Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Toxic Effects of Flucloxacillin on the Early Development of the Polychaete Hydroides elegans

Toxic Effects of Flucloxacillin on the Early Development of the Polychaete Hydroides elegans

Authors: S. Arumugam
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Hydroides elegans is a gregarious tube building polychaete which occurs in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Adults were found to have good tolerance in laboratory assays using. The effect of flucloxacillin on fertilization and early development was explained through three experiments. Flucloxacillin is a antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. In normal fertilization the percentage of successful development at FM stage was 100±0.00 upto larval release stage was 80.11±0.68. In Expt. I higher concentration 50% of the embryos showed abnormal development and deformities. Expt. II in lower concentrations upto 800ppm the embryo showed high deformities. Expt. III, in 400ppm nearly 60% of embryos showed abnormal development in Blastula stage. Finally, more than 100ppm concentrations did not reach the release stage. The percentage of successful development was decreased in Expt. I to Expt. III. The present paper deals with the toxic effects of flucloxacillin on fertilization and early development of H. elegans and the percentage of successful development of embryos were studied.

Keywords: developmental stages, flucloxacillin, Hydroides elegans, polychaete, toxic effects
Extracellular Lipolytic Enzyme Production by a Novel Extremely Halophilic Bacterium

Extracellular Lipolytic Enzyme Production by a Novel Extremely Halophilic Bacterium

Authors: Anisha C, Jyothis Mathew and Radhakrishnan E K
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Halophilic bacteria live in extreme salt conditions and can produce enzymes which are highly stable. A study was conducted to isolate lipolytic enzyme producing halophilic bacteria from salted fish. As lipolytic enzymes from halophiles can tolerate extreme salt conditions, it is highly stable and can tolerate harsh industrial conditions and thus has got potential biotechnological applications. In the present work 17 halophilic isolates were obtained from salted fish samples on Seghals Gibbons Complex (SGC) medium. The lipolytic activity of the strains was tested by Tween hydrolysis on SGC medium containing 1% Tween 80 or Tween 40. A strain SH1 which showed the highest relative enzyme activity was identified by 16 S rDNA sequencing as a novel strain belonging to the class Gamma proteobacteria. The strain was found to grow in a salt range, 2 to 5 M and thus confirmed as an extreme halophile. It showed lipolytic activity at salt concentration in the range 2 to 4 M and pH range 6 to 11. Thus it forms a promising strain for the production of halophilic lipolytic enzymes and thus can have industrial applications.

Keywords: Extreme halophiles, Salted fish, Lipolytic enzymes, Tween 80
A Survey on the Rural Solid Wastes Characteristics in North Iran (Babol)

A Survey on the Rural Solid Wastes Characteristics in North Iran (Babol)

Authors: Aliakbar Mohammadi, Abdoliman Amouei, Hosseinali Asgharnia, Hourieh Fallah, Zeinab Ghanami
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Today, scattering and dumping of solid wastes is one of the basic problems in rural areas of Iran. It is necessary to identify the quality and quantity of solid waste before making any decision about rural solid waste management. This study was an attempt to investigate the rate of per capita generation, density and physical composition of solid wastes in 10 villages of Babol township in north of Iran. In order to measure generation rate of solid wastes in selected villages, the rate of these materials was determined in 3 consecutive days of a week in the second month of each season. In determining of solid waste density and physical composition, the samples were mixed completely and provided in triplicate. Each sample has been transferred to a 0.5 m3 plastic container and its different components were measured by digital scale. Maximum and minimum generation rates per capita were 0.84±0.21 kg/day and 0.65±0.15 kg/ day respectively. Maximum and minimum densities were 431±36 kg/m3 and 407±21kg/m3 respectively. Mean weight percents of putrecible waste, plastics, paper, metal, glass, textiles and others were %76.9, %7.1, %7.4, %1.1, %0.7, %1.3 and %5.6 respectively. Considering composition of degradable materials (%76.9), composting is a suitable method for removal of rural solid wastes in north of Iran villages. According to noticeable amounts of recyclable materials (plastics, paper and metal), segregation and recycle programs of these components of solid wastes should be considered in these rural areas.

Keywords: Solid wastes, Rural areas, Generation rate, Density, Physical composition, North Iran
Breakthrough Studies of Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Eucalyptus cameldulensis Charcoal through Column Operations

Breakthrough Studies of Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Eucalyptus cameldulensis Charcoal through Column Operations

Authors: Joginder Singh, Gagandeep Kaur, Amjad Ali
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

In the present article, the potential of Eucalyptus cameldulensis charcoal for the biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions using fixed bed column operations was investigated. Eucalyptus cameldulensis charcoal was activated using 1.0N HCl. The different parameter investigated in this study include bed depth (16.0, 20.0 and 24.0 cm), flow rate (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0ml min-1) and initial metal ion concentration (100, 150 and 200mgL-1).The maximum percentage removal for Cr (VI) and Cu (II) were 66.32% and 57.69 % at 24.0 cm bed depth with 1.0 ml min-1 flow rate and 100 mgL-1 initial metal ion concentration. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was successfully applied to the column studies and the biosorption capacity (No) obtained for Cr (VI) and Cu (II) were 100.0 mg L-1 and 87.5 mg L-1respectively. The exhausted columns were regenerated using 0.5N NaOH after each biosorption cycle. Column studies demonstrate that charcoal prepared from Eucalyptus cameldulensis has significant capacity for the removal of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Eucalyptus cameldulensis charcoal, breakthrough time, bed depth service time model, flow rate
Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Godavari at Rajahmundry

Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Godavari at Rajahmundry

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Akkaraboyina1and B.S.N.Raju
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Assembling different water quality parameters into one single number leads an easy interpretation of an index, thus providing an important tool for management and decision making purposes. Water Quality Index exhibits the overall water quality at a specific location and specific time based on several water quality parameters. The purpose of an index is to transform the complex water quality data into information that is easily understandable and useable by the general public. As a part of research work, eight important water viz., pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved solids, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium were used to evaluate WQI of River Godavari at Rajahmundry water quality monitoring station. In this paper, the seasonal variations of WQI during the study period (2009-2012) and future period (2012-2015) are discussed. The results revealed that the developed model performance was significant with MAE=4.97, RMSE=7.31 and MAPE=5.15% respectively. According to the classification criteria standards based on NSF WQI, the WQI values varied from 99.28 in June 2012 to 98.36 in May 2015; indicating the water is excellent to good quality. The water quality index followed a linear trend pattern the fluctuations in the dissolved oxygen levels affected the WQI.

Keywords: River Godavari, Rajahmundry, WQI
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Coastal Al-Hodiedah Governorate, Yemen

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Coastal Al-Hodiedah Governorate, Yemen

Authors: Majeed Hazzaa Nomaan, R. S. Pawar and D. B. Panaskar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The special Location of Al-Hodiedah Governorate which is located at an area that links the Red sea and the seasonal monsoon affect marine ecosystem of the Al-Hodiedah coast. Five location at Al-Hodiedah sea shores were selected in order to study the availability of heavy metals and their concentrations in the surficial sediments (<60µm), The concentration of Ten leachable and total metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediment Contamination Factor (CF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. The concentration of cadmium is indicating very high contamination in all the sampling sites. The PLI value is indicates fast progressive deterioration of the estuarine quality of Al-Hodiedah Governorate in Yemen.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Sediments, Al-Hodiedah coast
Comparative Use of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers and Pesticides and their Health effects on Farmers in Satara Tahsil, Maharashtra

Comparative Use of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers and Pesticides and their Health effects on Farmers in Satara Tahsil, Maharashtra

Authors: Patil Vishwas Shankar, Patil Sharmishtha Vishwas and Pathade G.R.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture sector poses a serious problem to human health, environment and nation economy. Here, the relationship between the extent of use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and signs and symptomsof illnesses due to exposure among the farmers from Satara tahsil was assessed. Twenty eight agricultural shops from study areawere surveyed to know the types and quantities of chemical and biological fertilizers and pesticides used up by the farmers.Sixty farmers from study area were interviewed with pretested interview questionnaire to know the signs and symptoms of illnesses related to agrochemical exposure. All interviewed farmers were found to use huge quantities of chemical fertilizers and pesticides than biological fertilizers and pesticides. The signs and symptoms of illness among study population due to chemical fertilizer and pesticide exposure were found to be itching eyes(61%),skin redness(47.6%),dizziness(42.9%),excessive sweating(40.5%),sore throat(26.2%), weakness(16.7%), shortness of breath(7.1%), nausea (4.8%) and stomach pain (4.8%).There is need to create awareness among the farmers to use personal protective measures while handling these chemicals and farmers should be encouraged to turn towards ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: Chemical fertilizers and pesticides, Human health, Ecofriendly, Biofertilizers, Biopesticides
Biomethanation of Dye Industry Wastewater

Biomethanation of Dye Industry Wastewater

Authors: Sahasrabudhe Madhuri and Pathade Girish
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Dyestuff sector is one of the core chemical industries in India. Maharashtra and Gujarat account for 90% of dyestuff production in India due to the availability of raw materials and dominance of textile industry in these regions. During industrial processing up to 40 % of the used dyestuffs are released in to the process water. The untreated effluents released from the dyeing units cause a major threat to the environment. Direct discharge of dye effluents causes formation of toxic aromatic amines in receiving media. The majority of colour removal techniques work either by concentrating the colour into the sludge or by partial or complete breakdown of the coloured molecules. Although a variety of effective physical and chemical treatment methods are commercially available, most of them are either expensive, not adaptable to a wide range of dyes, or do not completely solve the problem of complete decolourization of dye containing industrial effluents. Biodegradation have been explored as a method of biological treatment of dye. Hence in a present study attempts were made to biologically treat dye industry wastewater by biomethanation. Anaerobic digestion of 25% dye industry wastewater was studied under various environmental conditions and observed that COD reduction of 88.88%.BOD reduction of 68.06% giving 73.57% colour removal. In addition, anaerobic treatment gave valuable fuel in the form of methane which adds to the revenue of the industry. The sludge obtained after anaerobic treatments posses good manurial value and hence adds to revenue of industry.

Keywords: Dye effluent, anaerobic digestion, biomethanation, decolourization, manurial value
Relation between Global Radiation and UV Radiation

Relation between Global Radiation and UV Radiation

Authors: Sumathi.R and Samuel Selvaraj.R
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

In this study, daily UV radiation on ground surface was correlated with daily global radiation on horizontal surface over Chennai using linear least square method. For the study, Daily UV radiation data on a ground surface were taken for the period from August 2011 to December2011. Global radiation data used were computed using Regression equation with sunshine hours. Observed UV radiation during this period was compared with computed UV radiation using linear regression equation. They were in good agreement with each other.

Keywords: Global radiation, Sunshine hours, linear least squares and UV radiation
Analysis of UV Radiation and its Relationship with Solar Indices Using Statistical and Artificial Neural Network Method

Analysis of UV Radiation and its Relationship with Solar Indices Using Statistical and Artificial Neural Network Method

Authors: Samuel Selvaraj.R and Sumathi.R
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Study analyses hourly average of daily UV radiation measured at Chennai in relationship with solar indices by multi linear regression analysis and Artificial Neural Network to forecast performance parameter namely Mean Bias Error and Mean Average Percentage error (MAPE). Moreover, study compares predicted UV radiation against measured value. It is concluded that ANN model prediction or estimation is better than the multiple regression model.

Keywords: Daily UV radiation, Multi linear Regression Analysis and Artificial Neural Network, solar indices
Record of Ahaetulla nasuta Var. isabellinus from Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary Raigad-Maharastra, India

Record of Ahaetulla nasuta Var. isabellinus from Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary Raigad-Maharastra, India

Authors: Nitin Walmiki, Siddhesh Karangutkar, Bhaskar Yengal1, Vishal wagh1, Amol Kumbhar, Aniket Jadhav, Asif khan
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Vine snake belongs to the genera Oxybelis (New world vine snake), Thelotornis (African vine snake) and Ahaetulla (Asian vine snake). Ahaetulla is tropical Asian genus of colubrid snakes comprising eight species and distributed through India, Southeast Asia, Philippines and East Indies. Western Ghats in Maharastra is termed as Sahyadries and is one of the global bio-diversity hotspots (Myers et al, 2000). Northen western ghats extend across three states viz Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa. Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) was once a shooting reserve of the ruler Janjira during Mughal regime. PWLS is an unique representative of coastal protected area, as it is the only coastal protected area in Sahyadries range of Maharashtra. Survey was done from May 2010 to June 2011 on Herpetofauna of PWLS. During this study period we sighted Ahaetulla nasuta VAR isabellinus only four times. Whereas Ahaetulla nasuta is abundant and Ahaetulla pulverulanta is uncommon species in PWLS.

Keywords: Record, Ahaetulla nasuta Var, isabellinus, Phansad Wildlife, Sanctuary, RaigadMaharastra
Mitigation of Climate Change and Role of Forest Management: A Short Review

Mitigation of Climate Change and Role of Forest Management: A Short Review

Authors: Pooja Arora, Jyoti Luhach, Manju Sharma, Smita Chaudhry
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Climate change is the greatest global threat and long-term challenge, as it can significantly cause damage to water resources, land resources, ecosystem, food security and health. Current projections of climate change constitute a further increase in average global surface temperature, increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and changes in precipitation as well as altered disturbance regimes. A change of 1.8-4°C by 2090-2099 relative to that of 1980-1999 has been projected by IPCC AR4. Developing countries are going to bear the brunt of climate change and suffer most from its negative impacts. Mitigation measures in the forestry sectors are generating much interest as a potential means of adaptation to climate change and also as a source for additional income to rural population. Forest ecosystems are one of the most efficient systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, capturing carbon in soil and biomass, and reducing the vulnerability of people and ecosystems to the detrimental impacts of climate change. Managing the loss of global forest should, therefore be incorporated into the framework for stabilizing the atmospheric concentrations of green house gases. Forest management strategies can prove to be promising tools to achieve this stabilization with social, economic and environmental goals. For forests, to fully achieve their potential to address climate change, their governance must be improved as forestry projects can provide low cost mitigation strategies for climate change as well as adequate standards of living by improved food security, reduced poverty and increased sources of income.

Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Forest Management, Ecosystem Services, Forest Degradation, Forest Ecosystems, Food Security
Moringa oleifera - The Nature’s Gift

Moringa oleifera - The Nature’s Gift

Authors: Vijay Kumar. K, Rubha. M.N, Manivasagan. M, Ramesh Babu. N.G, Balaji. P
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Moringa oleifera belongs to the family Moringaceae which is a single genus family of shrubs and trees cultivated across the whole of the tropical belt and used for a variety of purposes. Each tree can produce approximately 15000-25000 seeds and 400-1000 pod /year the average of weight of non shelled ced is 0.3 gm (300 mg). Many researchers have reported on the various uses of Moringa oleifera seeds as coagulant and coagulant aid in the last 20 years. Moringa oleifera coagulant has been found to have high coagulation activity only for high turbidity water. Extracts of seeds from the Moringa oleifera tree have been found to be one of the most effective clarifiers. The sludge left over from the water after treatment can also be used as a bio-fertilizer/bio-compost which has been shown to increase yields of other staple food crops. Moringa leaves can also be used very effectively as an animal feed. Its seeds yield 38-40% edible oil known as Ben Oil. In traditional medicines, it is used to treat a wide variety of ailments like headaches, worms, diarrhoea, stomach ulcers, skin conditions, anemia, infections, fevers, urinary problems, liver and spleen problems, arthritis and rheumatism.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, natural coagulant, water purification, medicinal uses
Recent Trends in Anaerobic Codigestion: A Review

Recent Trends in Anaerobic Codigestion: A Review

Authors: K. M. Kangle., Kore S. V., Kore V. S., Kulkarni G. S.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Anaerobic digestion is the most promising alternative to disposal this kind of waste, due to high energy recovery. The main objective of anaerobic digestion is the degradation and destruction of organic substances, with consequent reduction of the odorous emissions and pathogens. This conversion is catalyzed by a large of bacteria that operate in synergy, catalyzing different chemical reactions, hence the metabolic pathways involved in the anaerobic degradation are quite complex. Anaerobic digestion process follows four major steps: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of the overall process degradation. In anaerobic digestion, co-digestion is the term used to describe the combined treatment of several wastes with complementary characteristics, being one of the main advantages of the anaerobic technology. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. A great option for improving yields of anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is the codigestion of multiple substrates. If co-substrates are used in anaerobic digestion system it improves the biogas yields due to positives synergisms established in the digestion medium and the supply of missing nutrients. Recent research on this topic is reviewed in the current paper. Special attention is paid to anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste, crop and crop residues, industrial sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as municipal sewage sludge.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; Co-digestion; Biodegradable; Synergisms; Co-substrate
Zooplankton Population Variations, Chlorophyll-A and Nutrients in Anchar Lake, Kashmir

Zooplankton Population Variations, Chlorophyll-A and Nutrients in Anchar Lake, Kashmir

Authors: Ahangar, I. A, Saksena, D. N, Mir, M. F. and Ahangar, M. A.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

In order to understand trophic status of lake Anchar, seasonal pattern of zooplankton, chlorophyll-a and nutrients level in water column was examined from June 2010 to May 2011. Average of all stations taken together have shown a bimodal peak, bigger peak was observed in spring months and the other smaller one was observed in summer months in Anchar lake. The sequence of dominant species of zooplankton was Rotifera > Cladocera > Protozoa >Copepoda> Ostracoda in this lake. Correlation between zooplankton species and nutrients level was established. The Chlorophyll- a as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass peaks in colder periods. The ammonical-nitrogen ranged between 210.3 to 499.3 µg/l with mean of 336.3±21.60 µg/l. On the basis of nutrients and chlorophyll-a dynamics, the lake varied from mesotrophic to eutrophic in different seasons.

Keywords: Zooplankton, nutrients, chlorophyll

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