Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

A Short Review on Process and Applications of Reverse Osmosis

A Short Review on Process and Applications of Reverse Osmosis

Authors: Garud R. M., Kore S. V., Kore V. S., Kulkarni G. S.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane based process technology to purify water by separating the dissolved solids from feed stream resulting in permeate and reject stream for a wide range of applications in domestic as well as industrial applications. It is seen from literature review that RO technology is used to remove dissolved solids, colour, organic contaminants, and nitrate from feed stream. Hence RO technology used in the treatment of water and hazardous waste, separation processes in the food, beverage and paper industry, as well as recovery of organic and inorganic materials from chemical processes as an alternative method . This paper intends to provide an overall vision of RO technology as an alternative method for treating wastewater in different Industrial applications. The present short review shows applicability of RO system for treating effluents from beverage industry, distillery spent wash, ground water treatment, recovery of phenol compounds, and reclamation of wastewater and sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) treatment indicating efficiency and applicability of RO technology.

Keywords: Beverage Industry, Boiler Feed Water, Distillery Spent Wash, Recovery of Phenol Compounds, Reclamation of Wastewater, Sea Water Reverse Osmosis
Modelling of Crop Reference Evapotranspiration: A Review

Modelling of Crop Reference Evapotranspiration: A Review

Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Vijay Shankar and Mahesh Kumar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

irrigation water management requires a good quantification of evapotranspiration. The precise estimation of water requirement of crop is very important factor in the application of irrigation design and scheduling. Water relation model are essential component of all crop model because of critical role of water status has in determining growth, productivity and produce quality. Irrigation futures aim to identify an appropriate model for the calculation of reference crop evapotranspiration. Different climatological methods are using for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. This paper evaluate and review the use of different evapotranspiration models and data in studies of geographical ecology it is also used in the estimation of daily water requirements for agricultural crops grown in different climatic regions of India and worldwide.

Keywords: Crop evapotranspiration, crop coefficient, reference evapotranspiration, reference ET models
A Short Review on Energy Conservation in Buildings Using Roof Coating Materials for Hot and Dry Climates

A Short Review on Energy Conservation in Buildings Using Roof Coating Materials for Hot and Dry Climates

Authors: Shruti Poonia, A.S.Jethoo and M.P.Poonia
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Hot and dry climatic regions are known by very high solar radiation levels, high ambient temperatures and relatively low specific humidity. The roof surface of the building is always exposed to Sun directly for the longest duration in hot and dry regions to the intense perpendicular solar heat radiations. Solar radiation is a significant mode of heat transfer through the building roof. Solar radiation heat the roof which in turn reradiates the heat onto the ceiling and finally on to the room occupants. Most of the roofs in the world are of dark colour. In summer, the surface of a black roof can increase in temperature as much as 65 to 90 ˚ C. At higher roof temperatures the deterioration of roofing materials starts and leads to increased roof maintenance costs, and high levels of roofing waste directed to landfills. The best way to reduce this is with the help of radiant barriers such as light coloured metallic or non metallic surfaces which have high solar reflectance and a high emittance to redirect the radiations back to the environment. Due to this, the heat transfer from the roof surface to the ceiling will become negligible. By blocking the solar radiations, the building conditioning is largely mitigated because heating and cooling usually use largest portion of energy in buildings. Low temperature roofs benefit the environment and public health by reducing greenhouse gas emissions by conserving energy for air conditioning; therefore less CO2 is emitted from power plant. In the present paper various approaches to redirect the solar radiations by using different roof coating materials from the roof, their relative benefits in terms of energy and cost savings has been discussed at length.

Keywords: Energy conservation, radiation, roof surface solar energy, surface coating
Decomposable Garbage as an Anthropogenic Factor and Need for Positive Perspective: A Review

Decomposable Garbage as an Anthropogenic Factor and Need for Positive Perspective: A Review

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Garbage mainly as decomposable waste and recyclable plastics are the loitered waste commonly observed by every urbanite in India. The problems of garbage are likely to be intensified due to shrinking of municipal budgets (Muller and Schienberg, web search). From the perspectives of nature, garbage especially of decomposable type are resolvable commodity provided how we support nature for its processing. Biologists and anthropologists apart from the ruling Government, must work hand-in-hand to scrutinize multiples of existing technologies required to be re-researched and to be re-exhibited on pilot scales that needs to be done in one’s hometown. Observations made by Ogawa (web search), shows that successful projects in line of solid waste management in the developing countries are meager and a very few success shown were until with the external support agencies. Later dwindle as socio-economic crisis begin. After analyzing the details of decomposable garbage as disposable/recycling/energy production/composting/landfills -the study has shown the effective transformation of decomposable garbage into economically feasible, bioremedial, sustainable, rethinkable technology as aerobic composting followed by vermicomposting to make use of the product for soil reclamation, organic agriculture as sustainable technology at least for Indian suburbs.

Keywords: Composting, Garbage, Vermicomposting, Recycle, Waste generation
Dyeing of Silk with Ecofriendly Natural Dye obtained from Barks of Ficus Religiosa.L

Dyeing of Silk with Ecofriendly Natural Dye obtained from Barks of Ficus Religiosa.L

Authors: Saravanan P. and Chandramohan G.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The present investigation was carried out to revive the old art of dyeing with natural dye obtained from barks of Ficus religiosa.L. Ficus religiosa.L belongs to family moraceae, commonly known as peepal tree. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of silk in garments industry. In the present study, bleached silk fabrics were dyed with chemical and natural mordants. Dyeing was carried out by pre-mordanting, post mordanting and simultaneous mordatning. The dyed samples have shown good washing, light and rubbing fastness properties. The various colour changes were measured by computer colour matching software. The heavy metals like antimony, arsenic, cadmium and lead present in the extract were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer.

Keywords: Extraction, ecofriendly dye, Ficus religiosa.L, silk, textiles
Studies on Limnological Characteristic, Planktonic Diversity and Fishes (Species) in Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India)

Studies on Limnological Characteristic, Planktonic Diversity and Fishes (Species) in Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India)

Authors: Sharma Riddhi, Sharma Vipul, Sharma Madhu Sudan, Verma Bhoopendra Kumar, Modi Rachana and Gaur Kuldeep Singh
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Limnological parameter and plankton diversity are an important criterion for determining the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purpose. Lake Pichhola has greatest importance for humankind. The specific status of limnological characteristic and diversity of plankton in lake Pichhola have been studied through seasonal surveys in two annual cycles (2005-06 and 2006-07) and annual survey of fishes in two annual cycles (2005-06 and 2006-07). The water remained moderately alkaline (pH 7.5) while electrical conductance (0.3958 mS/cm), TDS (237.5mg/l), chloride (176mg/l), hardness (174.33mg/l) and alkalinity (207.16mg/l) showed low mean values. Average dissolved oxygen levels were at 5.75mg/l while average nitrate and phosphate levels were 3.70mg/l and 2.79mg/l respectively. On the basis of water quality parameters in general, lake Pichhola was found to be eutrophic. A high rate of primary production (302.085mgc/m2/hr), diversity of phytoplankton (58 forms), zooplankton (104 forms) and fish (15 species) were also observed during the study period. Therefore, lake Pichhola has rich number of species and biodiversity of aquatic animals.

Keywords: Eutrophic, lake Pichhola, Limnological characteristic, phytoplankton, zooplankton
Physicochemical Status and Primary Productivity of Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer (Rajasthan), India

Physicochemical Status and Primary Productivity of Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer (Rajasthan), India

Authors: Vijay Kumar Koli and Madhur Mohan Ranga
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters were estimated in Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer from September 2007 to August 2008. GPP value ranged between 1.93 and 6.24 gC/m2/day, NPP ranged between 0.72 and 4.99 gC/m2/day and Community respiration ranged from 0.26 to 3.6 gC/m2/day. Water temperature varied from 16.4°C to 31.2°C. pH and transparency ranged between 6.7 and 10.2 and 34 cm and 65 cm respectively. Variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) was from 6.7 to 10.7 mg/l. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and alkalinity varied from 9.2 to 25.2 mg/l and 176 to 264 mg/l. Concentration of nutrients viz. chloride (18.5 to 32.4 mg/l), nitrate (12.9 to 26.4 mg/l) and phosphate (1.2 to 3.2 mg/l) also varied independently. Primary productivity and physico-chemical values of the lake were found high, mainly due to sewage discharged, industrial effluents and the agricultural runoff by surrounding city population. High values of productivity and nutrients also exposed its eutrophic condition.

Keywords: Ana Sagar, Biological oxygen demand, Community respiration, Eutrophic, GPP, NPP, Physico-chemical
Feasibility Studies for Reuse of Constructed Wetlands Treating Simulated Nickel Containing Groundwater

Feasibility Studies for Reuse of Constructed Wetlands Treating Simulated Nickel Containing Groundwater

Authors: Sivaraman C., Arulazhagan P., Dirk Walther, Vasudevan N.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Constructed wetlands are considered as low cost treatment option for domestic and industrial wastewater in the recent decades. The presence of toxic heavy metals in wastewater is a problematic issue, since these heavy metals have potential to accumulate in the treatment systems. Thus heavy metals greatly influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands. Therefore a feasibility study was proposed for long term usage of constructed wetlands as treatment systems. Initially sediment in a constructed wetland was contaminated with simulated nickel containing groundwater followed by using suitable leaching solution to rejuvenate the heavy metal contaminated sediment. A batch study was performed to identify the optimum pH for nickel adsorption on sand. The efficiency of different leaching solutions to remove the adsorbed nickel from sand was studied. Following this a Pilot scale study was carried out in constructed wetland treatment plant (vertical flow) at Anna University, Chennai, India. The amount of nickel solution charged into the Control Cell (sand) and Test Cell (sand planted with Arundo donax) was 29000 mg/cell. The concentration of nickel adsorbed to sand increased from 0.2mg/Kg to 4.34 mg/Kg in the control cell whereas the increase in test cell was 4.08mg/Kg. Leaching the wetland with EDTA solution resulted in removal of nickel up to its background concentrations on the sand. It can be concluded that the proposed feasibility study can be used to rejuvenate the sediment in a constructed wetland for its long term usage as treatment systems.

Keywords: Constructed Wetland, Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid, Leaching, Nickel, Rejuvenate
Evaluation of Interpolation Technique for Air Quality Parameters in Port Blair, India

Evaluation of Interpolation Technique for Air Quality Parameters in Port Blair, India

Authors: Dilip Kumar Jha, M.Sabesan, Anup Das, N.V.Vinithkumar and R. Kirubagaran
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Evaluation of interpolation technique was investigated for air quality parameters such as suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air of Port Blair, India. The interpolation methods such as inverse distance weighted (IDW) and kriging were tested to develop air quality model. The interpolated and corresponding measured values were compared by three statistical test such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and index of agreement (d). The ANOVA showed significant site wise variation for SPM, SO2 and NO2 concentrations. The concentration of SPM, NO2 and SO2 ranged between 35-174, 5-24 and 4-11 µg/m³ respectively. The observed concentrations of air quality parameters were found below the permissible limit of Central Pollution Control Board of India. The IDW showed better similarity between measured and interpolated values of SPM, SO2 and NO2 than kriging method. MAE and RMSE were low for air quality parameters in IDW method. The‘d’ was observed higher in IDW method, which attributes better similarity between measured and interpolated values. Interpolation methods and statistical result have been discussed in detail for assessment and monitoring of air quality parameters.

Keywords: Inverse distance weighted, Kriging, Interpolation, Mean absolute error, Root mean square error, index of agreement
Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Concentration in Thick Unconfined Aquifer of Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India

Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Concentration in Thick Unconfined Aquifer of Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Ghosh Tathagata and Kanchan Rolee
( 3 downloads)
Abstract

Groundwater is one of the major sources of drinking water in several parts of the world. At the same time it is associated with contamination and health issues. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is one of the major concerns among them. In India, many parts of West Bengal plain are severely affected by Arsenic concentration. From the severity of the problem the utmost priority is to identify the major hot spots of the arsenic concentration. To evaluate the behavior of arsenic in groundwater both in terms of spatial and temporal aspect, samples are collected from the unconfined aquifer of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, for three following years in different seasons. An important relationship is found between the arsenic concentration, rainfall intensity and the subsurface lithology.

Keywords: Arsenic, Subsurface lithology, Unconfined Aquifer
Biogeochemistry of Groundwater beneath On-site Wastewater Systems in a Coastal Watershed

Biogeochemistry of Groundwater beneath On-site Wastewater Systems in a Coastal Watershed

Authors: Humphrey C.P. and O'Driscoll M.A.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The goal of this study was to determine if on-site wastewater system PO4 and coliform contributions to groundwater were significant enough to be included in water quality management plans for a coastal watershed. Monitoring wells were installed adjacent to 16 on-site systems in three different soil types (sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in Carteret County, North Carolina. Groundwater beneath on-site wastewater systems was collected and analyzed for coliform bacteria and PO4 and compared to septic effluent and background groundwater. Physical and chemical properties of groundwater including pH, electrical conductivity, and temperature were measured monthly for over 1 year (January 2007-February 2008). Data indicated that mean groundwater pH, PO4, coliform and electrical conductivity beneath on-site systems were typically elevated relative to background groundwater. Groundwater beneath on-site wastewater systems in sandy clay loam soils had the lowest mean PO4 and lowest median coliform concentrations (0.04 ± 0.03 mg/L and 1.02 x 104 cfu/100 mL). On-site systems in sand had the highest mean groundwater PO4 concentrations (2.46 ± 2.9 mg/L) and systems in sandy loam had the highest median groundwater coliform concentrations (2.21 x 104 cfu/100 mL). On-site wastewater systems in watersheds with sandy soils (> 77% sand and < 24% clay) can contribute significant concentrations of PO4 and coliform to groundwater and these contributions should be included in watershed management strategies for improving water quality.

Keywords: Coastal watershed, coliform, phosphate, soils, wastewater
Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Models for Pea (Pisum Sativum) in Mid Hill Zone-India

Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Models for Pea (Pisum Sativum) in Mid Hill Zone-India

Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Vijay Shankar and Mahesh Kumar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Efficient irrigation water management requires a good quantification of evapotranspiration. Lysimeter was used to measure actual crop water use and local weather data were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The K c values determined over the growing seasons varied from 0.5 to 1.15 for pea. The development of regionally based and growth-stage-specific Kc helps in irrigation management and provides precise water applications for this region. Six climatological models were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. According to results the crop coefficient vary among locations and even among years, depending on soil evaporation (rainfall, irrigation), vapour pressure deficit, solar radiation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0).

Keywords: Crop coefficient, Crop evapotranspiration, Lysimeter and Reference Evapotranspiration
Evaluation of Traits Related to Water Deficit Stress in Winter Rapeseed Cultivars

Evaluation of Traits Related to Water Deficit Stress in Winter Rapeseed Cultivars

Authors: Ghader Ghaffari, Mahmoud Toorchi, Saeid Aharizad, Mohamad-Reza Shakiba
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

In order to evaluate traits related to water deficit stress in winter rapeseed cultivars and to determine the tolerant and sensitive cultivars, an experiment was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications in the greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Tabriz-Iran University. First factor including 12 winter rapeseed cultivars, named: Zarfam, Okapi, Modena, Dexter, Olera, Licord, Arc-4, Elite, Opera, SLM046, Fornax, Orient; and the second factor include different levels of water stress that were: severe stress (50% FC), mild stress (75% FC) and well watered (100% FC) conditions. Water deficit stress was imposed from stem elongation to physiological maturity. Moreover, gypsum blocks were used to control the soil moist. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between cultivars and stress related to studied traits. Also, cultivars * stress interaction of proline content and seed yield was significant. The mean comparison of cultivars showed that SLM046 and Orient cultivars have the highest value, while Fornax and Olera cultivars have the lowest value. According to drought tolerance, MP, GMP and TOL indices were the most favorable indices. Also SLM046 and Orient are the most tolerant cultivars under severe stress and mild stress conditions respectively, while Fornax is the most sensitive cultivar in both conditions. The canonical correlation analysis under three environmental conditions showed significant correlation between canonical variables of physiological traits and yield related traits. The regression analysis in different stress levels demonstrated that the silique per plant and seed per silique has important role in increasing seed yield and these verities can help to choose cultivars. The cultivars grouping by cluster analysis showed that in middle stress levels SLM046 and Orient has been placed in same group and have higher value than overall mean. Moreover, Fornax and Olera cultivars hold lower value and are placed in another group. Other cultivars are settled in between.

Keywords: Canonical correlation, Cluster analysis, Drought tolerance index, Rapeseed, Water deficit stress, Regression analysis
Effect of NaCl Stress on Growth, Water Relations, Organic and Inorganic Osmolytes Accumulation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Lines

Effect of NaCl Stress on Growth, Water Relations, Organic and Inorganic Osmolytes Accumulation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Lines

Authors: Ahmad Heidari, Mahmoud Toorchi, Ali Bandehagh and Mohammad-Reza Shakiba
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses that affect growth, physiology, biochemistry and molecules of plants. In this study, response of 12 sunflower (H. annuus) lines to NaCl salinity (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) was investigated in hydroponic culture system. Plant growth parameters, height, third leaf water status, relative membrane permeability (RMP), organic and inorganic osmolytes were measured 30 days after salinity induced. Among the lines, R2, R56 and R50 showed significantly smaller reduction in growth parameters compared with B11, B353, B25 and B15 indicating that the former lines were more salt tolerant than the others. The line R2showed less reduction in height and this result revealed that high correlation between height and growth parameters. Relative water content (RWC) was decreased under salinity stress and the lines not differed significantly in this water relation attribute. Leaf water potential (LWP) was increased under salinity but the lines showed contrary relation with growth parameters. Appears that LWP not efficient method to measured water status under greenhouse conditions. RMP in tolerant lines was lowest compared with other lines. Also, glycine betaine (GB) was enhanced under salinity stress but non-significant differences were observed among the lines for this compatibility solute. It seems GB had less important role in sunflower due to it was lowest osmolyte that accumulated under salinity condition. In tolerant lines proline was more accumulated compared with sensitive lines and it was 1.94 times further. The relationship between Na and K cations indicate that at least in sunflower, accumulation of K+ dependent to Na+ influx. In other words, the lines that accumulate high Na+ was have more K+ content and vice versa. Also, in this study, the K+ content was increased under salinity but the K+/Na+ was decreased.

Keywords: Glycine betaine, Helianthus annuus, LWP, NaCl, proline, RMP, RWC, salt stress, sunflower, water status
Olericulturiests Modified Age Old Practices under Open Access Land for Sustainability

Olericulturiests Modified Age Old Practices under Open Access Land for Sustainability

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Presently, there are more than 70 individual vegetables commonly used by man. The present generations of olericulturiests although depend on high-yielding varieties and even genetically modified seeds are still following the package of practice of their forefathers. T he farmers of yester years secretly relied on only 0.5% to 10% of the chemical fertilizers. But mainly depended on organic manures like night soil, cattle dung, farmyard manure and decomposed vegetable wastes generated in their lands, which accounted for 90% of the inputs. The present day vegetable growers are contented to incorporate stabilized vermicompost in the quantities suggested by themselves based on 2 -3 crop studies and are using the same at least in two split doses prior to sowing and/or transplantations and during the growth of the vegetable crops. The present study is the recorded data of some of the important commercial vegetable crops according to the olericulturiests cultivation practices and their methods of incorporation of chemical fertilizers and vermicompost. Vermicompost of required quantity was supplied to them. Eleven varieties of the vegetables grown are discussed as per the olericulturiests ways and means, for, they have found a sustainable production of vegetables throughout the year on a same piece of land with alternate and rotational vegetable cropping pattern within the vegetable families. Their cultivations have an array of stipulated practices for each and every vegetable in different seasons of the year. Their aim is to produce at least 60 -70% harvests in the off seasons and 80 -100% harvests in the feasible seasons. This paper is a record of work for the commercial production of vegetables that has been practiced by the Olericulturiests of Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State, India.

Keywords: Olericulturiest, Devanahalli, Bangalore rural districts, Vermicompost, chemical fertilizers, same piece of land, sustainable productivity

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