Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Euresian Publications
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Groundwater fluctuation in the Pondhra Watershed Basin of Karmala Tahsil, Solapur (MS)

Groundwater fluctuation in the Pondhra Watershed Basin of Karmala Tahsil, Solapur (MS)

Authors: Pandurang Patil and Praveen G. Saptarshi
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Depletion of groundwater has become a problem in the rural sector. It has bearing on converging the source by technological intervention which has led to deprivation of poor section of the society. The present study has attempted to understand the causes and effect of well water depletion by selecting a small watershed viz. Pondhra basin in the Karmala tahsil of Solpur District, Maharashtra. The paper concludes that the fluctuation of well water is maximum near the water divide and hence there is need for the watershed development programmes in the basin. The average fluctuation in the basin is found to be 4.53 m. The water level fluctuation is highest in the village Morwad i.e 5.68 and lowest in the village Vit and Undergaon i.e 2 m. The average rainfall in the basin is 567 mm with high spatial variation (Standard Deviation 28.66 mm).The study further concludes that such programmes should be planned taking into account the site factors.

Keywords: Groundwater fluctuation, watershed management, well water depletion
New Locality Record of Brown Vine Snake Ahaetulla pulverulenta in Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

New Locality Record of Brown Vine Snake Ahaetulla pulverulenta in Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Bubesh Guptha M, Chalapathi Rao P V, Sivaram Prasad N V. and Madhu Babu P
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Brown vine snake Ahaetulla pulverulenta is a very uncommon species which was known to occur in India along the Western Ghats from Gujarat to Kerala, Tamil Nadu in Alagarkoil Hills and Sundarbans. Totally 42 field days were spent to rapidly assess the Herpetofauna during August 2011 to June 2012 with the objective to determine the present distribution and presence of the herpetofauna species. Data collection will be carried out by using Visual Encounter Survey Method. We report sighting Brown vine snake Ahaetulla pulverulenta in Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh on 9th June 2012 arround 1130 hrs during our field survey. . We found the snake near the Cottage (ANC 437) close to Tirumala temple. With the addition of Brown vine snake Ahaetulla pulverulenta, the number reaches 42. Also everyone should realise that the protection of habitat is an important aspect in conservation of such species.

Keywords: New Locality Record, Ahaetulla pulverulenta, Seshachalam Hills, Andhra Pradesh
Ultrasound Assisted Oxidation Process for the Removal of Aromatic Contamination from Effluents: A Review

Ultrasound Assisted Oxidation Process for the Removal of Aromatic Contamination from Effluents: A Review

Authors: Upadhyay, K. and Khandate G.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Chemicals are the building blocks for products that meet our most fundamental needs for food, shelter, and health. The chemical industries discharge contaminated waste water that requires appropriate treatment before safe discharge in the environment. Effluent is toxic in nature, due to Presence of aromatic compounds (like benzene, toluene, and xylene). The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of ultrasound technique that has a broad range of industrial applications and its potential for water and waste water treatment. The efficiency of the usual cleaning process to heat carbonaceous compounds (biological or physical / chemical treatment) is limited. In such circumstances, ultrasound seems to be a promising technology for waste water treatment. The heat from the cavity implosion decomposes water in to extremely reactive hydrogen atoms (H•) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•). Thus in such a molecular environment organic compounds and inorganic compounds are oxidized or reduced depending on their reactivity. This method is highlighted while some of the future challenges like decreasing the cost of operation are considered. Feasibility of ultrasound technique is being evaluated.

Keywords: Aromatic Compounds, Effluent, H2O2, Oxidize, Phase transfer catalyst, Ultrasound
Reforming China’s Water Law through Reforms of the Division of Administrative Functions and Delegation of Ministry Powers and Tasks

Reforming China’s Water Law through Reforms of the Division of Administrative Functions and Delegation of Ministry Powers and Tasks

Authors: Larissa I Paschyn
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Statutory and case law at the provincial and local level provides critical legal frameworks for water management in China. As many provincial and local governments struggle to improve efficiency in water management and resolve conflicts over water usage, they must continually assess the efficacy of their national and local water laws and regulating bodies. China’s water laws have undergone reforms but are still disconnected and overlapping. This paper assesses China’s state water law. It takes first steps toward a comprehensive state water resources act by setting out an analytical framework for a reform process. The methodology of the paper focuses on issues and conflicts in water management at the state, and local level. It amalgamates management and legal analyses that incorporate the diverse perspectives of state water stakeholders. The results are identification of management issues, profiles of provincial water laws and regulating bodies, and explorations of legal reforms that are available to the national government.

Keywords: ALL, MEP, MWR, RBO, SEPA, Water Law, WCCP
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Cameroon’s Road Transport Sector

Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Cameroon’s Road Transport Sector

Authors: Jean Gaston Tamba, Donatien Njomo, Jean Luc Nsouandele, Beguide Bonoma, Sakaros Bogning Dongue
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The increase in the number of vehicles has resulted in a continuous growth in the consumption of fuel in Cameroon; and has contributed to the increase of Cameroon’s GHG emissions. GHG emissions inventory from the road transport sector during the period 1995-2008 reported in this paper was conducted following the recommendations of the UNFCCC. The study also includes the indicators that are the major contributors to Cameroon’s GHG emissions. The direct GHG emissions are calculated on a bottom-up Tier 2 methodology described by the IPCC guidelines and Kaya’s approach, except for CH4 and N2O, CO2 emission factors which are specific to Cameroon. Assessment results show that GHG emissions have increased by 50.50% during the period 1995-2008. Cameroon’s road transport sector emits into the atmosphere an average of 1421.4 kilotons of CO2 equivalent per year, 852.5 (59.98%) and 568.9 (40.02%) kilotons of CO2 equivalent per year for gasoline and diesel vehicles respectively. CO2 emissions in the road transport sector represent 34.33% of the total CO2 emissions in Cameroon due to the energy sector. The results suggest future policy implementation to support sustainable alternative fuel and equally the deployment of low-carbon technology for vehicles, rejuvenation of Cameroon's vehicle fleet, improve road traffic and encourage public transport.

Keywords: Assessment, Cameroon, Fuel consumption, GHG emissions, Road transport
Remediation of trace metal Contaminated Auto-mechanic soils with Mineral Supplementedorganic Amendments

Remediation of trace metal Contaminated Auto-mechanic soils with Mineral Supplementedorganic Amendments

Authors: Chris. O Nwoko, Chidinma Peter-Onoh and Grace O Onoh
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Trace metal contamination of soil and surface waters arising from increased emissions from industries,traffic, auto-mechanic activities and agriculture raise concern on human health and environmental quality. The aim of this study was to find practical and cost-effective measures to reduce metal uptake in crops grown on metal contaminated soils. A laboratory batch experiment using 6 potential mineral–organic amendment combinations in the ratio 1: 2, (a)composted Farm yard manure (cFYM) + Gravel sludge ( GrS), (b) Vemicompost ( VC) + GrS, (c) composted sewage sludge (cSS)+ GrS , ( d) Red mud (RM)+ cFYM), (e) RM + VC, (f) cSS+ RM, were used to treat trace metal contaminated soil in a completely randomized pot experiment using Amaranthus viridis as a test crop. Result showed that all the amendment combinations had varied potential to reduce metal uptake by Amaranthus viridis when compared to control. There was appreciable reduction in metal leachability across all the amendments: Cd (<51%), Cu (<67%), Zn (<34%) and Pb (<69%) on the average when compared to controls, with a concurrent reduction of uptake into Amaranthus viridis root and shoot tissues (Cd < 62%, Pb < 68%, Cu< 66% and Zn 56%) on the average. Dry matter yield in the amendments is in the order cFYM + GrS> cFYM +RM> cSS+GrS>cSS+RM>Control>VC+RM >VC+GrS.Acid extractable (DTPA) fractions of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were reduced by up to 76%, 79%, 65% and 49%, respectively in amended soils. Investigations on long term effects of metal mobility is recommended.

Keywords: Amendment, bioavailability, metal-mobility, remediation and trace-metal
Geographical Attributes Analysis for Egyptian Hypericum Sinaicum

Geographical Attributes Analysis for Egyptian Hypericum Sinaicum

Authors: O. Khafagia And K. Omarb
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

A study was carried out on a wild herb Hypericum sinaicum (Family: Hypericaceae) in Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt to increase the understanding about some applications of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in analysis, management and making suitable decisions in plant conservation strategies. Also to detect the effect of environmental factors (Topography) on the distribution of Hypericum sinaicum as well as geographical attributes. The results showed that it was found that H. sinaicum has a narrow range of distribution between 1515 and 2036 m. It was shown that the highest presence for H. sinaicum was in elevation between 1800-2000m (42.7%) and the lowest presence detected was at elevation between 1400- 1600m (0.8%). Extracted data came from 3d analysis by GIS found that H. sinaicum communities strongly affected by aspect and this shiny appears in the species distribution within special aspects. H. sinaicum was recorded at North East (44%), North (15.5%), East (15.5%), North West (13.8%), West (7.7%), South (1.7%), South East (0.8%) and Flat (0.8%), there was no records for the plant at the South West aspect. The slope degree of the populated sites was very high, as the species was found in slope aspect between 89.98 and 90 degree. Results showed that topography (elevation, aspect and slope) influences on physical and chemical properties of soil, plant morphology and plant community structure.

Keywords: Altitudinal gradient, geographical distribution, Hypericum sinaicum, mountain biodiversity, plant dynamics, Saint Katherine Protectorate
Ecological Niche Modeling As a Tool for Conservation Planning: Suitable Habitat for Hypericum sinaicum in South Sinai, Egypt

Ecological Niche Modeling As a Tool for Conservation Planning: Suitable Habitat for Hypericum sinaicum in South Sinai, Egypt

Authors: O. Khafagia , E.E. Hatabb, K.Omarc
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Prediction and mapping of potential suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species is critical for monitoring and restoration of their declining native populations in their natural habitat, artificial introductions, or selecting conservation sites, and conservation and management of their native habitat. We used technique called maximum entropy distribution modeling or Maxent for predicting potential suitable habitat for Hypericum sinaicum, a threatened and endangered species in Saint Katherine Protectorate (SKP), South Sinai, Egypt, using small number of occurrence records. Our objectives were to: (1) predict suitable habitat distribution for threatened herb H. sinaicum using a small number of occurrence records to inform conservation planning in Saint Katherine Protectorate; and (2) identify the environmental factors associated with H. sinaicum habitat distribution. Results showed that the environmental variable with highest gain when used in isolation is bio9 (Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter). The approach presented here appears to be quite promising in predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species with small sample records and can be an effective tool for biodiversity conservation planning, monitoring and management.

Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; Ecological Niche Modeling; geographical distribution; Hypericum sinaicum; Maxent, Saint Katherine Protectorate; suitable habitat
Plant Metabolites Responses to Spatial Variation in South Sinai, Egypt

Plant Metabolites Responses to Spatial Variation in South Sinai, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud R. Sofy and Ahmed A. Mohamed
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the variation in Plant metabolites adaptive responses which is due to the spatial variation (altitude).In this investigation, samples of two plant species, Fagonia mollis and Zilla spinosa was collected during two seasons, from three locations at different elevation in, south Sinai, Egypt. Evaluation of present methods used for analyzing the major biochemical contents (Soluble Carbohydrate, Water Soluble protein, Proline, Phenol and Photosynthetic Pigments). Results were statistically analyzed by using Oneway ANOVA and Post hoc-LSD tests (the least significant difference). Prominent variation was recorded as regards the biochemical constituents of the plants among the different wadis in all stages of growth .It is evident from this study that different biochemical attributes varied significantly during different seasons. It was found that spatial variation play a great role in the variation of these contents resulting from variation in altitudinal and latitudinal variation that lead to variation in climatic conditions and consequently make changes in all ecosystem components.

Keywords: Eco physiology, Plant metabolites, Seasonal variation, South Sinai, Spatial variation
Evaluation the Correlation between Different Traits and Plant Performance in the Spring Safflower Varieties

Evaluation the Correlation between Different Traits and Plant Performance in the Spring Safflower Varieties

Authors: Younes Rameshknia, Tahmasebpoor Behnam and Elnaz Sabbagh Tazeh
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) is a native of Iran oil seed. This crop is compatible with the environmental conditions in the country as well; this is especially true in areas exposed to non-biological stresses such as drought and salinity. The study of abiotic stress in plants has advanced considerably in recent years. However, the majority of studies testing the response of plants to changes in environmental conditions have focused on a single stress treatment applied to plants under controlled conditions. In contrast, in the field, a number of different stresses can occur simultaneously. These may include conditions such as drought, extreme temperature or high salinity and may alter plant metabolism in a novel manner that may be different from that caused by each of the different stresses applied individually1,2. Drought and heat shock represent an excellent example of two different stresses that occur in the field simultaneously, especially in semi-arid or drought-stricken areas1-4. Although drought stress and heat shock have been extensively studied5-7, relatively little is known about how their combination impact plants. We identified sucrose accumulation as a possible defense mechanism of plants against this stress combination. Our long-term objective is to develop different plants and crops with enhanced tolerance to a combination of drought stress and heat shock. A combination of drought stress and heat shock is common to many semi-arid or drought-stricken regions of Nevada. Developing plants and crops with enhanced tolerance to this stress combination will contribute significantly to Nevada agriculture and economy and directly address one of the major NAES research priorities. The results of causality analysis for correlation coefficients between the grain yields with the regression model traits showed that either three moisture regimes, the grain yield per bush is most influenced by the number of grain per boll and the number of boll per bush. But these direct effects are reduced by their negative and indirect effects. The 1000 grain weight has positive and relatively high effects on grain yield per bush in both stress and stress free environments, but because of important indirect and negative affection by the number of boll per bush, the number of grain per boll and the days to %100 flowering, it showed positive and relatively low correlation with the grain yield per bush. In general, the results indicate that the number of grain per boll and the number of boll per bush can be used as two appropriate selection indexes in safflower breeding programs in order to improved grain yield. Meanwhile it seems that the varieties with more 1000 grain weight produce more grain yield in both conditions.

Keywords: causality analysis, correlation, safflower
Heavy Metal Contamination in Ranthambore National Park: Feces as Bioindicators

Heavy Metal Contamination in Ranthambore National Park: Feces as Bioindicators

Authors: Gupta Varsha and Bakre Prakash
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Anthropogenic activities near or within the wildlife habitats are threatening the wildlife with exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants. The wildlife horboured in these reserves are at risk of getting expose to automobile exhaust, industrial gases and suspended particulate matters. The world famous Tiger reserve, Ranthambore National Park, Sawaimadhopur, Rajasthan (India) was selected for study. Restrictions on the sampling because of wildlife Protection Act (1972) prevents taking of samples of living tissues to analyse levels of contaminants that wildlife may be carrying and in determining the critical levels that may be detrimental for their survival, well-being and reproduction. Feces of wild mammals one as noninvasive, nondestructive bioindicator of assessing environmental contamination. Feces of wild mammals, vegetation, soil and water of Ranthambore National Park, Sawaimadhopur, Rajasthan showed good concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn).

Keywords: Bio-indicator, Feces, Heavy metal, Pollution, Ranthambore National Park, Wild mammals
Microbial Sulfur Oxidation Effect on Micronutrients Availability of Municipal Compost for Wheat Plant

Microbial Sulfur Oxidation Effect on Micronutrients Availability of Municipal Compost for Wheat Plant

Authors: E. Sabbagh Tazeh, N. Aliasgharzadeh, Y. Rameshknia, S. Naji Rad and B.Tahmasebpoor
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Dual application of municipal compost and elemental sulfur may reduce soil pH and increase phosphorous and some micronutrients availability in soil. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of supplemented compost with sulfur on phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper availability in soil. A factorial completely randomized design with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. CV. Alvand) was established in the greenhouse, having two main factors including compost and elemental sulfur with four replicates. The compost treatments were consisted of 0, 50 and 100 ton/ha denoted as Co, Cl and C2, respectively. The elemental sulfur including 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 kg/ha applications represented as So, Sl, S2 and S3, respectively. loamy sand soil samples collected from the depth of 0-30 cm, powdered compost and powdered sulfur were air dried and passed through the 4-mm, 1-mm and 100µm sieves respectively. Compost and sulfur contents were mixed with soil filled in plastic pots.Wheat seeds were sown in pots and after 75 days of the growth period crops were harvested and P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in crop extracts were measured by atomic absorption system of Perkin-Elmer 3110 model. The results indicated that the shoot and root growth as well as nutrients uptake are increased by increasing compost content. However, in most cases there was no significant difference between C1 and C2. The increasing of sulfur content up to 1000Kg/ha, caused a significant increase in wheat root and shoot growth as well as nutrient uptake. But they were reduced by increasing sulfur level from S2 to S3. It can be concluded that application of 50 ton/ha compost and 1000 kg/ha of elemental sulfur can improve wheat growth and nutrients uptake from municipal compost.

Keywords: Microbial sulfur oxidation, Municipal compost, Micronutrients, Phosphorus, Wheat
Impact of Dyeing Industry Effluent on Soil and Crop

Impact of Dyeing Industry Effluent on Soil and Crop

Authors: Y. N. Jolly, A. Islam and A.I. Mustafab
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The effect of dyeing industry effluent on agricultural soil, growth pattern and yield of wheat (Triticum vulgare) crop were investigated. The study involved cultivation of wheat on the tub soil through irrigation with the effluent collected from Bangladesh Dyeing and Finishing Industry ltd., Savar. Both treated and untreated effluent was analyzed and utilize in irrigation for crop cultivation. By studying various physico chemical properties and heavy metal and in terms of SAR and SSP value it was found that the treated effluent from the dyeing industry was suitable for irrigation. On irrigation of soil with the treated effluent an increase in water soluble salts, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron contents of the soil for effluent concentration of 2.5 to 5% were observed but all these parameters were found to decrease when the soil is irrigated with the effluent, concentration from 10% and above. Plant height, leaf area, seed dry weight, root dry weight, number of seeds obtained from the wheat plant, protein and carbohydrate content in wheat seeds obtained from the plant irrigated with 2.5, 5% treated effluent also showed an increasing trend and decreased from 10% and above. In case of untreated effluent no sequential order was observed for the above mentioned parameters and showed a lower data value than the treated effluent. However the rate of seed germination decreased in both the cases (treated and untreated effluent) than the control but treated effluent showed a better result than the untreated effluent.

Keywords: Agricultural soil, Dyeing industry, Effluent, SAR, SSP
Phytoplankton, Primary Productivity and Certain Physico-Chemical Parameters of Goverdhan Sagar Lake of Udaipur, Rajasthan

Phytoplankton, Primary Productivity and Certain Physico-Chemical Parameters of Goverdhan Sagar Lake of Udaipur, Rajasthan

Authors: Varun Mishra, S.K.Sharma, B.K.Sharma, B. Upadhyay and S. Choubey
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The current research work was conducted to find out the fish production potential of Goverdhan Sagar, a medium class water body of Udaipur in southern Rajasthan. Goverdhan Sagar is a shallow lake with a maximum depth of 7.62 meters and a shoreline of 3888.8 meters with relatively fringed margins and an area of 30.81 ha. Attempt has been made to assess the current water quality status of Goverdhan Sagar and to establish its relation with phytoplankton and primary productivity to suggest proper management practice for getting the optimum fish production. Physico-chemical parameters of Goverdhan Sagar were found to be congenial for productivity throughout the study period. The average water quality parameters of the lake during the study period were: air temperature-30.75 ºC, water temperature-28.57ºC, depth of visibility-96.23 cm., pH-7.18, EC- 381.8 µS cm-1, dissolved oxygen-5.56 mg l-1, free CO2-6.56 mg l-1, carbonates-35.41 mg l-1 , bicarbonates-137.44 mg l-1, total alkalinity-185.73 mg l-1 , orthophosphates-0.13 mg l-1 , nitrate-nitrogen-0.46 mg l-1 , GPP-0.42 g C m3 h-1 , NPP-0.26 g C m3 h-1 , CR-0.17 g C m3 h-1. The Average phytoplankton count in Goverdhan Sagar was 36.71 Nos/ml distributed in 29 genera showed the order of dominance – Chlorophyceae > Bacillariophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Desmidiaceae. For effective channelization of the energy stocking of suitable fish species is also suggested.

Keywords: Fish production, Phytoplankton, Primary productivity and Water quality
Assessment of Agro-Industrial Wastes Proximate, Ultimate, SEM and FTIR analysis for Feasibility of Solid Bio-Fuel Production

Assessment of Agro-Industrial Wastes Proximate, Ultimate, SEM and FTIR analysis for Feasibility of Solid Bio-Fuel Production

Authors: Santhebennur Jayappa Veeresh and Jogttappa Narayana
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Disposal of biomass wastes, produced in different agro-industrial activities, is normally an environmental problem. A key for such condition is the utilization of these residues for the production of energetic solid bio-fuel by increasing their proximate and ultimate properties of biomass. The aim of the present study agro-industrial wastes like press dug, saw mill dust, ground nut husk, jatropa seed cake, castor seed cake and tamarind fruit shell were analyzed for the feasibility for production of bio-briquettes. Agro-industrial wastes moisture content, bulk density, particle density, ash content, fixed carbon, calorific value, SEM and FTRI analysis were done by using standard procedures. The results concluded that combination of raw materials used during the production of bio-briquettes will give better mechanical and combustion properties than single raw material used. The final disposal of biomass wastes from agricultural activities is usually an environmental problem. Hence these agro-wastes utilized for production of briquettes turn out to be an environmental friendly fuel that is relatively simple to use and reduces environmental pollution.

Keywords: biomass, briquette, combustion, renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, sludge

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