Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation

Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation

Basic info

  • Publisher: Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation
  • Country of publisher: macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/14

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine, Pediatrics, Psychology
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, psychology, pedagogy
  • Language of fulltext: english, macedonian
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 1997
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS, CLOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '589' articles

PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AS POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHO-MOTOR DIFFICULTIES

PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AS POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHO-MOTOR DIFFICULTIES

Authors: Elizabeta ZISOVSKA
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

Besides the great improvement of aostetrics and neanatal intensive care, certain percentage of new born children suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA) and that is one of the first reasons for hypoxic and ischemic brain damage which leads to neuro-developing handicap. In order to show how strong is the correaltion between PA and permanent sequele, an early, precise and prompt diagnosis of asphyxia and its influence on neonatal brain is neccessary. This study presents answers to the following issues. 1. Which parameters define precisely the perinatal asphyxia? 2. How great is the PA incidence on our material? 3. What is the percentage of postasphyxic encephalopathy (PAE) in the group of asphyxic new born children? 4. Which of these children bear high risk for developmental psycho-motor difficulties? Material: The new born children delivered on time in the Clinic of Gyneacology and Obstetrics. Methods: 1. Early diagnosis of PA according to the score consisted of high specific, sensitivity and positive and predictive value 2. Consequent neurological check-ups and PAE cathegori-zation for seven days 3. Ultrasound examination of CNS through big fontanelle 4. Lab analyses Results: 5.639 successive new born children delivered on time were examined. The included scouring system covers APGAR score at the 5th minute, cardiotocographic record, base deficit in ABS, meconium around the amniotic water. According to this system, 81 child passed the PA , i.e., 14,3/ 1.000 new born children delivered on time. Out of them, 54 have signs of PAE (9,5/1000 new born children delivered on time), i.e., 66,6% of all asphyxia new born children. Classification has been made according to the PAE grade: 34 children survived the first grade (62,9%), 11 children survived the second grade (20,4%) and 9 new born children survived the third grade (16,7%). According to data in literature and long year studies of this issue, the children from the group who passed the second and the third grade of PAE have the risk of neurodeveloping changes and disorders, i.e., that risk is 3,5/1000 children born on time and they should be recorded and permanently observed. This study presents answers to the following issues. 1. Which parameters define precisely the perinatal asphyxia? 2. How great is the PA incidence on our material? 3. What is the percentage of postasphyxic encephalopathy (PAE) in the group of asphyxic new born children? 4. Which of these children bear high risk for developmental psycho-motor difficulties?

Keywords: null
EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

Authors: Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields: · well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire; · slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and · helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder. Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

Keywords: null
EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HIGHLY HYPEROPIC AMBLYOPIA

EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HIGHLY HYPEROPIC AMBLYOPIA

Authors: V. BUCHKOVSKA-NIKOLOVSKA, S. BOSNJAKOVSKA, V. JORDANOVA-DIMOVSKA, D. STAVRIC, E.GJORGJIEVSKA
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The following conditions are necessary for binocular sight: · anatomical and dioptrical integrity of the eye; · binocular visual field; · perfect coordinance between the retinas and their elements ( NRKK). Detection and diagnostics: · hisrory of the occuence of the strabismus; · cover test; · motility test; · fixation test. Rehabilitation of Amblyopia · optical correction; · occlusion; with atropinisatio, with penalisation. · application of prisms; · practices on eutiscop, flash and coordinator. Results: A group of 27 patients (0-10 years) with monocular or binocular hyper­metropia (> + 6,00 dsph) treated in our clinic at the ortooptic department was analyzed in the period 1990-95. The effects of the treatment were corelated to the main three parameter: Age, duration of the ortooptic treatment and the type of fixation before the treat­ment. In 48,14% (13 patients) the visual acuity obtained was 1,oo cc. In 29,62% (8 patients) the visual acuity of the ambluopic eye was 0,70 cc. The remaining 22,22% (6 patients) were with excentric fixation had the following results: · In 3 patients a visual acurity of the amblyopic eye of 6,00 cc. and the central fixation was obtained; · In 3 of those patients the results were not satisfactory.

Keywords: null
EARLY DETECTION OF ERRORS OF REFRACTION AND STRABISM, CONDITION FOR GOOD VISION

EARLY DETECTION OF ERRORS OF REFRACTION AND STRABISM, CONDITION FOR GOOD VISION

Authors: Luiza VELJANOVSKA
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

The “Ward of newborns, small and preschool children“ in Bitola, does systematic examination of vision of 3, 4 and 5 years old children, in order to detect the errors of refraction and strabismus. In the work is analyzed presence of errors of refraction and strabismus of children born in 1990, 1991 and 1992 from 2 to 5 years of age. In the work were used patients’ records. From totally 1634 children, born without risk, in systematic examination of vision were comprised 1214 children, from which 937 i. e. 57% cooperated in the examination. 7,5% of them had hipermethropia and strabismus. 3,8% of children had hipermethropia and 3,6% of them had strabismus. Longsightness was equally present at male and female children, and squint was for 1,2% more present at female children. Hipermethropia and strabismus were present in higher percents at children born with risk (Sectio caesarea, Vacum extractio, Asphyxia and Praematurus). From totally 253 children 186 cooperated in the examination . 8,3% of them were longsighted and 4,8% were squint.

Keywords: null
THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY OF THE DEFECTOLOGIST IN SOME DEPARTMENT OF THE INTEGRAL REHABILITATION OF PERSONS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY OF THE DEFECTOLOGIST IN SOME DEPARTMENT OF THE INTEGRAL REHABILITATION OF PERSONS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

Authors: Ljupcho AJDINSKI
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

In this paper the basic professional competencies of the defectologist are determinated as a profile of competent specialists are educated at the Institute of Defectology-Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje. We want to emphasize that gratuated defectologist as a general specialist of defectology is enabled and professional competent to make programs, to organize and to work in those three parts of the integral rehabilitation treatment of persons with developmental disabilities (clinical, educational, social-economical part).

Keywords: null
SOME ASPECTS OF PROTECTION OF DISABLED FOR WORK AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS

SOME ASPECTS OF PROTECTION OF DISABLED FOR WORK AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS

Authors: Dimitar TRAJKOVSKI
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

In the concept of social care several categories of citizens exist, for whom the state provides a kind of care. These are the following categories: “weak citizens”, “disabled for work citizens”, and “handicapped persons”. For the first two groups of citizens the Republic guarantees some kind of help (according to article 35, verdict 2 of the Constitution of Republic of Macedonia), and for the third group (according to article 35, verdict 3 of the Constitution of Republic of Macedonia) the Republic provides special care for the handicapped and conditions for them to be included in social life.

Keywords: null
 INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

Authors: M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI, Lj. NAUMOVSKA, V. RAZMOVSKA, V. VOJNOVSKA
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The Day Care Institutions for children are forms of organized protection for improvement of the psycho-physical, emotional and social development of children. In this period, the growth and development are in their most intensive phase when the outside influence plays an extraordinary role both in a positive and in negative a direction. Directed and well-organized protection is of a great importance. By inclusion of children with developmental disorders in the group and with special, individual treatment of each child by adequate specialized staff, their socialization and stimulus for developmental acceleration is achieved. Many years ago, by recommendation of the Advisory Institution for Development, the doctors from the Advisory Institution for small children, the public-health nurses or by the parents initiative, the kindergartens accept children with Down syndrome, children with limited and lower level backwardness, with disharmonious development, with lower level forms of cerebral paralysis and with speech disorders. Children at the earliest age of one month are resided at the Advisory Institu­­tion for Development and receive treatment until they are cathegorized and are ready to start school, but certain children are sent to the kindergartens at the age of 3. In the previous years, out of five children with Down syndrome treated in the Advisory Institution for Development, four were sent to the kindergarten. Now, one of these children attends the fifth grade and two attend the first grade in a regular elementary school and one attends the special school. Three children with Spastic diplegia, four children with lower level of retardation, two with Syndromutitas and four with disharmonious development are still in the kindergarten.

Keywords: null
SPEECH VISUALIZATION SISTEM AS A BASIS FOR SPEECH TRAINING AND COMMUNICATION AIDS

SPEECH VISUALIZATION SISTEM AS A BASIS FOR SPEECH TRAINING AND COMMUNICATION AIDS

Authors: Oliana KRSTEVA, Boika TATAREVA
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

One receives much more information through a visual sense than through a tactile one. However, most visual aids for hearing-impaired persons are not wearable because it is difficult to make them compact and it is not a best way to mask always their vision. Generally it is difficult to get the integrated patterns by a single mathematical transform of signals, such as a Foruier transform (Liberman et al., 1968). In order to obtain the integrated pattern speech parameters should be carefully extracted by an analysis according as each parameter, and a visual pattern, which can intulitively be understood by anyone, must be synthesized from them. Successful integration of speech parameters will never disturb understsnding of individual features, so that the system can be used for speech training and communication.

Keywords: null
THE NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DAMAGED EYESIGHT ON THE TERRITORY OF SKOPJE AND WORK ORGANIZATION WITH THIS POPULATION AT PRESCHOOL PERIOD

THE NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DAMAGED EYESIGHT ON THE TERRITORY OF SKOPJE AND WORK ORGANIZATION WITH THIS POPULATION AT PRESCHOOL PERIOD

Authors: Snezana TALEVSKA
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

The binocular function of the eyesight as a process develops as early as the first years of life. Taking into consideration the great number of inherent factors, which disturb the normal development of the eye-sight function, and the great number of causes of damages in the prenatal and natal period, the question of early detection of the reasons, diagnostics and treatment are of utmost importance. That’s possible, only if there is a cooperation among persons that are in the closest contacts with the child: · the mother; · the pediatrician; · the nurse; · the opthalmologist; · the educator and · the physician. It’s not so necessary to talk about the importance of the sight in the human life, i.e. the importance of the binocular function of the children’s sight, from the early age when their psychophysical development is the most flourishing. The importance of the early detection, diagnostics and treatment of the damaged eyesight is great. Especially, this is of great importance for ambliopija, which can be hardly detected at this early period, but it can be easily and successfully treated. We say it is hard to detect because of the delusion and inertness of parents, just during early years from birth to the 3 year, that the child is small and it’s too early to start a treatment. On the contrary, practice has shown that this time is lost and hardly can be conpesate, either in means of cure of ambliopia and treatment or rehabilitation of amaurosis. The numerical data of children with damaged eyesight on the territory of Skopje and the need of organized work with this population of children at preschool age will be confirmed and enclosed.

Keywords: null
INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AND THE PROBLEMS OF THE PARENTS AND CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN SLOVENIA’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AND THE PROBLEMS OF THE PARENTS AND CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN SLOVENIA’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Authors: Egidija NOVLJAN
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

Cooperation between experts, parents and children, based on the respect and with wish for giving the best opportunities for the child's development. The child with developmental difficulties didn't has "transients condition", some of them will be dependent of the adult's help and very often they have to live surrounded by enviromnent which will knew how to look after them. Relation between experts, parents and children is dynamics interaction in whom every activity from one side has influence to the activity of the another side. So, if the expert has influence to child and also to its family, than they will have specific effect to the child. The success depends of the qualities of those relations. These relations have to be linked to eacnothe, and all have to lead to the final target. The child needs help and understanding but: when, how and who will give that help depends of the level and kind of the disabilities and the age of the child. The expert has to keep balance between the active and passive relation with child and its parents. It's very clear that the active relation is the most important condition for successful cooperation, but active and passive relations have to work together. It didn't exist but very easy should happened that the expert could lead the child to longleaf (invalid stick), as well as family. We will be wrong if we put the active relation only in the family. The family is very good partner in developmental and educational process, but the family couldn't be the Institution for education. If the child with developmental disabilities is include in primary school, we have to keep in mind that every parents didn't work with the children on the same way. Many of them couldn't learn how to work with child. The parents are present when the main decision for child have been brought, and they have opportunity to decide where, when and how they are going to cooperate with as.

Keywords: null
THE GAME AND CHILD

THE GAME AND CHILD

Authors: L. TIMCEV
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

This notification didn’t have target and couldn’t include brief scope didactically content of the topic. The significance is to take the problem of the game and its real place as high effective method in various instruments of the means and approach for the early intervention of the children with psychological disabilities.

Keywords: null
SELF-HELP GROUPS FOR PARENTS WITH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

SELF-HELP GROUPS FOR PARENTS WITH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

Authors: Vaska STANCHEVA-POPKOSTADINOVA, Vanya GEORGIEVA
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

This presentation concerns a group for parents of mentally retarded children. A group of these parents receives professional help and environmental support. The parents are encouraged to assume responsibility in the everyday life educational process of their children. As Baker / 1980 / states: “ If parents cope better on daily basis with the child who has mental retardation, not only the child but also the parents would benefit”. Taking part in the group gave the parents: · the opportunity to meet other parents with the same children; · to talk to other parents and feel less isolated; · to share information and experiences, skills and ideas; · the opportunity to listen to the needs and problems of other parents; · to change the ways of working to meet the child’s needs; · share information about the possibilities of education and services; · parents are encouraged to meet together to support one another; · parents need a special approach to many problems existing in their families. · the education in the group puts the beginning of the work with the parents. The idea is to gather the efforts of specialists from different fields and to establish multi-disciplinary group aiming to work with the parents and create a good collaboration and partnership between them in order to improve the living conditions and services to the retarded persons. This paper reports on the development, evaluation and dissemination of the program for education of parents with mentally retarded children. At the Symposium we will be able to present the results of the effectiveness of the education.

Keywords: null
CENTER FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS AS CUSTODY IN PROTECTION OF CHILDREN WITH PSYCHO-PHYSICAL DIFFICULTIES

CENTER FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS AS CUSTODY IN PROTECTION OF CHILDREN WITH PSYCHO-PHYSICAL DIFFICULTIES

Authors: Gordana SAZDOVA, Dragica ATANASOVA
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

The center for social affairs as a custody in the frameworks of its regular activities pays special attention to the protection of children without parent care, among which there are children with physo-physical difficulties. It uses various forms of protection among which are the institutional care and integration with other families. Following these children and using the long working experience as well as the scientific and theoretic acknowledgment, it is obvious that there is an advantage in using the form of protection-integration with another family-as the closest model to the natural environment compared to the institutional protection. Some expert acknowledgment gained by direct work with such children will be presented In our presentation. A special intention will be paid to the necessities of education and preparation of the family which takes care of the complete development and education of children with psycho-physical difficulties who are without parent care. It is necessary to point out the need of an adequate treatment of these children from the earliest age in the pre-school institutions as well as the expert cooperation between the Center and appropriate institutions.

Keywords: null
THE USE OF COMPUTERS FOR TEACHING

THE USE OF COMPUTERS FOR TEACHING

Authors: Stanika DIKIC
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Experts of the developed countries try to make the handicapped persons familiar with the computer. Nowadays exist the series hardwares and softwares that are adjusted to the handicapped persons and by which their problem are solved. That way, the modern technology, helps the alleviation of their handicaps. In this paper are presented the results of the design “Development of the Computers and Electronic Devices for the Blind and the Visually Impaired”, Chair of Tiflology, the University of Defectology, that is financed by the Department of Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia.

Keywords: Computer, Hardware, Software, Braille Keyboard, Braille Display, Electronic TV Loop
 ASPHYXIA, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES AND BRAIN EDEMA OF RISK CHILDREN IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTE IN BITOLA FROM 1989-1994

ASPHYXIA, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES AND BRAIN EDEMA OF RISK CHILDREN IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTE IN BITOLA FROM 1989-1994

Authors: M. ILIEVSKA, M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI, Lj. NAUMOVSKA
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

3986 files have been examined in the Advisory Institute for a five year period in relation to the present risk factors in the pre, peri and postnatal period, the occurrence of asphyxia, I.H. (intracranial hemorrhages) and brain edema and their outcome for the children. There were 958 or 32% risk children, out of them 206 or 22% were with asphyxia, 25 or 3% were with brain edema and 14 or 1,5% were with intracranial hemorrhages. The analysis for the risk factors shows that 119 of them were abortive , and from them 15% were born with asphyxia; 124 were SFD and 21% of them with asphyxia; 272 children weighed over 4500 gr., 7% of them with asphyxia and 0.4% with I.H., there were 68 twins, 12% of them with asphyxia. Out of the children with no risk registered, 6 were born with I.H., or 0,2%. Mothers under the age of 18 gave birth to 13% children with asphyxia; treated for sterility and anemia during pregnancy 15%; with increased blood pressure 14%; and 5% with maintained pregnancy. The highest delivery risk is present with children born with vacuum extraction (30% or every third child is with asphyxia and 3% with I.H.) and with children delivered by caesarean section (14% with asphyxia). As for the position of the fetus-Citus pedalicus gave 55% children with asphyxia, and Situs pelvicus 12%. The worst damage is suffered by infants with premature amnion disruption (62% are with asphyxia); with the umbilical cord round the neck-56% with asphyxia and 6% with I.H.; and with muddled amniotic fluid and placenta pelvia-50%. The order of risk factors related to asphyxia, I.H. and brain edema is as follows: the first is premature amnion disruption, then follows the umbilical cord round the neck, the muddled amniotic fluid, and placenta previa and Citus pedalicus-which are obstetric problems. The next are the vacuum extraction and S.C. As for the gestatory period the order is as follows: first the abortive, then the twins and hypertrofic infants. The outcome of the early rehabilitation of these children in the first month of their lives at the Advisory Institute for Children's Development is the following: of those with I.H. 25% were with no sequela, 33% were with psychomotor retardation (RPM), 33% with cerebral palsy and 8% with hemiparesis. Of the children with brain edema-50% were with no sequela, 50% with cerebral palsy, or generally, out of the children treated-33% or every third child is without sequela, 39% are with RPM, only 19% with cerebral palsy and 8% with hemiparesis.

Keywords: null

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