out of the school unaffected by and experience in various areas has been disturbed.

Keywords: positivism, the Vienna Circle, logical positivism, city, urban geography
A First Record of the Bittrling Rhodeus amarus (Bloch, 1782) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in the Iranian Part of Tigris-Euphrates Basin

A First Record of the Bittrling Rhodeus amarus (Bloch, 1782) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in the Iranian Part of Tigris-Euphrates Basin

Authors: Soheil Eagderi| University of Tehran, Faculty of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries, Karaj, Iran, P.O. Box: 31585-4314,E-mail: [email protected]
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

The Bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) is reported for the first time from the Iranian part of Tigris-Euphrates basin. Previously, this species is reported in Caspian Sea Basin. In this report, a total of 7 Specimens from a treebutary of upper Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Ghare-sou River (Kermanshah province, Iran) were caught by an Electro-fishing. Morphological characteristics were examined and then compared with those reported in previous studies.

Keywords: Cyprinidae, Bittrling, Upper Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Ghare-sou River
Hairy roots induction from Portulaca oleracea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to Noradrenaline,s production

Hairy roots induction from Portulaca oleracea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to Noradrenaline,s production

Authors: Kiana pirian| M.Sc student, Deparment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali sina University Hamedan, Khosro piri*| Associat Professors, Dep...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

Noradrenaline is one of the very important secondary metabolite produce by Portulaca oleraceao. Naturally this plant produce small amount of this metabolites so induction of hairy roots can be useful to increase his commercial product. In our research the strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used to induct hairy roots in Portulaca oleracea. To increasing the transduction , different factors as explants (leaf, stem, root), age of explants (14, 28, 56 days), strain of bacteria (15834, C318, 9435, A4), and bacteria concentration (0/2, 0/4, 0/6, 0/8) were used. Inoculation of 14 days explants with 0/6 concentration of AR15834 strain indicated maximum percentage of transduction. PCR analysis with specific primers rolB gene was performed to confirm the transgenic hairy roots production. PCR analysis showed the presence of diagnostic bands with size 780 bp that related to specific reproduction of rolB gene, so the transgenic hairy roots was confirmed. The concentration of Noradrenalin product in the roots were evaluated by HPLC. Our result showed that the concentrate of Noradrenalin in hairy roots (line-A), have been increased 12 fold in comparison with normal roots (Non-HR).

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea, Noradrenalin, transformed hairy root, AR15834 strain, PCR
Effect of urban wastewater on forage maize in south of Tehran

Effect of urban wastewater on forage maize in south of Tehran

Authors: Majid Harati| Authors email address: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], Alireza Kelidari| Authors email address: Ha...
( 28 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out in order to study the effects of wastewater irrigation on heavy metals accumulation in forage corn in south of Tehran. Experiment design was randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replications. Treatments included pure water (control), wastewater and combination of water with wastewater. Results of the experiments indicated that effect of treatments on accumulations of Pb-Ni and Cu-Zn were significant at %1 and %5 levels, respectively, while there was no significant difference among treatments in respect of macronutrient accumulation such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in different part of corn. Accumulation of elements in corn organs indicate that greatest accumulations of heavy metals except Cd were in roots and for macro elements in grains. Comparison of means using Duncan tests in corn organs indicated there were significant differences in Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni in roots, Zn in stalk and P, K in grains, but there was no significant difference among treatments in leaves. Accumulation of Pb in treated corn plants with wastewater was more than 10mg/kg and reached to phototoxic levels for animal feeding. With attention to hazardous effects of Pb on humans and animals this is necessary to settle legal restrictions and limitation to use of municipal sewage and wastewater for irrigation in forage corn in south of Tehran. Since accumulation of Cd and Ni in grains of forage corn under wastewater irrigation are more than normal conditions and reaches to toxin level, it is necessary to self restraint use of ear as human fresh food.

Keywords: wastewater, heavy metal, forage maize, South of Tehran
The role of urban management in City Spatial Development Case Study Nahavand City

The role of urban management in City Spatial Development Case Study Nahavand City

Authors: Mostafa khazaee*| M.Sc in Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University,Mostafa khazaee [email protected], Mohammad Taghie Razav...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

In this article management role in the development of urban space in the city Nahavand during Islamic revolution will be discussed. Beginning with a review of the concepts, functions and objectives of urban management, urban management in North and South countries urban management structures in detail, the role and function of urban management in the development of the city environment will be analyzed.Next structural analysis of urban management shows how policies and practices in Nahavand effect the organization and spatial development of the city's current form.The physical growth Nahavand after the Islamic Revolution has experienced dramatic growth mainly in the north and northwest of the city. This study proves the poor performance of urban management and local agencies, leading to rapid physical development Nahavand City, and the formation of several towns in the surrounding tissue. Development prospects for rapid growth resulting from the adverse landscape and lack of city control and management mechanisms, makes the city Nahavand, like other small towns ,facing a crisis in The research tries to analyse this crisis in the citys spacial organization and the role and local management in this event while progrosing recommondations to solve the prablem in Nahavand.

Keywords: City, Urban Management, Spatial Development, Nahavand

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