Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Euresian Publications
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Pond Ecosystems

Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Pond Ecosystems

Authors: Mohd. Muzamil Bhat, Kamini Narain, Syed Zulifiqar Ahmad Andrabi, R.N. Shukla, M. Yunus
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the seasonal changes of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in urban lentic water bodies (ponds) of Lucknow city. Owing to the unplanned development and urbanization, the ponds of this city are struggling for their existence. In spite of the global alarm for restoration of the water bodies, the ponds in the city are facing neglectance. For the study period four pond water bodies were selected. The study concludes that the water quality of ponds of Lucknow city is polluted as some of the results are above permissible limits. The city sewage discharge, agriculture and urban runoff and continuous dumping of waste materials especially sanitary waste are affecting the water quality of these urban water bodies. The toxicological implications of this finding in relation to aquatic ecosystem and human health are discussed. There is considerable need for better understanding of these small impoundments so that they can be managed effectively.

Keywords: Agricultural runoff; Sewage; Sanitary waste; Urbanization; Water quality
Use of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping of Tuticorin Coast, Tamilnadu

Use of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping of Tuticorin Coast, Tamilnadu

Authors: Selvam.S
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The study area (8° 43' - 8° 51’ N latitude and 78° 5' - 78° 10' E longitude) falls in the east coastal belt, west of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India. Land use and Land cover is an important parameter for developmental planning. In the present study an attempt has been made to generate the land use and land cover map from Satellite (IRS) 1C, linear image self-scanning (LISS) III of geocoded with UTM projection, sheroid and datum WGS-84, Zone North 44 generated from the total bands 4 on a 1:50,000 scales, was used unsupervised classification and topographical maps, and enhanced for better interpretation. A process of integrating remote sensing techniques and field data to accurately map landuse and land cover of the study area catchment is described. Major problem with the study area can be identifies as are (i) Rapid Growth of Population and (ii) Unplanned growth of the city both horizontally in all direction and vertically also. Field observation shows the current status and issues of coastal environmental problems. Finally, a maximum likelihood classifier was applied to classify the satellite images. Six major landuse classes were identified and mapped for the study area. These are: Cultivated land, Salt pans, Barren land, Shrubs and Water bodies. The study observed that cultivated land is dominant in Tuticorin and its surroundings followed by salt pans. The study recommends the use of satellite imageries for future environmental monitoring studies.

Keywords: Linear image self-scanning, unsupervised classification, land use and land cover, cultivated land, Environmental monitoring
Antimicrobial Compound from Streptomyces Isolate Characterized Using HPLC

Antimicrobial Compound from Streptomyces Isolate Characterized Using HPLC

Authors: Nupur Mathur, Anoop Paliwal, Pratibha Sharma, Manish Kumar, Pradeep Bhatnagar
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Need for novel, safe and more efficient antibiotics is a key challenge to the pharmaceutical industry today. The ever increasing knowledge in the area of pathogen`s drug resistance has evoked the discovery of new antibiotics by the screening of microbes. Last few decades has witnessed the production of novel antibiotics from different microorganisms. At present, aerobic Actinomycetes have attracted considerable attention of bacteriologist, geneticist and ecologist because of the production of novel antibiotics. In this research we evaluate the potential of antibiotic production and characterize HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) analysis pattern of Streptomyces from various semi-arid locations of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Regarding this, five soil samples were collected randomly from three different green cover areas of Jaipur. Then, following the extraction of secondary metabolite, the HPLC analysis was carried out for characterization of various extracts. Considering the coordinate analysis of HPLC pattern, isolate A4 was found to be a potential producer of an antibiotic ‘Monensin’. The results highlight the importance of Streptomyces isolates in antibiotic and antifungal production. HPLC confirmed the production when compared with standards.

Keywords: Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, HPLC, FTIR, Antimicrobial compounds
Distribution and Seasonal Availability of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Spp. in Kodayar River in Tamil Nadu, India

Distribution and Seasonal Availability of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Spp. in Kodayar River in Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: S. Arumugam
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Freshwater prawn culture has attracted more attention in the recent years due to its export potential and increasing demand as luxury protein. India is the second largest contributor of freshwater prawns to the world market. Freshwater prawn culture has undergone a phenomenal growth in the past two decades. Many species are of regional or local fishery important however only half a dozen species of genus Macrobrachium spp. are of major economic value in India. The river basins of Tamil Nadu contains some species of freshwater prawn. The prawn fishery of the river Kodayar in Tamil Nadu, India indicates that there are some major commercial species which support local fisheries. Kodayar river basin lies at the southern most tip of Indian peninsula. This is a small basin having an area of 1533 Sq. Km. with hilly area of 607 Sq. Km. which is more than one third of basin area. Kodayar river has two major tributaries in the upper reaches of its starting point. There are four stations fixed in Kodayar river basin for prawn collection. Temperature and rainfall play an important role in the breeding season of freshwater prawns. The basin rainfall highly recorded is 512.2mm during the north-east monsoon in October 2008. The average minimum and maximum temperature is found to be 23.36°C and 33.50°C respectively. The availability of prawns dependant in only monsoon periods and post monsoon periods. Totally 9 Macrobrachium species were collected in this river basin. The present paper deals with the distribution and the seasonal availability of the freshwater prawns for establishing culture farms in Kodayar river basin.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium sps., Distribution, Kodayar river
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Possible Health Effects Due to Air Pollution in Hosur Town, Tamilnadu, India

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Possible Health Effects Due to Air Pollution in Hosur Town, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: Harikrishnan S., Pradeep S., Ramalingam M., Prasanna. N., Manivasagan V.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The study is to focus on ambient quality of air in Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India and its health effect on people. Hosur is a municipal town in Krishnagiri district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The model which was considered to be the concentration of chemicals in the air of the work environment and possible negative health effects to people. The microclimate is under control except during very hot climate in summer. The chemicals are under control in coir producing, automobile and food industries. The chemicals are often over the limit in brick, alloy casting, granite industries and in some of the premises of pharmaceutical industries. According to work results, PM10 concentration varies from 45–127 μg/m3 where PM2.5 concentration varies from 24-78 μg/m3 and these are the highly polluting particles in work environment.

Keywords: Hosur- Industrial hub, ambient air quality, Health disturbances, Air pollutants
Supply Chain Management as a Tool for Collection and Disposal of Organic Waste in Pune

Supply Chain Management as a Tool for Collection and Disposal of Organic Waste in Pune

Authors: Gupte Deepak D. and Saptarshi Praveen G.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Supply Chain Management has become essential component of corporate management strategy. The technique may be applied to collection, segregation, processing and disposal of organic waste in a city. Present paper attempts to understand the current way of disposing organic waste in area of Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and the possibility to apply the technique of Supply Chain Management for the same task, by using stake holder model. Technologically stake holders bring about new communication, coordination and encapsulation frame works aimed in providing value to users. Researcher is interested in applying stake holder’s technologies for designing and controlling the dynamic behaviour of supply chain.

Keywords: Supply chain Management, stake holders, simulation, coordination, design technology, Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), segregation
Impact of Distillery Effluent on germination and seedling growth of Pisum sativum L.

Impact of Distillery Effluent on germination and seedling growth of Pisum sativum L.

Authors: Kamini Narain, Mohd. Muzamil Bhat and Mohammad Yunus
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Experimental effects of post-treated effluent from the outlet of anaerobic treatment plant (treated effluent), discharged from a distillery unit were studied in Pisum sativum. The physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent indicate that it is alkaline and rich in chlorides and total dissolved solids (TDS). Effluent colour is dark brown and has a pungent smell. Distillery effluent did not show any inhibitory effect on seed germination, vigor index, root length, shoot length and dry weight at a lower concentration (25%).

Keywords: Distillery effluent; germination percent; vigor index; plant biomass
Macrozoobenthic Community as Biological Indicators of Pollution in river Jhelum, Kashmir

Macrozoobenthic Community as Biological Indicators of Pollution in river Jhelum, Kashmir

Authors: Syed Abida, Mohammad Farooq Mir, Syed Ifshana, Showkat Ali Mir and I. A. Ahangar.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

A detailed limnological study of the River Jhelum, Kashmir was conducted during February 2011 to July 2011. Six study sites were selected for the collection of samples. The physico-chemical parameters of water and population density of three phyla viz, Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca were determined. The ionic composition of water of the River varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body. The River Jhelum receiving all sorts of allochthonus material from the catchment had the highest conductivity. The water of the River was well buffered with pH > 7. A total of 21 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded from the system. Arthropoda was most dominant group constituting 54.7%, followed by Annelida 28.9% and Mollusca contributed 16.4% of total macrozoobenthos . The hard and stony bottomed sites were dominated by insects belonging to orders Ephemeroptera, Tricoptera and Diptera. Significant changes in macrozoobenthic communities were primarily due to changes in water quality. As elsewhere, macrozoobenthic communities proved to be good indicators of water quality and should be used as bioindicators in long-term monitoring of this river.

Keywords: Bioindicators, Macrozoobenthic community, River Jhelum, Water quality
Dyeing of Cotton Fabric with Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes Using Single Mordants: Comparison of Fastness Properties and Colour Strength

Dyeing of Cotton Fabric with Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes Using Single Mordants: Comparison of Fastness Properties and Colour Strength

Authors: Kumaresan M., Palanisamy P.N., Kumar P.E.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Bleached cotton fabric was dyed with natural dyes obtained from the stem of Achrassapota and flower of Spathodeacampanulata. The colour fastness properties and colour strength of dyed cotton fabric were determined and compared. From the comparative study of fastness properties and colour strength of the dyed cotton samples, Spathodeacampanulata in simultaneous mordanting method with 3% mordant combination gives better results as compared to the natural dye obtained from stem of Achrassapota.

Keywords: Achrassapota,Cotton, Fastness, Mordants, Natural dye,Spathodeacampanulata
Evaluation of Water Table Dynamics in Relation to Soil Morphological Indicators of Seasonal Wetness

Evaluation of Water Table Dynamics in Relation to Soil Morphological Indicators of Seasonal Wetness

Authors: Humphrey, C.P., Harris, J., and O'Driscoll, M.A.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Soil morphological features such as low chroma (2 or less) soil colors are used as indicators of the seasonal high water table (SHWT) for onsite wastewater system (OWS) design in North Carolina and many other states. OWS drainfield trenches are installed at least 30 cm above the low chroma colors to ensure aerobic conditions for wastewater treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of low chroma soil colors in predicting the depth of the SHWT for some common soil series in Pitt County, North Carolina. Monitoring wells with automated water level loggers were installed at 7 locations and programmed to record water levels every 0.5 hours during the typical wet season from December 2011 to May 2012. Soil profiles were described, including the depth to low chroma colors, during the installation of the monitoring wells. An automated rain gauge was used to record hourly precipitation. Rainfall and well hydrograph data were used with the weighted rainfall index interpretation method to determine the depth to SHWT. The depth to SHWT was compared to the depth of low chroma colors to assess accuracy. The depths to SHWT were on average 9 ± 26 cm greater than low chroma color depths. However, for 3 of 7 sites, the SHWT was closer to the surface than the low chroma colors. Also, the low chroma soil colors and SHWT depths varied by an absolute value of 20 ± 16 cm. The use of low chroma soil colors for OWS design in some soils may result in less than 30 cm of separation to the actual SHWT, possibly reducing OWS treatment efficiency.

Keywords: Redoximorphic, soil colors, groundwater, onsite wastewater
Effect of Different Herbicides on the Nodulation Property of Rhizobial Isolates

Effect of Different Herbicides on the Nodulation Property of Rhizobial Isolates

Authors: Patil Vishwas Shankar, Shaikh N. R. and Patil Sharmishtha Vishwas
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The soil bacteria Rhizobium species in association with leguminous plants play vital role in agriculture. The amount of nitrogen (N) supplied by fixation depends on the ability of the inoculant rhizobia to fix nitrogen and also on the ability of the plant to provide energy to the rhizobia in the nodules. Many factors that influence either the rhizobia directly or the ability of the plant to send energy to the nodules have a negative impact on nitrogen fixation and ultimately, crop yield. Application of pesticides both in crop and soil is known to affect plant growth and microbial activity. Attempt was made to isolate Rhizobia from the roots of wild legumes and studying their nodulation property in presence of most commonly used herbicides. Three herbicides namely 2,4 D amine salt, Round Up & Atrazine were used for this experiment. We found as the herbicide conc. is increased from below MIC,MIC level and Above MIC level, the shoot length of plants, dry wt. of plant shoot, total root nodule number of plants and dry wt. of nodules was decreased. There was no development of nodules on side root system of plants and the decreased vigor in plants was observed.

Keywords: Rhizobium, nitrogen fixation, herbicides
Evaluation of Tolerant plant species in Urban Environment: A case study from Hyderabad, India

Evaluation of Tolerant plant species in Urban Environment: A case study from Hyderabad, India

Authors: Uma Devi Randhi and M. Anji Reddy
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

For the evaluation of tolerant capacity of the plant species to air pollution, four physiological and bio-chemical parameters namely leaf Relative Water Content, Ascorbic acid, leaf Chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used. By computing these parameters together in a formulation, it signifies the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. In the present study, sixteen plant species were selected which are commonly growing in different areas like residential areas, traffic areas, industrial areas and peri-urban areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. On the basis of tolerance index value, the plant species were characterized into sensitive, intermediately tolerant, moderately tolerant and tolerant plant species. Delonix regia Hook., Peltophorum pterocarpum DC., Alestonia scholaris L., Ficus religiosa L., Samania saman Jacq. and Azardirachta indica A. Juss. expressed high APTI values and these are suitable sinks to mitigate the air pollution. Millingtonia hortensis L.f., Clerodendrum paniculatum L., Terminalia arjuna Roxb., Pongamia pinnata L., Polyalthia longifonia Sonn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertner. showed intermediate tolerance capacity and the other four plant species Syzygium cumin L.i, Terminalia catappa L., Swietenia mahagoni L. and Saraca indica L. acts as bio-indicators of air pollution stress as these are sensitive to the air pollution.

Keywords: Bio-indicator, Air Pollution Tolerance Index, Chlorophyll content and ascorbic acid
Seasonal Variation in Zooplankton Community Structure of Anchar lake, Kashmir

Seasonal Variation in Zooplankton Community Structure of Anchar lake, Kashmir

Authors: I. A. Ahangar, D. N. Saksena and M. F. Mir
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Anchar Lake was studied for a period of one year from June 2010 to May 2011 for regular physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton community structure. The study was designed to estimate zooplankton abundance qualitatively and quantitatively. Collections were taken on monthly basis. Biodiversity of zooplankton has been calculated using Shannon- Weiner index. The zooplankton community was composed of 08 species of Rotifera, 06 species of Protozoa, 07 species of Cladocera, 02 species of Copepoda and 01 species of Ostracoda. Numerically Crustacea was the dominant Class throughout the study period. Although 24 species have been identified at various stations in the Anchar lake but Centropyxis aculeata, Keratella cochlearis, K. Valga, Alona affinis, Daphnia magna, Chydorous sphaericus, Macrothrix rosea and Cyclops bicuspidatus are common species at all stations. The abundance of zooplankton in the lake follows a sequence as: Rotifera > Cladocera > Protozoa > Copepoda > Ostracoda. Correlation between various physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton density was calculated according to Karl- Pearson’s formula. Some of the changes in zooplankton community structure was found associated with seasonal changes in temperature and nutrient content of water.

Keywords: Physico-chemical parameter, zooplankton, Correlation, biodiversity and Shannon-Wiener index
Effect of Diesel Fuel Contamination on Seed Germination and Growth of Four Agricultural Crops

Effect of Diesel Fuel Contamination on Seed Germination and Growth of Four Agricultural Crops

Authors: Jyoti Luhach and Smita Chaudhry
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Plant toxicity bioassays through fast germinating agricultural crops can indicate the phytoremediation potential, effects on growth and survival and also assess extent of pollution. In the present study, the phytotoxic effect of diesel fuel contamination was studies on four agricultural crops namely Zea mays, Vigna radiata, Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum at four levels of contamination. All the test plant species tolerated diesel fuel contamination at 2.5 - 5% levels and the total percent seed germination was between 43.7 to 86.7%. But fourth treatment level (7.5% diesel) significantly reduced the germination in Zea mays (74% decrease) followed by Pennisetum glaucum (67% decrease). Diesel fuel contamination also caused a reduction in the length of the radicle of the four crop plants studied. At 5% level of contamination, the longest radicle (1.92 cm) was recorded in Vigna radiata followed by Zea mays (1.36 cm). Also at 10% level of diesel contamination these two test species showed more radicle growth than Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum. There was a reduction of radicle growth of all the species in subsequent treatment levels. Almost same trend was observed in plumule growth of all four species. Phytotoxicity bioassays results revealed that Zea mays and Vigna radiata species exhibited better growth and germination even at high concentration of diesel as compared to Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum. Hence, these two species have higher potential for phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soils.

Keywords: Diesel, Phytotoxicity, Contamination, Germination, Bioassay, Phytoremediation
Antibiotic Resistance, Plasmid and RAPD Profiles of Multidrug-resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Samples of Ghaziabad City, India

Antibiotic Resistance, Plasmid and RAPD Profiles of Multidrug-resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Samples of Ghaziabad City, India

Authors: Abhay Raj
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of the present work is to study the antibiotic resistance, plasmid and RAPD profiles of the multidrug resistant (MDR) Coliform bacteria isolated from raw and treated sewage of Ghaziabad city, India. The MDR bacterial population in the raw and treated sewage constituted 7.5% and 19.1% of the total Coliform bacteria respectively. Five MDR Coliform bacteria (2 from raw and 3 from treated sewage) were isolated and identified as Enterobacter spp. by morphological and biochemical tests. These MDR strains were resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics including amikacin. Plasmid isolation studies showed that all MDR strains harboured a single plasmid of approximately 54.4 kb size. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of genomic DNA produced three RAPD profiles and showed variation between the raw and treated sewage isolates. Further, MDR strain R1 that was resistant to all 16 antibiotics tested showed plasmid-mediated resistance which was confirmed by plasmid curing study.

Keywords: MDR, Coliform bacteria, Antibiotics, Sewage samples, Plasmid, RAPD profile

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