Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Water Level Fluctuation in the Narangi Watershed of Vaijapur Tahsil, District Aurangabad, INDIA

Water Level Fluctuation in the Narangi Watershed of Vaijapur Tahsil, District Aurangabad, INDIA

Authors: Aher K. R. and Kathane P. V.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Declining water level trends and yields of wells and drying up of shallow wells are common in many parts of India. The present study has attempted to understand the behavior of water level fluctuation by selecting a small watershed viz. Narangi watershed in the Vaijapur tahsil of Aurangabad District, Maharashtra. The average pre- monsoon groundwater level in the Narangi watershed is 9.30 mbgl to 18.80 mbgl and the average postmonsoon groundwater level ranging from 4.90 mbgl to 18.20 mbgl. The average rainfall in the area is 517.45 mm with high spatial variation. Rainfall from the basin directly converts to overland flow due to lack of tree cover, water harvesting structures and flows out of the basin. For the effective water conservation plans in the Narangi watershed area, the water conservation treatment structures like gully plugs, continuous contour trenches (CCT), earthen check dams, percolation tanks are recommended. The implementations of such structures will definitely help to combat over the scarcity situation in the area.

Keywords: Pre and post-monsoon water level, Water level fluctuation, Narangi watershed
Implementation Challenges of Ghana's Forest Policy: A Case of Wassa Amenfi West and East Districts

Implementation Challenges of Ghana's Forest Policy: A Case of Wassa Amenfi West and East Districts

Authors: Henry Mensah, Martha Ofori-Kuragu and Alex Moyen Kombat
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

There is an increasing global concern in relation to problems attributed to continuous tree felling that ultimately culminates in the degradation of forests. Forest institutions in two districts namely, Wassa Amenfi West and East Districts where deforestation is widespread were selected for this study. Interviews with key stakeholders together with a desk study which focused on the review of policy documents served as the basis for examining the challenges facing the proper implementation of forest and wildlife policy in the districts, the relationship between the Forest Division Service (FSD) and stakeholders as well as hindrances responsible for the nonattainment of targets for forest institutions in Ghana. Corruption which has been studied extensively in relation to forest management as one of the key challenges of forest policy implementation had no impact on the present study but rather commitment in enforcing laws, regulations and legislation in forest institutions in Ghana. Corruption is however one key variable which could have dire consequences on forest management in Ghana if not nipped in the bud by managers of Ghana's forest.

Keywords: Deforestation, Forest Governance, Wassa Amenfi East, Wassa Amenfi West, Forest Policy
Estimation of Barium Toxicity Mitigating Efficacy of Amaranthus caudatus L.

Estimation of Barium Toxicity Mitigating Efficacy of Amaranthus caudatus L.

Authors: Marisamy Kalingan, Duraipandian Muthaiah, Sevugaperumal Rajagopal, Ramasubramanian Venkatachalam
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Barium commonly used in the fireworks – cottage industry of this area is the predominant pollutant on growth, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics of Amaranthus caudatus L. a widely cultivated crop. This study is aimed at assessing the efficacy of Amaranthus caudatus L.in the absorption of barium. The seedlings of Amanranthus caudatusL. were treated with various concentration of barium (2mM, 4mM, 6mM, 8mM, 10mM) and its effect on the morphometric, biochemical and enzymatic characters were studied. After ten days of treatment the growth parameters such as leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, shoot and root length were found decreased than in the control. Biochemical characteristics such as the content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble sugar and protein also decreased with the increase in the concentration of barium. In contrary, the free amino acid, proline, and leaf nitrate increased and the activities of enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase were also found to be increased with the increase in the concentration of barium while the activity of nitrate reductase was found decreased. The result suggest that comparison of the parameters analyzed between the treated and control reveals that barium has seriously affected the Amaranthus caudatus L. but at the same time the plant adopts mechanisms such as accumulation of anthocyanin and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes to overcome the ill effects of the metal ions. Thus this study is unique in the sense that, this plant Amaranthus caudatus L. having been found to be huperaccumulative of metals can be Co-cultivate along with plants susceptible to metal toxicity to overcome the problem of metal toxicity to plants.

Keywords: Amaranthus caudatus, Barium, Catalase, Free amino acid, Peroxidase, Proline
Estimation of Chlorophyll Content in Young and Adult Leaves of Some Selected Plants

Estimation of Chlorophyll Content in Young and Adult Leaves of Some Selected Plants

Authors: Pramod N. Kamble, Sanjay P. Giri, Ranjeet S. Mane and Anupreet Tiwana
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

In the present study chlorophyll a (Chl. a) and b (Chl. b) content of ten different plants have been recorded. The qualitative difference of chlorophyll a (Chl.a) and b (Chl.b) content between young and adult leaves were observed. A total of ten plant species were selected namely Mango (Magnifera indica), Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosasinensis), Gavua (Psidium guajava), Almond (Prunus dulcis), Bryophyllum (Bryophyllum pinnatum), Sapodilla (Manikara zapota), Neem (Azadiracta indica), Ashoka (Polyalthia longifolia), Ficus (Ficus benjamina) and Datura (Datura metal) and were used for analysis of chlorophyll content. In all the cases the adult leaves showed higher chlorophyll content in comparison to young leaves. This has been proved that the age of leaves was an important factor for chlorophyll content.

Keywords: Young and Adult leaves, Plant material, Chlorophyll a and b
EVAPORATION ESTIMATES IN FRONT OF HURGHADA CITY BY USING PENMAN-MONTEITH EQUATION, RED SEA, EGYPT

EVAPORATION ESTIMATES IN FRONT OF HURGHADA CITY BY USING PENMAN-MONTEITH EQUATION, RED SEA, EGYPT

Authors: M. I. El-Saman
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Evaporation occurs simultaneously and this process depends on solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. There is no any device for accurate direct measurement of evaporation from the sea surface, so many equations are used to estimate it from meteorological conditions. By using the PenmanMonteith equations, the daily evaporation rate of coastal water in front of Hurghada was estimated for four years (1999-2002). The result leading to the highest net evaporation occurred during the summers (June and July) and the lowest were in winters (January and December). The rates were fluctuating between 7.81-9.80 mm/day and net deposition occurred in winter months (January and November) and April, averaged between 2.48-5.05 mm/day. There is a direct proportion between net evaporation and air temperature and inversely proportional to the relative humidity. It is clear that the wind speed has affected on the evaporation rate. These consequences were similar to and conforms to previous researches, thereby the Penman-Monteith equations is desirable to estimate the evaporation rate of Hurghada coast.

Keywords: Evaporation Rate, Hurghada, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed, Sun Radiation, Penman-Monteith Equation
Assessment of Aquifer Parameters under Pravara Canal Precinct Using Pumping and Recovery Test Data

Assessment of Aquifer Parameters under Pravara Canal Precinct Using Pumping and Recovery Test Data

Authors: Natraj V. M. and Deeksha Katyal
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Aquifer characteristics influence the movement of groundwater and contaminants along with it. Formations comprising of top overburden soil crest, gravel, and weathered rock leading to fissured rock, functioning as flow media are found in the study region. Seepage from agricultural lands and Pravara canal is the chief source of recharge to groundwater and movement of contaminants. The capacity to hold, transmit, water and dissolved solution is measured in terms of Transmissivity, Storativity, and permeability of the formation. Pumping& Recovery tests are carried out on four open shallow wells in the study region. In the absence of data on long duration pumping test with regulated discharge, recovery test data is used to arrive at the aquifer parameters; Transmissivity, Storativity, permeability, radius of influence using modified formula. The average value of Transmissivity, Permeability for well 1&2represent medium to good inflow with radius of influence of 114m&121.75m respectively, while that for well 3 indicate medium to low inflow with radius of influence of 60.52m.The average value for well 4 indicate low inflow with radius of influence of 63.92m.

Keywords: Geological formation, aquifer, weathered, fissured rock, tube well. Pumping test
Urbanization and Anthropogenic Transformation of Hill Slopes in Almora Town of Kumaun Himalaya

Urbanization and Anthropogenic Transformation of Hill Slopes in Almora Town of Kumaun Himalaya

Authors: Pushpa and Jyoti Joshi
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Hill towns of the fragile Himalayas are facing a newly emerged problem of mismanaged and unplanned building construction. Anthropogenic and technogenic activities in the recent past have lead to several geomorphic and environmental problems. This problemhas become more dangerous because of material transformation of the hill slope in the fast growing towns. These materials replaced and transformed in unscientific manner cause environmental hazards. The fast growing towns and cities in Uttarankhand with changing pattern of housing is causing instability in the hill slopes. The geologically active and sensitive mountainous region of Kumaun Himalaya is prone to natural hazards and disaster. Almora town located at 29° 36'N latitude and 79° 39' E longitude lying in Kumaun Himalaya has been selected for the present study. Detailed study of Almora town was conducted to find out the rate of sediment mobilization due to unplanned building construction. Sediment mobilization is accelerating more problems in urban sprawl of Almora town area. Preliminary field investigation indicates that the demographic pressure without proper planning strategies is causing land degradation and socio-economic problems to a great extent. Urbanization in the hill slopes, if not planned properly, result in slope failures and ultimately causes damage to life and property.

Keywords: Sediment Mobilization, Anthropogenic and Technogenic Activities, Environmental Hazards, Transformation, Degradation
Application of Watershed Erosion Response Model in Planning Resource Conservation of Dehrang Catchment, District Raigad

Application of Watershed Erosion Response Model in Planning Resource Conservation of Dehrang Catchment, District Raigad

Authors: Deshpande Yogesh, Shindikar Mahesh, Jaybhaye Ravindra, Patil Sanjay
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Dehrang dam located in Panvel tahsil of Raigad district is the main source of water supply to the city of Panvel in district Raigad. However, the storage capacity of the reservoir is decreasing thus causing the water scarcity. The sediments accumulated as a result of erosion at the bottom of the reservoir is affecting the storage capacity of the reservoir ultimately leading to water scarcity and thus affecting the increasing population of Panvel city. The resource conservation of the catchment area is useful to reduce the sedimentation of the reservoir for which the priority areas should be decided to implement the conservation measures. Watershed Erosion Response Model has the ability to decide the priority areas for the conservation. Prioritization for the conservation of Dehrang catchment has been carried out by applying ‘Watershed Erosion Response Model’ in the present study. The remote sensing data and GIS techniques have also been found useful to apply this model. This model can be effectively applied to plan the resource conservation in the catchments of other reservoirs to mitigate the problem of sedimentation followed by water scarcity.

Keywords: Conservation, GIS, Panvel, Prioritization, WERM
Impact of Environmental Hazards in Munsyari Block: Kumaun Himalaya

Impact of Environmental Hazards in Munsyari Block: Kumaun Himalaya

Authors: Nisha and Jyoti Joshi
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

An environmental hazard is any condition, process or state adversely affecting the environment; it can cause widespread harm to humans and the physical environment in the fragile system like the Himalaya. An environmentally sensitive area suffering from extreme events such as – landslides, cloudbursts, earthquakes etc from degradation processes, is selected for the present study. The study area is tectonically active and prone to hazard and disaster very often. A detailed field investigation was conducted in the study area to find out the impact of processes causing environmental degradation. In the recent past these processes are rapidly increasing due to increasing phase of human activities; causing damage to life and property in the Munsyari block specifically and the Himalayan region in general. Madkot, Walthi, Kwiti, Kultham,La, Jhekala, Alam, TallaBainskot, Nachani, Kota, Dor and many more villages were severally affected due to the extreme events in the past 5 years. Therefore detailed field investigations in the area are required, so that measures regarding the same can be implemented to mitigate the impact of hazards and disasters in the region. Regional planning through government departments and co-ordination of government officials with the local communities can be helpful in this regard.

Keywords: Hazards, Degradation, Tectonic, Extreme Events
Factors Affecting on the Weather and Oceanography Parameters in Different Structural Areas of Red Sea, Egypt

Factors Affecting on the Weather and Oceanography Parameters in Different Structural Areas of Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud I. El Saman and Mostafa A. M. Mahmoud
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The coastal semi closed areas located along Red Sea are critical regions, The areas under study spread in the western Red Sea on the Egyptian coastal included four areas located between 26° 37' 00'' and 23° 09' 05'' N, these consecutively from northerly to southerly; Safaga Bay, Hamrawien, Sharm El Bahri and Shallatien. It is found that differ structural and human intervention may contribute to climatic and environmental changes of the hydrological semiclosed coastal areas. The incident solar radiation suffers from decay due to a combination of weather factors, but in some areas is increased about default values as a result of reflection from the surrounded mountains. Also the metrological parameters values are differed about its default value as air temperature in Safaga, relative humidity in Sharm El Bahri. The penetration solar radiation is suffering in the Hamrawien from the phosphate dust whereas the surface water temperature is the highest in Sharm El Bahr and the surface water salinity is the highest in Safaga. The water density in Shallatien is affected by the desalination plant outlet.

Keywords: Red Sea, Solar Radiation, Temperature, Density, Salinity, Relative Humidity
The Feasibility of REDD+ Implementation in Ghana: A Case of Three Farming Communities

The Feasibility of REDD+ Implementation in Ghana: A Case of Three Farming Communities

Authors: Martha Ofori-Kuragu1, Alex Moyem Kombat2 and Henry Mensah
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Forest plays an important role in regulating the earth’s climate. However, this resource is under a great threat in Ghana. Reducing emission from deforestation and degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) is one of the latest initiatives the country is embarking on to reverse this menace. The paper examines the feasibility of its implementation in Ghana by assessing the opportunity cost of farmers if they decide to engage in REDD+ projects. Thus, the aim of the paper is, to evaluate the cost and benefits of REDD+ implementation in Ghana and how the reducing emission goal could be attained. To do this, the profitability of the current land use practices and its associated opportunity cost of three communities in the central region of Ghana were estimated. Also, profits were calculated using enterprise budget method and the opportunity costs of the land use per hectare by the discounted cash flow analysis method. The results show that the current land use practice provides a more attractive option than any potential REDD+ project. This notwithstanding, the paper shows REDD+ can be a complementary policy in tackling forest degradation in Ghana.

Keywords: Carbon Stocks, Farming Practices, Ghana, Opportunity costs, REDD+
Desertification Change Analysis Study Using Multi-Temporal Awifs Data: Uttarakhand State

Desertification Change Analysis Study Using Multi-Temporal Awifs Data: Uttarakhand State

Authors: S. D. Dhargawe, K. L. N. Sastry, N. S Gahlod, V.S.Arya
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The ecosystem in arid, semi-arid, dry sub-humid region appears to be undergoing degradation processes generally described as desertification. The Himalayan region in India is most susceptible to the processes of desertification due to its very fragile and sensitive ecosystem. Change detection study on desertification was conducted on 1:0.5 million scale using IRS-IC and Resourcesat-2 multi-temporal data for the years 2003-2005 to 2011-2013. It was found that there was an increase of 1.25 percent in the desertification area in the state during the study period. A significant increase was observed in vegetation degradation i.e. from 10.20 percent to 11.30 percent. The degradation under settlement also increased from 0.19 percent to 0.30 percent during 2003 to 2013, respectively. The results show that highest vegetal degradation was observed in scrub lands i.e. 1.01 percent followed by 0.14 percent in the forest class. It was also observed that area affected by water erosion and frost shattering show no change during the study period.

Keywords: Desertification, Change Analysis, Erosion, frost, Uttarakhand
Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Rotifers of Shahanoor Dam, Amravati District, India

Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Rotifers of Shahanoor Dam, Amravati District, India

Authors: Y. A. Gadhikar, S. P. Sawale
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The present study was designed to study the seasonal variation and diversity of rotifers from the Shahanoor dam reservoir, district Amravati, Maharashtra. In the study period from January 2011 to December 2013, total 25 species of rotifers belonging to 14 genera were identified. Keratella tecta was the most dominant rotifer, followed by Keratella serullata and Monostyla copies. Percentage and population of each species of rotifer was studied. Further seasonal variation among the rotifers was also noted. Highest number of rotifers were recorded in summer season while lowest rotifer count was in winter season. Rotifer species like Keratella tecta, Keratella serrulata, Monostyla copies, Monostyla pyriformes, Monostyla clastocerca, Lecanae mira, Lecanae flexilis were abundant while Collurella uncinata, Harringia rosa, Trichocera and Vonoyella globosa were rarely found throughout the study period. The main objective of the present study was to assess the composition of rotifers and determine their response to seasonal variations. As the water from this reservoir is supplied to different villages nearby, such study will help to know the water quality and general environmental status of water body.

Keywords: Rotifers, Seasonal Variation, Shahanoor Dam, Diversity
Evaluation on Economic Loss for Rejection of Finished Leather in Bangladesh

Evaluation on Economic Loss for Rejection of Finished Leather in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Arafat Hossain, Mukta Rani Sarkar, Md. Farhad Ali, Uttam Kumar Roy
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Leather is the cornerstone of one of the oldest industries in Bangladesh, which plays a pivotal function in the national economy with a praiseworthy reputation worldwide. After the French product Bangladeshi leather is the best in the world. Leather industry has a vast contribution on our economy and after all on total GDP. In Bangladesh the leather industry is well established and is ranked 4th in terms of earning foreign exchange, as it accounts for about 6% of total exports earnings. The study aims to assess the economic loss caused by the rejection of finished leather. The 12 tanneries of Hazaribagh, Dhaka have been used as a site selection in this research. There are four grades – Primes grade (A-D), Secondary grade (A-F), Rejections (E-F) and Double rejections (HH). The factors of grading mainly depend on the surface quality and defects of the finished leather. Usually buyers demand either Primes grade (A-D) or Secondary grade (A-F), which are considered as the best quality leather. The price of the leather varies quite considerably with its quality. This paper basically indicates the economic loss which occurs due to the low cost of secondary grade, rejections and double rejections. Again, this study found that low cost causes for the absence of their proper quality. To assess the economic loss for rejection of finished leather in Bangladesh is the main objective of this article.

Keywords: Bangladesh, defects, economy, foreign exchange, GDP, grade, quality, rigidity
Effect of Pollutants on Biochemical Profile and Population Dynamics of Zooplankton

Effect of Pollutants on Biochemical Profile and Population Dynamics of Zooplankton

Authors: Padaya Madhuri, Hambarde Madhuri
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Ocean is considered as the most stable ecosystem pertaining to its vast body, various currents, its physical and chemical phenomenon and self-sustainability. For centuries ocean owned a great buffering system resisting any change in its profile. However humans have managed to exhaust this ability of oceans by endlessly polluting it and hence the changes in the physical and chemical characteristic of ocean are now very prominent. There is enormous scientific literature which asserts the negative impact of pollutants on marine life. Zooplanktons and phytoplanktons marks the beginning of aquatic food web hence any change at this level will be significantly seen on the higher trophic level due to the phenomenon of bioaccumulation and biomagnificiation. The following review deals with the effect of various physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, UV radiation, pesticides, fertilizers, petroleum and its derivatives, plastic, metals and heavy metals etc. on numerous characteristics of sea water. These changes consequently affect the biochemical profile of planktons, the mechanism of which has been further discussed in this review.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters, population dynamics, zooplanktons

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