International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences

International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Blue Apple Publications
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/23

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Agricultural Science, Biochemistry, Plant Sciences, Soil Sciences, Zoology and Animal Science, Agricultural Economics
  • Publisher's keywords: Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Animal Sciences, Soil Science, Biochemistry & Agricultural Chemistry, Plant Breeding & Genetics
  • Language of fulltext: english

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 150 EUR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2012
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '700' articles

Striga and ways of control

Striga and ways of control

Authors: Einallah Hesammi
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Abstract

Obligate parasitic plant witchweed (Striga spp) infects major cereal crops such as sorghum, maize, and millet, and is the most devastating weed pest . An understanding of the nature of its parasitism would contribute to the development of more sophisticated management methods. The Striga Technology Extension Project is an on-farm promotion activity that focused upon mobilising new approaches to striga control, specifically herbicide-resistant maize and legume suppression. The first year project goals were to deploy imazapyr-resistant maize and other innovative striga control technologies in a way that leads to the reduction of Striga in maize croplands and to introduce new striga management products to farmers through innovative input supply mechanisms. Striga is difficult to control once it gets bad, but understanding its life cycle can help prevent it getting bad in areas which are as yet uninfected. For this reason it is important to understand the life cycle. In the Striga control methods, the hoe weeded check resulted in lower grain yield as compared to plots that received followed by post –emergence Triclopyr 2,4 Deach at the rate of 0.36 kg a.i/ha or supplementary hoe- weeding.

Keywords: Striga, Control , Ways
Allelopathic effects of weedsl on germination and initial growth

Allelopathic effects of weedsl on germination and initial growth

Authors: Einallah Hesammi
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Abstract

Recently weed scientist are more interested in weed management by allelopathy . In order to determination of Allelophatic effects of Carthamus oxyacantha and Chenopodium mural extract on the Phasaeolous vulgaris grains germination, during 2011-2012, one experiment in the completely randomized blocks design with 4 repetition carried out in the laboratory of agricultural collage of Azad university in the shoushtar city. The test treatments were included different rates of Various parts extract of Carthamus oxyacantha and Chenopodium mural consist of organ, root, and combining both of them, as well as, densities 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent. Experimental units were Petri dishes in depth and diameter 3 and 9 Cm, respectively. The germination and its rate, rootlet length, dry weight of Phasaeolous vulgaris plat let evaluated according to ISTA (International seed Testing Association). The results indicated that extract of Carthamus oxyacantha and Chenopodium mural to have significant and various allelophatic effects upon Phasaeolous vulgaris grains germination. But germination characteristic, length and dry weight of radical (rootlet) were decreased for the reason build up extract density. A Phasaeolous vulgaris plan, showed that it has more sensitivity to Carthamus oxyacantha extract, particularly that, root. The most allelophatic effects is related to extract of Carthamus oxyacantha root and Chenopodium mural aerial organs.

Keywords: Germination, Allelophaty, Phasaeolous vulgaris , Carthamus oxyacantha, Chenopodium mural
Immunosensor techniques (Electrochemical, SPR and QCM) used in Food Safety

Immunosensor techniques (Electrochemical, SPR and QCM) used in Food Safety

Authors: Shravani Shastry
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Abstract

The greatest challenge confronted by food processing industries in both developed as well as developing countries are the detection of pathogens and fungal toxins. Immunosensors claims to be one such analytical method that offers high potential in food safety sector due to their low cost per analysis. Immunosensors have shown fast response and reduced sample preparations as compared to other conventional techniques used like HPLC, PCR and ELISA. Also, conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods, immunology-based methods and polymerase chain reaction based methods take up to several hours or even a few days to yield a result for the detection of bacterial pathogen and toxin in food. Immunosensors have shown potential of online or on -field applications, which saves lengthy and tedious job of detecting pathogens and toxins. The prospect of incorporating of nanoparticles have enhanced the potential of Immunosensors for monitoring of several analytes and miniaturisation especially in Immunosensors based on Electrochemical, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Quartz Crystal Microbalance techniques. Immunosensor technology can have an impact on food safety if the developed devices will be able to produce wide-ranging data on emerging pathogens. Sensitivity of Immunosensors still remains an area of concern, but further research will surely improve upon their features without compromising the cost.

Keywords: Immunosensor, Biosensor, E.coli, PCR
The Effect of Sowing Date on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Content of Three Spring Safflower Cultivars under Full Irrigation in Tabriz (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

The Effect of Sowing Date on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Content of Three Spring Safflower Cultivars under Full Irrigation in Tabriz (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: B. Daltalab , H. Kazemi- Arbat and E. Khalilvand-Behrouzyar
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Abstract

To study the effects of sowing date on seed yield and oil yield, its components and oil content of three spring safflower varieties a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during spring 2010 at Agricultural Research Station, Agriculture Faculty Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Iran. Treatments in this study consisted of four levels for sowing date (26April, 2 May, 8 May, and 14May) and three safflower varieties (Mex33, Isfahan, Goldasht). Analysis of variance showed that late planting (26April) reduced seed yield and oil yield, seed number per head, head number per plant, 1000-seed weight and oil content of seed. The highest seed yield was observed in the first planting date (2267 kg/ha) and the lowest seed yield at the forth sowing date (1124 kg/ha). The highest head number per plant was obtained at first planting date (13.44) and the lowest was at the forth sowing date (6.77).The highest seed number per head was obtained at first planting date (57.78) and the lowest at the forth sowing date (36). The highest 1000-seed weight at first planting date (37.78gr) and lowest 1000-seed weight at the forth sowing date (26.33gr). The highest oil yield was obtained from first planting date (782.60 kg/ha) and lowest from fourth sowing date (292 kg/ha). Also, effect of sowing date on oil percentages gets no significant.

Keywords: Oil yield, Safflower, Seed yield, Sowing date
Effects of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) cultivars

Effects of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) cultivars

Authors: P. Moradi, M. Zavareh
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Abstract

In order to evaluate the effects of NaCl salinity on germination and early seedling growth ofchickpea cultivars, a CRD based factorial experiment with four replications was carried out inAgronomy Lab. of the Universityof Guilan, I. R,Iran.Seven chickpea cultivars (Hashem, Arman, Azad, Jam, Bevanig, ILC482, and Greet) were exposed to six NaCl based saline solution (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 dS m-1) beside distilled water as control. The rate and percentage germination, root and shoot length, root, shoot and seedling dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio were investigated. The results indicate that effect of cultivar × salinity weren’t significant on germination percentage and seedling dry weight. Cultivars and salinity had significant effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight, separately. The highest root and shoot length and shoot dry weight were related to “Arman” and “Bevanij” cultivars, respectively. The highest and lowest value for the root dry weight represented from Hashem and Greet cultivars. It was concluded that genetic variation exists among them in terms of early seedling growth rate under stress condition. In among cultivars, Arman showed higher resistance to increase of salinity.

Keywords: Chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.), NaCl, Percentage germination, Root weight and shoot dry weight
Agroecology and application in agriculture

Agroecology and application in agriculture

Authors: Einallah Hesammi
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Abstract

Agroecology combines scientific inquiry with indigenous and community-based experimentation, emphasizing technology and innovations that are knowledge-intensive, low cost and readily adaptable by small and medium-scale producers. These methods are considered likely to advance social equity, sustainability and agricultural productivity over the long term. Collaborative structures that emphasize co-learning, social networks of innovation, and building capacity in flexible place-based decision-making have proven more effective than conventional top-down transfers of technology in the developing world. Partnerships that focus on inclusion and meaningful participation, particularly by historically marginalized groups, contribute to the design and implementation of solutions that are robust precisely because they are appropriate. Research has shown that peasant sys-tems, which mostly rely on local resources and complex cropping patterns, are reasonably productive despite their land endowments and low use of external inputs. Moreover analysis of ngo-led agro ecological initia-tives show that traditional crop and animal systems can be adapted to increase productivity by biological lyre-structuring peasant farms which in turn leads to optimization of key agro ecosystem processes (nutrient cycling, organic matter accumulation, biological pest regulation, etc.) andefficient use of labor and local resources. Examples of such grassroots projects are herein described to show that agro ecological approaches can offer opportunities to substantially increase food production while preserving the natural resource baseband empowering rural communities.

Keywords: agroecology, sustainable agriculture
Farmer-Friendly Strategies of Managing Weeds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Production

Farmer-Friendly Strategies of Managing Weeds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Production

Authors: Ojowi D.O , Ariga E.S, Michieka R.W and Kimenju J.W
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Abstract

Weed control constitutes one of the main cost items in carrot production. The current study was conducted at the field station farm, University of Nairobi in 2011 with the aim of developing a cost-effective strategy of managing weeds and increasing the competitive ability of the crop against weeds. The weed control strategies tested in RCBD were replicated three times; black plastic mulch, grass mulch, herbicides (Linuron and oxyfluorfen), mulch / herbicide combinations, foliar feed fertilizer/ one hand weeding combinations, foliar feed fertilizer / 1.5 cm grass mulch combination, hand weeding every two weeks, famers practice (two hand weeding), and control (no weeding). Data on weeds and crop were collected and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using Genstat (Dicovery edition 3 by VSN international), statistical program. Means were separated using Duncan multiple range tests at P<0.0.5, using Genstart Computer package. Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L), black jack (Bidens pilosa L) and oxalis (Oxalis latifolia L) were the most common weeds in the experimental plots. Efficacy of weed control and carrot yields significantly differed. Black polythene achieved (99.2% weed control and 33,984 kg/ha yield; Linuron (78%; 26,544 Kg/ha) and two hand weeding (19%; 14168 kg/ha). It was concluded that mulching is an effective strategy of reducing weed growth in carrots. Foliar feed application imparts competitive ability in the crop against weeds.

Keywords: Herbicide, mulching materials, foliar feed fertilizer, weed control efficiency, yield components
Human Resource Development in Agriculture Extension and Advisory Services in Kenya

Human Resource Development in Agriculture Extension and Advisory Services in Kenya

Authors: M. C. Lopokoiyit, C Onyango1, J. K. Kibett and B.K. Langat
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Abstract

Agriculture extension and advisory services is a multidisciplinary discipline based on human interaction seeking to improve the livelihoods of farming communities and individuals by providing information and technologies. The training of extension staff is important as it has a bearing on their effectiveness in the office and in the field. This study sought to determine the HRD activities in agricultural extension and advisory services in the public and private sector. The study was done in 5 counties in Kenya and a total of 440 agricultural extension agents were sampled from the public and private extension service. HRD activities focused on formal and inservice training. 68 % of the respondents had attended formal education to improve their education with the majority 63.5 percent, having trained at the diploma level from certificate level while 21.1 % had undergone training at the degree level from diploma level. The main areas of specialization were Agricultural education (34.1 %), General agriculture (28.1 %) and Horticulture (11.7 %). The inclusion of non-agricultural areas of specialization such as Sustainable development and Strategic planning and management show the multidisciplinary nature of agriculture. In-service courses attended were in the form of short courses, seminars, or workshops. These were clustered in five general areas; Crop Management, Management, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, and Animal Science. Most respondents (40.9 percent) had undergone training in Crop management which covered various crop enterprises from breeding to postharvest management. The shift of agricultural policy toward business orientation is reflected in 13.0 % the respondents specializing in Agricultural Economics. These HRD activities show commitment of agricultural extension providers to improve the competencies of their staff to deliver effective services to farmers. The wide range of formal and in-service courses attended also reflects the need to meet the management and technical requirements of a pluralistic and demand driven extension service.

Keywords: HRD, Extension service, Formal education, In-service training
Study of respond seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to different primings

Study of respond seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to different primings

Authors: Mohsen Lak, Seyed Mostafa Azimi, Abasalt Rostami Ajirloo, Morad Shaban , Foroozan Khodaei and Mitra Yarahmadi
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Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of different seed priming techniques on germination and morphological characters of barley an experiment was conducted in 2011_ in a factorial experiment based on the complete randomized block design with 2 factors in Iran. Seeds were primed for 20, 40 and 60 hours in seven priming media (PEG 5%, PEG 10%, KNO3 1%, KNO3 2%, KCl 2%, KCl 4% and distilled water as control). Maximum seed germination percentage was observed when seed primed by KNO3 2%. The most seedling length and radical length were obtained for seeds with KCl 2% for 60 h and KCl 4% respectively. Rate of germination was improved when the seed soaked KNO3 2% compared with PEG, KCL and water. Increasing of seed soaking duration improved some parameters such as seedlings length, radicle length, stem dry weight and rate of germination. There was interaction between seed priming media × priming duration showed the beneficial effects on number of germination and seedling length.

Keywords: Germination, PEG, priming and seed
Library research, some strategies for weed management in organic farming

Library research, some strategies for weed management in organic farming

Authors: Einallah Hesammi, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam
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Abstract

organic farmers struggling to develop effective and economical weed management practices are not alone. Weed control in organically managed special attention to preventing weed problems before they start. Cover crops planted and mechanical controls of weeds in the vine row are key components of an organic weed management program. Typically combinations of methods are used in organic situations. Drip irrigation, Manually pulling weeds, Boiling water, Vinegar, Mechanically tilling around plants, Besides tilling, other mechanical weed control methods also exist Ploughing, Crop rotation, Weed mat, A weed mat is an artificial mulch, fibrous cloth material, bark or newspaper laid on top of the soil preventing weeds from growing to the surface. Therefore; weed management in organic farming, using no application of chemical weed control capability and their density in the long term.

Keywords: weeds, Organic management, control
Effect of tillage methods on Eggplant yield in north of Khuzestan, Iran

Effect of tillage methods on Eggplant yield in north of Khuzestan, Iran

Authors: Elham Tayari
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Abstract

Eggplant is one of the crops that has transferred from farms to great greenhouses. Its yield has increased from 15 tons when was grown in the field to 75 tons per hectare in greenhouse. Preparing of land is one of the important steps in greenhouse crop production. Two methods of Eggplant including Subsoil and Bed and Disk were applied. The experiment was split plot a completely randomized block design with 4 replications and treatments 8 was conducted. The interaction between tillage could produce 557 grams Eggplant per each plant. When eggplants were planted the second season yield for the subsoil and bed showed an increase of 14.6 percent. The subsoil and bed treatment showed an slight increase in fruit size and also produced more fruit per acre by 8.7 percent. The increase in yield for the eggplant could be attributed to eggplants being a deep rooted plat as apposed to cantaloupe which is shallower rooted.

Keywords: Tillage, Greenhouse, Eggplant, subsoiler, disk
Repayment Performance of Rural Farmers Loan Beneficiaries of Microfinance Banks in Kogi State, Nigeria (2005 – 2010)

Repayment Performance of Rural Farmers Loan Beneficiaries of Microfinance Banks in Kogi State, Nigeria (2005 – 2010)

Authors: M.Abula , J.O. Otitolaiye, S.J. Ibitoye, and J.S. Orebiyi
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Abstract

The study assessed the repayment performance of rural farmer’s loan beneficiaries of Microfinance Banks in Kogi State, Nigeria, using primary and secondary data. Two hundred and forty respondents were sampled, using the multi-stage random sampling. Statistical and econometric techniques such as means, percentages and regression were used for the analysis. Empirical results revealed that, volume of loan borrowed, Annual Household income and size of farm affected repayment by beneficiaries and were significant at P≥0.01. The mean age, years spent in school, household size, farming experience, farm size, and farm income were found to be 44years, 13years, 8persons, 34.5years, 3.45ha and N75,000 respectively. The mean loan repayment performance of respondents for all the agricultural enterprises was found to be 88.96%. To achieve a better repayment performance, group lending and credit delivery method now a common features of Microfinance credit delivery should be encouraged and sustained.

Keywords: Microfinance Banks, loan beneficiaries, repayment performance, rural farmers, credit delivery, delinquent
Soil Response to Compaction (A Case study in north of Khuzestan, Iran)

Soil Response to Compaction (A Case study in north of Khuzestan, Iran)

Authors: Amin reza Jamshidi, Elham Tayari
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Abstract

Soil compaction is a process whereby soil bulk density increases. Compaction of agricultural soils may be caused by artificial means through use of heavy machinery currently used in agricultural and land reclamation practices and through animal grazing. Techniques that could minimize compaction include determining appropriate moisture for trafficking, use of amendments, cropping system and grazing management. The response of three different texted soils to compaction under varying soil moistures was investigated. Either field capacity or plastic limit, whichever is less, can be used as threshold moisture content in order to indicate compaction hazard. For al1 three soils the addition of fly ash significantly (P≤0.05) decreased plasticity index, and thus reduced soi1 susceptibility to compaction.

Keywords: Soil compaction, Tillage, Bulk density, Plastic limited
Mineral contents and some physico-chemical properties of some commercial sesame seeds used in halva (sweet) production

Mineral contents and some physico-chemical properties of some commercial sesame seeds used in halva (sweet) production

Authors: Mehmet Musa Özcan , Mustafa Harmankaya and Züleyha Endes
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Abstract

The mean heavy metal and minerals of sesame seeds were determined by ICP-AES. The mean values of Ca, Mg, K, P and S contents of seeds varied from 7815, 1927, 4426, 3945 and 2228 (mg/Kg, dw), respectively. In addition, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B, Mo and Cr values of sesame seeds were found at the levels between 63.27 to 254.28, 28.31 to 36.31, 15.06 to 19.76, 11.53 to 26.24, 8.36 to 10.78, 0.447 to 1.440 and 0.148 to 0.631 (mg/Kg, dw), respectively. In regard to protein contents of sesame seeds, the mean protein values of seeds were found between 21.83 (Nigeria Maidaguri) to 25.77 % (Etiopia Volega). Ash levels of samples were found between 2.6% (.Afganistan) to 3.4% (Nigeria Maidaguri). Crude oil contents of hulled sesame seeds were established between 57% (Mozambic) to 65% (Afganistan).

Keywords: sesame seed, minerals, protein, ash, oil, ICP-AES
A Study on Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Growth Conditions in Various Geographical Directions in Natural Ecosystems (Case Study: Ardabil Province Fandoqlu forests)

A Study on Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Growth Conditions in Various Geographical Directions in Natural Ecosystems (Case Study: Ardabil Province Fandoqlu forests)

Authors: Hamid Emkani Nane Karan , Asadollah Motaji, Reza Akhavan and Hadi Kiadaliri
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Abstract

The following research studies hazelnut (Corylus avellana) growth conditions in various geographical directions in natural ecosystems in a case study from Ardabil Province Fandoqlu forests. To achieve this, habitat range was determined on 1:100000 map through initial circulation forest and studying forest areas. By preparing slope, direction and altitude maps and integrating them in GIS software, land unit maps were provided and finally, 4 land units in hazelnut habitat were determined to study. 16 sample plots were randomly harvested and in each sample plot quantitative parameters (number of hazelnut species group shoot per hectare, number of legs in each group shoot, diameter at breast height group shoot) were measured. Research results suggested that hazelnut species were deployed in geographical directions if north, south and west along with areas without any directions in Fandoqlu forests. North direction is the best geographical direction for growing hazelnut in Ardabil Province Fandoqlu forests.

Keywords: Hazelnut habitat, Geographical direction, Ardabil province fandoqlu forests

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