Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Euresian Publications
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Biosorption the Possible Alternative to Existing Conventional Technologies for Sequestering Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Streams: A Review

Biosorption the Possible Alternative to Existing Conventional Technologies for Sequestering Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Streams: A Review

Authors: Rajvinder Kaur, Joginder Singh, Rajshree Khare and Amjad Ali
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Transition metal ions in industrial effluent discharge are of great threat to the environment. Several conventional treatment technologies viz., ion exchange, membrane separation, ultra-filtration, ion flotation, electro-coagulation, electrodialysis, sedimentation and reverse osmosis have been employed. However these methods involve high operating cost and produce large volume of toxic chemical sludge. In this context, biosorption process could be helpful and is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include high efficiency, minimization of chemical sludge, low cost in regeneration of biosorbents and possibility of metal recovery. Agricultural waste materials being cellulosic are an excellent source for metal biosorption. They have different functional groups viz. hydroxyl, carboxyl, phenolic, amino, acetamido etc. having affinity for metal ions to form chelates and metal complexes. The mechanism of biosorption process includes chemisorption, complexation, diffusion, ion exchange, micro precipitation and surface adsorption. The aim of this review article is to provide the information on biosorption as a possible alternative to other conventional technologies and to highlight the chemical composition of agricultural waste material along with adsorption models and mechanism for metal biosorption.

Keywords: Biosorption, Possible Alternative, Existing Conventional Technologies
Rainwater harvesting in the Wake of Climate Change: A Case Study from Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh

Rainwater harvesting in the Wake of Climate Change: A Case Study from Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh

Authors: Tanu Singh and L.S. Kandari
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Shimla city depends mainly on surface water, available in the form of springs, streams and piped rivulets to fulfill its water demand. With rapid development of the city along with the ever increasing tourist inflow, there is a change in the trend of urbanization, which is highly water intensive. Earlier, the water supply system was meant to support a small population, but the population has now increased many folds. The city faces water shortage in every summer leading to huge demand and supply gap. The sources of water are located quite far from the city and mainly tapped from five main sources namely, Dhalli catchment area, Cherot Nallah, Chair Nallah, Nauti Khad (Gumma) and Ashwani Khad. In the face of changing climate, rainwater harvesting (RWH) could be seen as a promising solution to deal with the urban water demand. However, in Shimla city, roof top harvesting is the best way to collect rainwater and then storing it into the reservoirs (either overhead or underground) for further use. From the present study it has been observed that, the city is suitable for rainwater harvesting as it has the required potential for it and receives a good amount of rainfall during rainy season (from June-September), which constitutes almost 70% of the total rainfall in the region. Therefore, RWH can be a viable option to preserve water for the scarce period in the city. It is also necessary now, to educate people and make them aware about the potential and benefits of rainwater harvesting in times of acute scarcity.

Keywords: Climate change; Rainwater harvesting; Shimla
Preliminary Phytochemical and Antifungal Screening of Crude Extracts of the Bacpoa Monnieri

Preliminary Phytochemical and Antifungal Screening of Crude Extracts of the Bacpoa Monnieri

Authors: Meghna Udgire and G.R.Pathade
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The antifungal activity of the crude extract of the leaves and whole plant of Bacopa monnieri in total of eight solvents (or their mixtures) were screened against three main fungal pathogens responsible for the skin infections. Zone of Inhibition as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration was recorded for the most potent extract. Methanol extract was found to be the most potent extract for all the pathogens under study The major zone of inhibition was recorded for the methanol extract of whole plant against A. niger as well as M.furfur 16mm and 15mm for C. albicans with the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging from 300mg/ml and 400mg/ml for C. albicans and that for A. niger and M. furfur was recorded as 200mg/ml respectively. The GC MS analysis confirms the presence of the various phytochemicals contributing for the antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of Bacopa monnieri found to be promising against fungal pathogens also reveals the potential usefulness of the B. monnerii plant in the treatment of skin infections.

Keywords: Bacopa monnieri, Antifungal activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
A Study of Sustainable Tourist Centers in Parner Tahsil: A Geographical Analysis

A Study of Sustainable Tourist Centers in Parner Tahsil: A Geographical Analysis

Authors: Vijay N. Suroshi
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries. It is also one of the largest employing labor forces. Tourism industry has major role in development process. Nowadays, India is having greater scope in tourism industry. This study is aimed to introduce exact situation and importance of many wonderful, useful distinctive places in Parner tahsil and emphasized the various geographical and religious aspects of developmental issues of the area. Tourism in the tahsil can be well developed in Parner tahsil with proper planning and well execution. There is huge scope to obtain wind energy in this area which will uplift the economic status of the people. The erosion of Dhokeshwar caves is taking place due to rain, wind, temperature. Special efforts should be taken by state archaeology department to save the cultural heritage of Parner tahsil. Basic infarstrucre like water, roads, fencing and guest house is essential as near about 4 to 5 lacks people visit to the korthan khandoba temple. The study revealed that tourism in Parner tahsil can be well developed with sustainable plan if proper execution is done.

Keywords: Geographical Analysis, Sustainable Development, Tourism, Tourist Centers
Note on Observed Snakes in Satpura Tiger Reserve and Record of Psammophis Longifrons Boulenger, 1896 Madhya Pradesh, India

Note on Observed Snakes in Satpura Tiger Reserve and Record of Psammophis Longifrons Boulenger, 1896 Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Kumbhar Amol, Pradhan Anup, Patwardhan Gaurang, Pande Anant, Lahkar Dipankar
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Scientific literature available on Satpura Tiger Reserve shows that extensive study has been conducted on mammals and birds but there is a lack of information on the herpetofaunal diversity. Fauna of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Editor – director (2008) is the sole published record where eight snakes’ species are reported from study area. In present survey, we have reported two new locality records of Coelagnathus helena monticollaris (Kumbhar et al., 2011) and Psammophis longifrons. Satpura Tiger Reserve (STR), (220 19’ - 220 30’N and 770 56’ - 780 20’E) is a 1427.87 km2 protected area located in the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh state in Central India (Figure a). It comprises of Pachmarhi and Bori Wildlife Sanctuaries and Satpura National Park. It has six ranges Park Pachmarhi, Park Kamti, Pachmarhi, Bori, Game range Matkuli, Game range Bhaura respectively (Kumbhar et al., 2011). The terrain is highly undulating. Forest is mainly dominated by Tactona grandis, Shorea robusta, Bauchania latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Emblica officinalis, Madhuca indica, Rauwolfia serpentina. The forest types consists of Southern moist mixed deciduous forest, Southern dry mixed deciduous forest, Dry peninsulas Sal forest (Champion and Seth, 1968).

Keywords: Observed Snakes, Satpura Tiger Reserve, Record, Psammophis Longifrons
Some Observation on Dray Building and Jumping Behavior of Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa Indica (Erxleben, 1777)

Some Observation on Dray Building and Jumping Behavior of Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa Indica (Erxleben, 1777)

Authors: Amol Kumbhar, Anup Pradhan, Gaurang Patwardhan
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The ability of arboreal forms to leap from great heights without harm is valuable adaptation to life high above the ground surface (Koli et al., 2011). Tree squirrel commonly occupy nests to avoid predators and rear young (Setoguchi, 1991) and prefer upper canopy level of forest as it arboreal nature. In Indian jungles Ratufa indica is a major arboreal mammal species and very few literatures available on its behavioral aspects. Datta (1999) reported day time use of dray and predation attempts on Ratufa indica by crested hawk-eagle. Indian giant squirrel have tendency to build dray in dense forest with closed canopies, sites were along the annual river or area where sufficient moisture in summer (Kanoje, 2008). In present study we reported observation on dray building behavior and jumping success of Indian giant squirrel. Observation were conducted during study of All India Tiger Monitoring Project in Satpura Tiger Reserve (220 19’ - 220 30’N and 770 56’ - 780 20’E) with an area of 1427.87 km2 (Figure 1) in Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh state in Central India (Kumbhar et al., 2011). The terrain is hilly and highly undulating. Forest is mainly dominated by Tactona grandis, Shorea robusta, Bauchania latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Emblica officinalis, Madhuca indica, Rauwolfia surpentina. The forest types consists of Southern moist mixed deciduous forest, Southern dry mixed deciduous forest, Dry peninsulas Sal forest (Champion and Seth, 1968). Field observations were opportunistically conducted while performing other field work project entitled “Monitoring Tigers, Co-predators, Prey and their Habitat” in the study area during intensive study period of October 2010 to February 2011. Dray building behaviour was observed in riparian habitat near Churnagundi Nala surrounded by moist deciduous forest and jumping behaviour was observed in whole tiger reserve on various occasions.

Keywords: Observation, Dray Building, Jumping Behavior
Ecological Impact of Pesticides Principally Organochlorine Insecticide Endosulfan: A Review

Ecological Impact of Pesticides Principally Organochlorine Insecticide Endosulfan: A Review

Authors: Neelambari Vivekanandhan and Annadurai Duraisamy
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The intensive use of pesticides resulted in dispersal and persistence of pollutants throughout the global environment. Bioremediation of pesticides in contaminated soil and water environments has become one of the most sensational issues due to their deleterious effect on public health and environment. In natural habitat, certain microbes are capable of metabolizing those persistent compounds or detoxify them which could be employed for bioremediation. Hence the direct use of such microorganisms capable of degrading xenobiotics is also becoming a popular approach to safeguard the environment. The review summaries the impacts and fate of the pesticides, especially endosulfan in polluted ecosystem.

Keywords: endosulfan, microbial degradation, pesticides
Cotton Dying with Natural Dye Extracted from Flower of Bottlebrush (Callistemon citrinus)

Cotton Dying with Natural Dye Extracted from Flower of Bottlebrush (Callistemon citrinus)

Authors: Baishya D., Talukdar J. and Sandhya S.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

A renewed international interest has arisen in natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis, processing and use of synthetic dyes. The present investigation was carried out to extract natural dye from Callistemon citrinus plant. The dye was extracted by boiling method. A part of the extract was autoclaved. Both the autoclaved and non-autoclaved Callistemon citrinus flower dye was used for dying the scoured cotton cloth using two mordants viz. Copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. Study about fastness tests of dyed clothes was undertaken. The relative colour strength of the dye was determined in terms of K/S value with respect to autoclaved and non-autoclaved extract. Good light fastness, rub fastness and wash fastness was observed in fabrics mordanted with ferrous sulphate. The relative colour strength of the dye was found to be more in case of cotton clothes mordanted with ferrous sulphate.

Keywords: Natural dye, Callistemon citrinus, Mordants, Fastness
Evaluation of Bivoltine Silkworm Breeds of Bombyx mori L. under West Bengal Conditions

Evaluation of Bivoltine Silkworm Breeds of Bombyx mori L. under West Bengal Conditions

Authors: Suresh Kumar N., Lakshmi H., Saha A.K., Bindroo B. B. and Longkumer N.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The Indian sericulture industry is beset with many problems. One of the main problems is the inability to produce quality silk of international grade. The quality silk can be produced only form bivoltines. The bulk of silk produced in India is from Multivoltines which are of inferior quality. Therefore, it is highly pertinent to have more productive bivoltine silkworm breeds capable of producing quality silk. However, the hot climatic conditions of India is not conducive to rear productive bivoltines. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop bivoltine breeds which can yield stable crops under the adverse climatic conditions. Accordingly, efforts should be focussed by the silkworm breeders to develop bivoltine breeds with genetic plasticity to buffer against the adverse climatic conditions. The main constraint of the tropical environment is the high temperature coupled with high and low humidity. It is a well established fact that the bivoltines are highly vulnerable to high temperature coupled with high and low humidity especially in the late instars. The hot climatic conditions of tropics prevailing particularly in summer are contributing to the poor performance of the bivoltine breeds and the most important aspect is that many quantitative characters such as viability and cocoon traits decline sharply when temperature is high. Therefore, it is highly pertinent to identify more number of bivotine breeds which can withstand adverse climatic conditions. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to evaluate and identify suitable bivoltine breeds under West Bengal conditions of India.

Keywords: Bombyx mori L, bivoltine, evaluation, climatic conditions
Characterisation of Metals in Water and Sediments of Subarnarekha River along the Projects’ Sites in Lower Basin, India

Characterisation of Metals in Water and Sediments of Subarnarekha River along the Projects’ Sites in Lower Basin, India

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Balwant Kumar and Pratap Kumar Padhy
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The Subarnarekha River is one of the most important east flowing rivers of India. The river in West Bengal and Odisha is site for the Subarnarekha Barrage Project and Kirtania port respectively. The major objectives of the present study were to investigate the pre-projects level of heavy metals in water and sediments of the Subarnarekha River along the projects’ sites. Water and Surface sediments collected from six locations were analysed for Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn and Cr with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Contamination factor, Contamination degree, Pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to assess the degree of accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments. The important findings of the study are: (1) Ficklin plot classified all water samples into near neutral low metal class; (2) A close relationship was obtained between organic carbon and metal content in river bed sediments; (3) All sampling sites displayed PLI values ≥ 0 but < 1; (4) Igeo values for metals at the sampling sites were ≤ 0. The results indicated river water and bed sediments to be unpolluted and ecologically suitable and sustainable. Absence of major anthropogenic influence in the region was primarily found to be responsible for the unpolluted nature of water and sediments. This study can be used as reference to monitor the status of quality of water and sediments during ongoing projects and post-projects scenario.

Keywords: Box and whisker plot, Contamination factor, Ficklin plot, Geo-accumulation index, Heavy Metals, Pollution load index, Sediment contamination
Assessment of the Adsorption Capacities of Fired Clay Soils From Jimma (Ethiopia) For the Removal of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solution

Assessment of the Adsorption Capacities of Fired Clay Soils From Jimma (Ethiopia) For the Removal of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Dessalew D. Alemayehu, Sanjeev K. Singh and Dejene A. Tessema
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The abilities of three thermally treated clay soils, S1, S2 and S3, which differed in textural compositions, to remove Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions were evaluated. Removal efficiencies of the clays were found to be influenced by textural composition, pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, shaking time and adsorbent dose. An increase in the clay content of a clay-based soil by 1 % was found to result in an increase of about 0.5% in Cr(VI) removal. The adsorption of Cr(VI) by the clay-based soils was highest at pH 1 and 2 and, decreased above pH 2. For the lower initial concentrations (5 – 50 mg/L) of Cr(VI), adsorption was observed to increase sharply. A slower increase was observed up to about 75 mg/L and adsorption density remain nearly constant above 75 mg/L. The Cr(VI) adsorption process was better represented by the Langmuir model than by the Freundlich, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging 0.97 to 0.99. The adsorption capacities (qm) of S3, S2 and S1 calculated by using the Langmuir model were 8.77 mg/g, 4.81 mg/g, and 4.74 mg/g, respectively. The kinetics of Cr(VI) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model as determined by the stronger correlation (r2 ranging from 0.971 to 0.992) and higher agreement between qe and qexp.

Keywords: adsorption; clay soils; texture; adsorption kinetics; adsorption isotherm
Investigation on Ecological Parameters of Dyeing Organic Cotton Knitted Fabrics

Investigation on Ecological Parameters of Dyeing Organic Cotton Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Murugesh Babu K, Selvadass M
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluent obtained from dyeing of scoured and mercerised organic cotton single jersey fabrics with textile reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The dyes used include regular (Navacron H and FN) reactive dyes and low impact (Remazol and Levafix) reactive dyes along with inorganic salt (sodium sulphate) and biosalt (trisodium citrate). The ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total dossolved solids (TDS). The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent considerably. Further, the use of the biosalt in the dye bath as replacement for the inorganic salt reduces the COD and TDS value significantly but will also increase the BOD of the effluent.

Keywords: Organic cotton, Knitted fabrics, Textile dyes, Dyeing, Ecological aspects
Potential of Ricinus Communis L. and Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. under natural and induced Pb Phytoextraction

Potential of Ricinus Communis L. and Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. under natural and induced Pb Phytoextraction

Authors: T.A. Siva Ananthi, R.S. Meerabai and R. Krishnasamy
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Put “metal into the petal” of plants which literally means bioavailability and translocation of the heavy metal to the plants is an important factor in phytoextraction. A green house experiments was conducted to study potential of Ricinus communis and Brassica juncea in metal accumulation at different concentration of Pb and also the effect of the application of two different chelators i.e., EDTA and Citric acid, on the Pb phytoextraction was studied in an artificially contaminated soil. Ricinus communis and Brassica juncea accumulated high concentrations of Pb in its shoots but the biomass, root and shoot length of Brassica juncea was highly affected due to increased Pb accumulation. Ricinus communis showed high tolerance to Pb since the biomass, root and shoot length of the plant was not affected. Chelators had a potential role in enhancing Pb content in both the plants. The results analysed for metal extraction using chelates revealed that EDTA treated pots increased Pb concentration in Ricinus communis and Brassica juncea compared to citric acid treated pots and untreated pots (control). Both the plants showed high phytoextraction levels but the growth of Brassica juncea was impaired at high levels of Pb and can be used in marginally polluted soils.

Keywords: Chelators, Citric acid, EDTA, High biomass plants, Pb uptake, Phytoextraction
The pilot study of COD Removal in Industrial complex effluent by wetland plants Cyperus rotundus Linn.

The pilot study of COD Removal in Industrial complex effluent by wetland plants Cyperus rotundus Linn.

Authors: Satish S. Patel, Vediya S.D, Chavda Gajendra, Parmar Divyaraj and Rathod Nilesh
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Present study was carried out to determine the high COD of GIDC (Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation) areas. One of the burning problems of Industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle wastewater into high quality water. In this study, an attempt was made to compare the efficiency of grass lend plants like Cyperus rotundus Linn. To treat the effluents from GIDC Common treatment plant (NEPL-Naroda Enviro Projects Ltd.) in constructed wetlands DF system beds. The chemical oxygen demand of Complex effluent was reduced significantly after treatment. The Cyperus Rotundus. based treatment system was the most efficient in removing the pollutants from the effluent. So in conclusion, Cyperus species were more efficient than the constructed wetland technology.

Keywords: COD, GIDC, Cyperus, effluents
Evaluation of the Reproductive Potential of Bivoltine Silkworm Hybrids of Bombyx Mori L under High Temperature and High Humidity and High Temperature and Low Humidity Conditions of the Tropics

Evaluation of the Reproductive Potential of Bivoltine Silkworm Hybrids of Bombyx Mori L under High Temperature and High Humidity and High Temperature and Low Humidity Conditions of the Tropics

Authors: N. Suresh Kumar and Harjeet Singh
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The challenging task of breeders is to develop silkworm breeds which can produce eggs under prevailing conditions of temperature and humidity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive potential of single and double hybrids under high temperature and high humidity as well as high temperature and low humidity conditions of the tropics. The moth emergence percentage, laying recovery percentage, egg recovery/kg cocoon, number of eggs/gram and percentage of unfertilized eggs were calculated and compared among single and double hybrids.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, reproductive potential, single hybrid, double hybrid, foundation cross

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