When and how does forced migration strain security relations between neighbouring
States? Drawing from secondary research on two interstate conﬂicts in Africa’s Great
Lakes Region during the 1970s and 1990s, I examine the socio-political conditions in both
the migrants’ home and recipient States that interweave migrants into both States’ security
calculations. I argue that refugees strain neighbouring States’ security relations under
conditions of domestic socio-political violence, geographical proximity, and opportunities
for refugees’ forced-return mobilisation. Evidence from the 1978-79 Uganda-Tanzania
war, and the post-1994 DRC-Rwanda conﬂict, indicates that given these conditions
forced migration strains interstate security relations by arousing suspicion and fear of
migrants living in neighbouring States among leaders of refugees’ home country; and
provoking migrants’ desire to forcefully return home expressed through politico-military
mobilisation and declaration of war. Sending States pressure host States to ‘contain’
refugees’ mobilisation for forceful return. When recipient States are unable or unwilling
to satisfy sending States’ demands, refugees become infused in both countries’ security
calculations. These convergent processes generate interstate conﬂicts and may result in
armed confrontation. The fndings are useful for grasping the transformation of civil wars
into transnational and regional conﬂicts, such as prevailed in the Region since the 1990s.
Keywords: Forced Migration, Inter-State Conﬂict, Great Lakes Region, Uganda-Tanzania War, Rwanda-DRC Wars
Against a backdrop of continuing discussion on the challenges faced by the apparel industry
in Sri Lanka, the human involvement is yet to be considered as a signifcant organizational
element. Therefore this study empirically examined the impact of job satisfaction and
employee education on employee effciency in the apparel industry with reference to the
The study was aimed to examine the problem “Is there an impact of job satisfaction and
employee education on employee effciency?”This study was conducted from a randomly
selected sample of 90 respondents from an Apparel organization by administrating a
structured questionnaire, which consisted of 37 questions that featured a 6 point scale.
The sample of the study only consisted of machine operators.
For the purpose of analyzing both descriptive and dummy variables regression was used.
Descriptive analysis was used to clarify the basic features of the sample. In order to examine
the relationship employee effciency has with job satisfaction and employee education, an
ANOVA model was constructed. The constructed ANOVA model for the study is as follows.
EF = β0+ β1D1 + β2D2 +β3D3 + U
The fndings of the research revealed that there was no positive relationship between
employee effciency, job satisfaction and education and it was statistically confrmed
by rejecting the two hypotheses. According to the study, the researcher observed that
employee effciency neither relates to employee job satisfaction nor the level of education
of employees since they work to achieve their day to day targets.
Keywords: Employee Effciency, Job Satisfaction, Employee Education, Machine Operators
Former British colony Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) developed the University of Ceylon,
Peradeniya as a model for the region. Its academic staff in the Social Sciences had their
intellectual roots in the British or US traditions of scholarship due to their postgraduate
training and research in these countries. Up to the early 1970s, there was a thriving
academic atmosphere along with knowledge production and dissemination activities but
this started to deteriorate with the socio-economic and political changes, changes in the
language of instruction and the composition of the student body. A brain drain contributed
to the creation of a different practitioner community of Anthropologists and Sociologists in
the universities whose focus was more inward looking. Its links to Western traditions of
scholarship also became weaker.
Being a participant in this process from early 1970s up to the mid 1980s, the author
uses his reﬂections and experiences to recount the changing nature of Anthropology and
Sociology practice, theoretical emphasis, players involved, and the role of two research
centres established outside the university system. The paper looks at the views of three
Sri Lankan Anthropologists and Sociologists who have expressed concerns about the
changing nature of teaching practices and constructed reality in Sri Lankan universities.
The author connects these with the ongoing debate about Northern vs. Southern theory
and prospects of alternative knowledge production articulated by Raewyn Connell.
Keywords: Southern Theory, Sri Lankan Anthropology and sociology, Higher education in Sri Lanka, alternative knowledge, Social Sciences in Sri Lanka, University of Ceylon (Peradeniya)
Focusing on three kinds of textual sources of Theravada Buddhism (the Pali canon, postcanonical Pali chronicles and medieval Sinhala literature), this paper examines whether
there is any justifcation of violence in Theravada Buddhism. Though Buddhism has
recognized the relative merits of the use of mild forms of force in certain rare circumstances,
by advocating a path of non-violence as one of its central doctrines Buddhism has rejected
the use of violence even as a skill-in-means (Skt. upayakausalya). The paper thus examines
justifcations both for violence and non-violence within the Theravada Buddhist tradition.
It evaluates controversial discussions of violence in the post-canonical Pali chronicle,
the Mahavamsa, in which one fnds a rare case of justifying violence in the attempt to
explain potential war crimes of King Duttagamani. By comparing Mahavamsa’s views with
Pali canonical literature, the paper argues that both in theory and practice Theravada
Buddhism does not profess violence.Asserting that violence cannot be justifed under any
circumstance, violence and its manifestations in Buddhist societies can be viewed as a
deviation from the teachings of the Buddha.
Keywords: Justifcations of Violence, Theravada Buddhism, Morality of War, Sri Lanka
Soft Power is a relatively new term that has emerged in international relations. Coined by
Joseph S. Nye in the 1990s, it emphasizes on power embedded in culture and exerting
inﬂuence through non-coercive forms. Soft power, however, defnes power predominantly
in terms of power relations among states and gives little or no signifcance to power relations
within a state. Furthermore, even though considerable literature has been written on the
role of the military in inter-state relations, there is little research on the internal exercise of
soft power through military means. Taking a step further, this paper seeks to analyze the
internal soft power of the military in post-war Sri Lanka by opening a new window to look
at the often criticized development interventions of the armed forces in the aftermath of the
conﬂict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
Keywords: Soft Power, Hard Power, Military Soft Power, National Security
Even though demographic trends of becoming an ageing society have been evident for
some years now, ageing and the aged is yet to be a topic in serious social policy dialog in
Sri Lanka. Having a hard look at the changes occurring in current informal care systems
for the aged and the challenges it presents, and reviewing existing social policy in relation
to aged care in the country is an important timely requirement. It will enable us to identify
the gulfs within current systems, both formal and informal, and give new directions to deal
with the challenges. It will also facilitate us lessons to be learnt from other successful
systems around the world and will be an action of putting tomorrow’s crucial issue on
today’s agenda. This paper prepares the background for a policy discussion drawing
on some important implications from successful ‘positive approach to ageing’ policy in
Australia. The author’s opinion is that Australia demonstrates a remarkably spirited social
consciousness that ageing is not a standalone issue needing Band-Aid policy responses,
but rather is an achievement, and to make much out of it, it has to be looked at and
responded to from within the entire social system. Therefore, policy and programmeme
response to ageing has taken a broad, integrated, holistic and futuristic perspective and
the country is moving fast from residential care to community care approach – a shift from
dependency model to active model of response. There is much Sri Lanka can learn from it.
Keywords: Aged Care, Social Policy, Positive Ageing, Australia, Active Model of Response
Recent advances made in the feld of technology have had a drastic impact on language.
Conventional rules of language for written and spoken varieties have succumbed to
many a change. Consequently, these changes have led to the emergence of unique sub
varieties of language. Senders of text messages, simultaneously, have taken advantage
of this opportunity, not simply to exchange information in creative ways but also to create,
communicate and preserve their individual and collective identities in this digital space.
Texters, especially in Sri Lanka, have demonstrated that the SMS environment has
metamorphosed into a contrivance by which they can negotiate and maintain various
Keywords: Discourse, Short Message Service (SMS), Identity, Sri Lankan English (SLE), Language Varieties, Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
This paper elaborates on how and in what ways the nineteenth century nationalist unrest
motivated local elite groups to work together to restore traditional medicine in Sri Lanka
which underwent a signifcant decline as a result of foreign rule for more than four hundred
years. It narrates the activities organised by the Ceylon Reformed Society and the
Oriental Medical Fund in the context of the colonial government’s decision to provide state
sponsorship to traditional medicine between 1900 and 1925. This paper is part of a PhD
research project which was carried out from 2005-10 employing qualitative data collection
and analysis methods to study the development of state patronage for traditional medicine
in Sri Lanka from 1900-1980. Research fndings reveal that activities carried out by the
said groups and organizations paved way for the institutionalisation of traditional medicine
on a fairly equal footing with Western medicine in pre-independence Sri Lanka.
Keywords: Ceylon/Sri Lanka, Traditional Medicine, Ceylon Reformed Society, Medical Fund, Colonial Rule
The presence or the absence of the Buddha is ambiguous in various contexts. Where to
fnd his existence regardless of time is a practically useful inquiry. The Buddhist canonical
teachings do not recommend any refuge in external power or authority. Yet the attitudes
of the followers and other students seem to question why not. As a result we fnd various
ways of manifestation of the Buddha in terms of statues and related rituals, symbols like
lighting a lamp, or visualization of the Buddha. Is the Buddha present in terms of statues
then? If yes, in which kinds of statues? Is he present otherwise, in terms of didactic stories?
The more we fnd the Buddha externally the more we fnd a distance and gap between the
Buddha and the practitioner. These inquiries will contribute to removing any distance and
gap between them and bring to light the clarity and indepth relationship of taking refuge in
the triple gem and practice of mindfulness.
Keywords: Refuge in the Buddha, Mindfulness, Practitioner, Canonical Teachings
BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies
catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force
of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery
sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities.
Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also
faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the
major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees.
Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the
employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and
providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level,
fnancial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identifed as having
a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratifed random
sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules,
and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured
questionnaire among selected associates.
Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as
graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such
as management inﬂuence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating,
time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had
an impact over the research fndings.
Keywords: Underperformance, On-Time-Delivery, Apparel Industry, Sri Lanka, Brandix Apparel Solutions
The present study is an empirical study conducted in selected slum areas of Solapur city
in the Maharashtra State of India. The study was conducted to fnd out the relationship
between poverty, politics and youth development, and has employed the participatory
observation method. The aim of the study was to fnd out the problems and consequences
of poverty in slum areas with reference to youth. In this regard, the study had made an
attempt to examine the political involvement of youths in slum areasto determine the degree
to which politics and politicians inﬂuence the dynamics of youth poverty in slums,andalso
to suggest possible solutions for the problem of slum youth poverty being manipulated
by politicians to serve socially costly ends. Towards this end, three hypotheses were
tested using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) which are as follows:1)
There is no relationship between poverty and youth development2) Youth and politics
are correlated with each other3) Slum youth are misguided by politicians. The fndings
of the study reveal that youth from slums are misled by politicians in slum areas and that
youth are largely unaware of the results of their deeds and get knowingly or unknowingly
involved in socially harmful activities. Further, youth who are poverty stricken are used in
the name of religion and caste for propaganda purposes to serve the vested interests of
politicians. This research paper will discuss in detail the various dimensions of pauperism
amongst slum youth, most of who live on less than a dollar a day.
Keywords: Poverty, Politics, Youth, Slums
This paper is a personal reﬂection on social work and what constitutes a social worker,
with special reference to Sri Lanka. Drawing from global literature, it observes that the feld
of social work has evolved to become a package of knowledge, skills, competencies, code
of ethics, and accreditation standards. Therefore, qualifed social workers today possess
a set of practical as well as academic competencies that is designed to address issues
not only at the macro and mezzo level, but also at the individual and family levels. The
paper argues that Sri Lanka has yet to adopt a multi-faceted social work approach like
this, and explores the possibility of enhancing the institutional capacity of the National
Institute for Social Development (the country’s only institute of higher education that offers
professional social work education) to deliver such approach.
Keywords: Social Work, Higher Education, National Institute for Social Development, Sri Lanka
This paper analyzes the causes of student political activism in Sri Lankan universities by
paying attention to the history of student politics starting from the 1960s when the frst
traces of such activism can be traced. Towards this end, it makes use of the analytical
framework proposed by David Finlay that explains certain conditions under which students
may be galvanized to engage in active politics. Analyzing different socio-political contexts
that gave rise to these movements, and the responses of incumbent governments to such
situations, it concludes that in order to mitigate the risk of youth getting involved in violent
politics, it is necessary to address larger structural issues of inequality.
Keywords: Student Politics, Violence, University Education, Sri Lanka
This essay analyses the implications of the state performing a welfare function for an
extended period of time in relation to the social contract between women citizens and the
state. It argues that a prolonged status of ‘welfare provider’ ascribes certain patriarchal
attributes to the state, which in turn reduces the position of the citizens, especially women,
to a mere ‘benefciary’ level. With the use of two specifc policy documents relating to public
health – Well Woman Clinic (WWC) programme launched in 1996, and the Population
and Reproductive Health (PRH) policy designed in 1998 – it shows that in the absence
of a rights based approach to public health, women have become mere benefciaries, as
opposed to active citizens, of the prolonged welfare State of Sri Lanka. This relationship
has deterred women citizens from exercising the right to demand their needs from the
Keywords: Welfarism, Social Contract, Women Citizens, Sri Lanka, Reproductive Health
The process of cultural transformation in South Asia has witnessed many phases both in
terms of political power and religion. Presently the Islamic faith seems to be forming the
newest phase of cultural transformation in South Asia whereby followers of Islam in the
region are increasing rapidly. This paper analyses the conditions which have prompted
this trend and their implications for the South Asian region with a focus on Sri Lanka.
It maps the social, economic, political, and cultural means by which the Islamic faith is
spreading in the country and region, and argues – drawing from previous studies – that
Islamization can have an adverse impact on the political stability of South Asia.
Keywords: Cultural Transformation, Islamization, South Asia, Sri Lanka