Journal of Herbal Drugs

Journal of Herbal Drugs

Basic info

  • Publisher: Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Feb/04

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Marketing, Agricultural Science, Biotechnology, Botany, Genetics, Plant Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacology, Toxicology
  • Publisher's keywords: Herbs, Cultivation or Agronomy, Breeding, Biotechnology, Marketing and Economy, Medicinal Plants, Genetic
  • Language of fulltext: english, persian
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '260' articles

Effect of Different Drying Methods on Some Biochemical Properties of Iranian Ox-tongue (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.)

Effect of Different Drying Methods on Some Biochemical Properties of Iranian Ox-tongue (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.)

Authors: Arash Saeedi; Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh
( 7 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Iranian ox-tongue (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.) is an endemic Iranian medicinal plant belongs to Boraginaceae family. The violet-blue petals of this plant have been used in traditional medicine. Drying is one of the most critical and fundamental operations in the postharvest processing of medicinal plants. Experimental: This research was carried out in Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch in 2015. The experiment was arranged based on completely randomized design with three repetitions. Drying methods are including sun and shade drying, oven-drying (45, 65 and 85∘C) and microwave drying (200, 300 and 400 W). Drying time of Iranian Ox-tongue petals and some biochemical properties such as total chlorophyll, the amount of carotenoids, anthocyanin content and total flavonoids were measured. Results: The results showed that different drying methods had significant effects on drying time, chlorophyll, carotenoids, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of Iranian ox-tongue petals. The maximum and minimum drying times were measured in shade drying and microwave 400 W, respectively. The anthocyanin content gradually decreased with the increase of oven temperatures and microwave powers. Also shade drying method had the highest amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids. Generally, regarding the biochemical composition, traditional shade drying is the optimum method for dying of Iranian ox-tongue petals. Recommended applications/industries: According to this study, shade drying could be recommended in terms of qualitative characteristics of mentioned medicinal plant.

Keywords: Drying methods  Iranian ox-tongue  Pigment content  Traditional drying
Comparative study of the effect of Eucalyptus extract on Candida albicans and human pathogenic bacteria

Comparative study of the effect of Eucalyptus extract on Candida albicans and human pathogenic bacteria

Authors: Zahra Dehbashi; Forough Forghani; seyed kazem sabbagh; Saeideh Saeidi
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: During recent decades, infections disease resulting from opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans and resistance increasing of human pathogenic bacteria to current antibiotics has led to many problems for treating of these diseases. The aims of the present study was to investigate anti-fungi and anti-bacterial effects of Eucalyptus extract on Candida albicans species isolated from clinical samples and some standard human pathogenic bacteria. Experimental: Eucalyptus extract was provided using rotary apparatus and maceration method. Thirty isolates of Candida albicans were isolated from referred patients to gynecologist and then were purified and identified by valid keys. Finally, 30 isolated were used to growth inhibitory activity assay. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eucalyptus extract against 5 standard bacteria inculding: Staphylococcus aureu, Shigella dysenteriae, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholera and Bacillus cereus were evaluated using micro broth dilution method. Results: Our results indicated that in compare to bacterial strains, fungus isolates showed more sensitivity to eucalyptus extract. The highest and lowest MIC of extract was recorded at 12.5 and 3.1 ppm for S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. As MIC, the maximum MBC (20ppm) and minimum MBC (5ppm) of extract was recorded fro S. aureus and B. cereus respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration of extract to fungal growth inhibitory was 50 ppm, whereas the maximum inhibiting concentration was 150 ppm. Recommended applications/industries: The positive and interesting results suggest the essential oil of E. globulus could be exploited antibiotic for the treatment of candidiasous disease caused by Candida albicans fungi, and some human pathogenic bacteria studied in this work.

Keywords: Anti-fungal activity  Anti-microbial activity  Minimum inhibitory concentration  E. globules  Candida albicans
The effect of foliar application of chitosan on yield and essential oil of savory (Saturejaisophylla L.) under salt stress

The effect of foliar application of chitosan on yield and essential oil of savory (Saturejaisophylla L.) under salt stress

Authors: Somayeh Salehi; zahra rezayatmand; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Satureja Isophylla L. is a medicinal herb which belongs to the family Lamiacease. Salinity affects the growth, the quality and quantity of essential oils of medicinal plants. Chitosan is also considered as a biological elicitor which plays a role in improving production of secondary metabolites of medicinal herbs. The current project was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of chitosan on growth indices and the quality and quantity of essential oil under salt stress (salinity). Experimental: In this study, savory was treated by chitosan at three levels (0, 0.2 and 0.4 g/l) and NaCl with three concentrations (0, 50, and 100mM). After a two-week treatment, the dry weight of the root and the stem, the herb height, and the number of leaves and lateral branches were measured. In addition, the composition of the herb's essential oil was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. Results: The results showed that salt stress decreased the dry weight of the root and stem, the herb height, and its number of leaves and lateral stems. Chitosan treatment could amend this reduction. Sodium chloride mutual treatment with the concentration of 50 mM as well as that of chitosan with the concentration of 0.2 g/l had a significant effect on the increase of the yield and quality of the essential oil. The results of the GC/MS analysis showed that 14 main compositions were detected in the essential oil, in which the major amount belonged to P-Cymene (3.13%), Y-Terpinene (28.97%) and Caryacrol ( 59.64%). The findings indicated that the utmost amount of Carvacrol was obtained by the increment of salt stress at the salt concentration of 100 mM and with chitosan concentration of 0.4 g/l; moreover, the greatest amount of P-Cymene and Y-Terpinene was obtained by the increment of salt stress with salt concentration of 50 mM and chitosan concentration of 0.4 g/l. Recommended applications/industries: Chitosan is recommended to be exploited in industry as it has moderating effects against salt stress in addition of the increment influence on the certain secondary metabolites of savory.

Keywords: Chitosan  Salt stress  Satureja Isophylla L.
Study of phytohormones effects on UV-B stress seeds of thyme species

Study of phytohormones effects on UV-B stress seeds of thyme species

Authors: Mehrab Yadegari
( 7 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus daenensis Celak (Thyme), members of the family Lamiaceae, are widely used in Iranian folk medicine. The aim of this research was to study how salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), and indole acetic acid (IAA)-seed priming affect UV-B radiation in seeds of Thyme (T. vulgaris, T. daenensis Celak) under both laboratory and outdoor conditions. Experimental: The effects of phytohormones (200, 400, 600 ppm) and irradiation performed in a 60 Co Gamma cell 220 source at a dose of 3 kGy (10, 20 and 30 min) on seeds of Thyme species were studied. Seeds were tested under in vitro and outdoor conditions in a complete randomized factorial layout with 4 and 3 replications, respectively. The characters measured under in vitro condition were seed germination percentage, mean time of germination, root and stem length. On the field, the characters evaluated were number of leaf, length of plant, root and shoot dry matter and essential oil. Results: SA treatment was better under in vitro conditions. No significant effects were obtained from GA and IAA. The most destructive effects and the best beneficial phytohormones were UV 30 min and SA (200 and 400 ppm), respectively. The effects of foliar application of hormones were determined on growth and essential oil production in medicinal plants in two consecutive years. Shoot dry matter increased in both years with SA applications but IAA and GA had no beneficial effects on germination characters after UV radiation. Recommended applications/industries: SA-priming of seeds protects thyme seedlings against UV-B radiation. The results of this study also showed that elevation of free SA levels in plants, either by exogenous feeding or genetically may enhance their tolerance to abiotic stress.

Keywords: Phytohormones  Thyme species  UV-B Stress
Preparation and physicochemical analysis of a traditional beverage based on D. Sophia

Preparation and physicochemical analysis of a traditional beverage based on D. Sophia

Authors: Farnoosh Hassanpour; Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy; Mohammad Fazel Najafabadi
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: The main aim of this study was stabilizing D. Sophia beverage and reduce its sedimentation rate. Experimental: Xanthan and Carboxy methyl cellulose gums have been used in three levels (0.05, .1 and .2 gr/lit) and mixture of Guar-xanthan and carboxymethyl cellulose (each .1 g/l) and extracted dried gum from D. Sophia in (1, 2 and 4 g/l) levels were added to beverage. Physicochemical, microbial and sensorial tests have been applied. Results: Results indicated that pH, acidity, color and turbidity have been changed by gum addition while sedimentation rate has been reduced that resulted more stable beverage. The relationship between sedimentation rate and viscosity also has been investigated which showed other factors more than viscosity were effective in sedimentation rate. Increasing absorption of matrix during the time showed that dissolved material has been increased over the time. Microbial analysis showed increment during storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that commercial gums have no significant effect on acceptability of beverages while D. Sophia`s gum has undesirable effect on it. Recommended applications/industries: According to the obtained data, it was determined that mixture of xanthan – guar gum and xanthan gum in 0.05g/l level had the best effect on the D. sophia particles stabilization.

Keywords: D. sophia beverage stabilization  Physicochemical  Microbial analysis
Optimization of antioxidant compounds extraction from almond shell by response surface method

Optimization of antioxidant compounds extraction from almond shell by response surface method

Authors: Gholamreza Espareh; Fatemeh Nejati; Maryam Jafari
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background and aim: Extraction of natural antioxidant compounds has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Almond is one of the native products of Iran, which annually during the process of production , large volumes of waste is achieved. The aim of this study is investigating the impact of two parameters (time and ethanol percentage) on the extraction of phenol and antioxidant compounds from almond shell optimization of these parameters using the RSM method. In this study, extraction process was assisted by ultrasound. Experimental: The fine powder was prepared from dried almond green shell. The powder was mixed with water- ethanol solvent in the ratio of 1:20 and exposed to ultrasound for a sufficient time at 35 °C. The tow variables of this study, eg the ethanol concentration (%) and time of extraction (each in 3 levels), were determined by the Design Expert software, and totally 13 experiments were performed for extraction. Afterwards, the concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. Results and discussion:According to the results of the optimization, the optimal condition for extraction of maximum antioxidant compounds determined as 35.74 min, using a solvent contains 43.69 % of ethanol. In this condition, the antioxidant activity and concentration of phenolic compounds were 47.19 % and 0.917 (mg/mol) respectively. These results were confirmed by experimental analysis and it was shown that the model could well predict efficiency at the optimal point. Industrial and practical recommendations: This study showed that the green shell of almonds can be as a cheap and accessible source for extracting the compounds or antioxidant activities. Furthermore, we showed that the ultrasonic-assisted extraction is an efficient and quick method for extraction of antioxidant compounds.

Keywords: Almond sell; Antioxidant compounds; phenolic compounds; Agricultural waste
Investigation of main constituents of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil under sowing date and plant density in Mazandaran province

Investigation of main constituents of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil under sowing date and plant density in Mazandaran province

Authors: Mehran Mohammadpour; Bohlool Abaszadeh; Mohammad Azadbakht; Javad Minooei Moghadam
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background and aim: The genus Satureja L. (Lamiaceae) includes 12 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plant in Iran. Satureja species have economic and medicinal importance because of their high essential oil content. In addition, they are used as culinary herbs and in the food, perfume and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the quantity and quality yields of Satureja hortensis L. essential oils in Sari climatic condition. Experimental: A field experiment was conducted in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources university by using of split-plot design in the base of randomized complete blocks with three replications in 2010. Main factors were three sowing dates (11 April, 22 April and 3 May) and sub factors were three plant density (15*35, 25*35 and 35*35cm). The plants were investigated in full flowering stage. Aerial parts of the plant were subjected to Hydro-distillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus to produce essential oil. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results and discussion: Sowing date had significant effect on essential oils content and dry shoot yield. The result of mean comparison showed that first sowing date had highest essential oils content (2.15) and delay in sowing time increased dry shoot yield significantly(p<0.05). The dry shoot yield (3023.1 and 2663.9 kg/h) at third and second sowing times was the highest. Plant density and interaction of sowing date and plant density had no significant effect on dry shoot yield and essential oils content. The results indicated that the essential oil yield and main essential oil components (carvacrol, γ-terpinene, ρ-cymene, α-terpinene and camphene) were not affected by sowing date and plant density. Industrial and practical recommendations: Dry shoot yield, essential oil and main constituents of the essential oils of Satureja hortensis L. can be increased with good management and choose of suitable solutions.

Keywords: Satureja hortensis L; Sowing date; Plant density; Essential oil; Carvacrol; γ-terpinene
Possible allergic effects and haematological changes induced by oral intake of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) compared to levamisole in dogs

Possible allergic effects and haematological changes induced by oral intake of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) compared to levamisole in dogs

Authors: Ali Vahid Dastjerdi; Mohsen Jafarian Dehkordi; Saam Torkan
( 7 downloads)
Abstract

Background and Aim: Since prior to any research on the drugs, it should be aware of its allergic dose, and considering the importance of hematological system, which reveals the changes in the body, in this study, we decided to investigate the hematologic effects of sumac plant and compare it with a chemical agent (levamisole). Therefore, in future studies, it will be used with confidence of its valuable properties especially antibacterial effects and may be replaced with some drugs, including levamisole. Experimental: In this study, 8 native breed dogs were tested for ten days. They were divided into four groups of two, which included the control group, the group receiving levamisole, the group receiving the sumac at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and the group receiving the sumac at a dose of 5 mg/kg. After the end of the period of sumac and levamisol powder administration, blood samples were taken and then the related tests were carried out. Results and Discussion: Given that in most allergies and poisoning, there is an increase in eosinophils and basophils, as well as red blood cell lysis, and also decrease in hematocrit can be observed, and because no studies have been conducted so far on allergic factors such as eosinophils and basophils, there was no significant difference between treatment and control group (p>0.05) in the dose of sumac used in this study. So the lack of allergy to this plant is assured. Industrial and Practical recommendation: According to the same hematologic results of sumac plant and levamisole obtained in this study, it is possible to use the valuable properties of the sumac plant, especially the antimicrobial and immune plus effects in future studies, without worrying about allergic reactions and hematologic side effects at the dose specified in this study.

Keywords: Allergy; Dog; Hematology; Levamisole; Sumac
Effect of different growth regulators and wound treatment in increasing rooting of Myrtus Communis cuttings

Effect of different growth regulators and wound treatment in increasing rooting of Myrtus Communis cuttings

Authors: Hamid Reza Mansoriyan; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Jalil Nourbakhshiyan; Fatemeh Malekpoor
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

مقدمه و هدف: استفاده از قلمه، یکی از مهم‌ترین شیوه‌های افزایش درختان و درختچه‌ها می‌باشد. گیاه مورد ((Myrtus communis L. یکی از گیاهان دارویی و بومی فلور ایران و از گیاهان ویژه منطقه مدیترانه است که در مناطق استپی با شرایط زمستان‌های سرد و تابستان‌های گرم و خشک نیز رویش دارد. راحت‌ترین و ارزان‌ترین روش تکثیر این گیاه از طریق قلمه است، ولی قلمه‌های این گیاه به راحتی ریشه دار نشده و نیاز به تیمار خاصی از جمله، استفاده از اکسین و سیتوکینین می‌باشد. روش تحقیق: این آزمایش در قالب فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 فاکتور (سه سطح تنظیم کننده IBA، سه سطح تنظیم کننده NAA و سه سطح تنظیم کننده CK و فاکتور زخم (زخم و عدم زخم) در سه تکرار انجام شد و صفاتی از قبیل تعداد ریشه، طول بلندترین ریشه، طول ریشه، تعداد ساقه فرعی، طول بلندترین ساقه و تعداد قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار شده مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج و بحث: نتایج به دست آمده اختلاف معنی‌دار تیمارهای آزمایشی را در سطح احتمال یک درصد نشان داد. از بین تیمارها بهترین تیمار که منجر به تولید تعداد ریشه‌های مطلوب شد، تیمار مربوط به اکسین از نوع نفتالن استیک اسید با غلظت ppm 500 در شرایط بدون زخم است و تیماری که بزرگترین ریشه‌ها را تولید کرده بود، تیمار مربوط به اکسین از نوع نفتالن استیک اسید با غلظت ppm 1000 در شرایط ایجاد زخم است. از بین مقادیر، تیمار ppm 1000 IBA بیشترین درصد ریشه ­زایی را به همراه داشت، IBA با غلظت ppm 1000 در شرایط ایجاد زخم و NAA با غلظت ppm 2000 در شرایط بدون زخم مؤثرترین تیمار بوده است. توصیه‌های کاربردی/ صنعتی: با توجه به اهمیت ریشه­ زایی در مورد درختانی مانند مورد که اهمیت دارویی فوق العاده دارند، توصیه م ی­شود از هورمون اکسین از نوع نفتالین استیک اسید برای تولید بیشترین میزان ریشه­ های مطلوب استفاده کرد.

Keywords: مورد، ریشه‌زایی، ایندول بوتیریک اسید، نفتالین استیک اسید
A comparative study of some biochemical characteristics of peroxidase isoenzymes in rosemary plant (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

A comparative study of some biochemical characteristics of peroxidase isoenzymes in rosemary plant (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

Authors: Shiler Shams; Sarah Khavarinejad; Akram Eidi
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) includes species that have high drug and nutritional values. Considering the importance of the antioxidant enzyme system as an effective factor in increasing the resistance of plants to different environmental stresses, in this research, some biochemical properties of catalase and peroxidase enzymes of rosemary plants were investigated in three different situations. Experimental: Rosemary plant was kept at home after being prepared from the greenhouse. For live situation, leaves were extracted directly and for carved situations, they were first airborne for 10 days. For dried sample, plant leaves were exposed to air during 10 days at first and then were completely dried for 2 minutes with 100% microwave power. Extraction of all 3 samples was done separately. The catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) enzymes were extracted from the leaves using 0.1 pH phosphate buffer with pH 7.2. Results & Discussion: According to results, the presence of an isoenzyme catalase with pH optimum 7 and three isoenzymes of peroxidase with optimum pH of 5 and 7 was confirmed in this plant by gel electrophoresis of Rosemary extract. In the enzyme peroxidase, the active isoenzymes in pH 5 were more resistant to temperature rising in the live plant compared to active isoenzyme at pH. Also, the catalase enzyme had higher resistance compared to peroxidase and its activity increased during stress. Industrial/ Practical recommendation: This study showed that rosemary plant is an inexpensive and available source for the extraction of antioxidative compounds such as catalase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, this research with the gaining of more effective herbal ingredients can be of great help to the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Rosemary; Catalase; Peroxidase; Drought stress; Temperature stability
The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja bachtiarica on mouse

The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja bachtiarica on mouse

Authors: Firoozeh Saghaei; Sadegh Motamedi
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: The use of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory drugs in clinical medicine is necessary and unavoidable. Since the use of synthetic drugs is associated with numerous side effects, the application of complementary therapies such as herbal medicine can accompany with less side effects while having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Satureja bachtiarica contains different active compounds such as Thymol, Para syman, Menton and Carvacrol which may be involved in the control of nociception and/or inflammation. Experimental: 75 male mice (weighing 30 -20 g) were divided to 15 groups. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic Satureja bachtiarica extract at doses of 400, 600, 800 mg/kg were evaluated by writhing, formalin and xylene tests. Morphine (10 mg /kg) and dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) were considered as positive controls in analgesic and anti-inflammatory tests, respectively. Results & Discussion: Different doses of hydroalcoholic extract of Satureja bachtiarica significantly reduced pain in comparison to control groups, however, the anti-inflammatory effect of this drug evaluated by xylene test, has not been established which needs further examination through other tests. Industrial / Practical recommendation: According to present results, the analgesic effect of Satureja bachtiarica was comparable to morphine. However, it seems that further research is needed in the future to take advantage of this plant in relieving pain.

Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica; Antinociceptive; Anti-inflammatory; Formalin test; Xylene test
Ethnobotanical study of Sojasrood medicinal plants (Zanjan Province)

Ethnobotanical study of Sojasrood medicinal plants (Zanjan Province)

Authors: Moslem Saadatpour; Hossein Barani; Ahmad Abedi Sarvestani; Mohamad Rahim Forouzeh
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Nowadays, medicinal plants play a special role in the health and well-being of the community and they are always at the forefront of scientific and research centers. Traditional medicine and ethnobotany are two of the topics of interest in many countries in the world, including Iran which obtain from indigenous people in a region. Iran with a long historical, cultural and geographical diversity can be the origin suitable for such studies. The present study aims to collect, identify and Ethnobutanical study of medicinal plants of Sajasrood area and their traditional uses have been implemented. Experimental: In this study, which is a qualitative research in the field of ethnobotany, qualitative techniques for data collection was used such as an unstructured interview and participatory observation and some information including time of collection, ecological distribution, local name, therapeutic properties, method of use, and medication usage for plants were recorded. Results & Discussion: A total of 52 drug species belonging to 22 families were identified in the region. The highest number of species belongs to the Lamiaceae family with 11 species and the Asteraceae family with 7 species. The highest local application was also reported to gastrointestinal diseases treatment. Industrial/ Practical recommendation: It seems that ethnobotanical studies of plants are essential for herbal therapy and Iran has the potential to develop this field in medicine. Also, due to limitations in domestic resources, development of employment plans based on the cultivation and development of medicinal plants compatible with the ecological conditions of the area can be a good way to maintain resources.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicine; Sajasrood
Effect of alcoholic extract of Sheng and Ziziphora medicinal plants on physico-chemical properties and microbial quality of set yogurt

Effect of alcoholic extract of Sheng and Ziziphora medicinal plants on physico-chemical properties and microbial quality of set yogurt

Authors: Elaheh Nosouhiyan; Javad Keramat; Mohammad Goli
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Natural compounds can prolong the shelf life of food by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sheng and Ziziphora alcoholic extracts (at concentrations of 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) on physico chemical properties and microbial quality of yogurt. Experimental: The sterilized extracts of the above plants were added to the yoghurt formulations in concentrations of 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm under sterile conditions. After inoculation, the inoculated milk was incubated at 45 ° C to reach 4 pH for approximately 3 hours. After reaching the desired pH, the yoghurts are cooled to a temperature of 6 ° C and then, at the same temperature were stored in order to undergo a secondary course of acidifying and producing aromatic compounds. After that, the physicochemical and microbial properties of yogurt were evaluated for 20 days on days 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. Results & Discussion: Results showed thataddition of Sheng extract can control the acidity in yogurt and prevent yogurt from getting sour over time. It was found that the best concentration of Sheng extract for controlling acidity in yogurt and preventing it from being sourded over time was 1500 ppm. Adding both extracts did not have a negative effect on the viscosity of yogurt. In the case of sheng concentration of 1500 and Ziziphora with a concentration of 500 ppm, were more effective on viscosity over storage time. Also, adding both Shang and Ziziphora extracts at a concentration of 1500 ppm increased the shelf life of yogurt by reducing the growth of molds and yeasts. Industrial/ Practical recommendation: With the addition of alcoholic extract of Sheng and Ziziphora herbs to set yogurt, a product with a longer shelf life and expire time of more than 20 days can be produced.

Keywords: Sheng extract; Ziziphora extract; yoghurt; Physicochemical properties
Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Acorus calamus L. Leaves

Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Acorus calamus L. Leaves

Authors: Pinky Chaubey; Archana Parki; Om Prakash; Ravendra Kumar; A.K Pant
( 6 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Acorus calamus L. is a native herb in India. The herb belongs to family Acoraceae. It is perennial and grows in marshy land with scented rhizomes and tapered reed like leaves with 80-100 cm in height. The leaves generally arise from the rhizomes. It is also known as sweet flag in English and vernacularly as Bach. The present investigation reveals the chemical diversity and antioxidant activity of Acorus calamus leaf essential oils from different altitudinal regions of Uttarakhand. Experimental: The essential oil composition of Acorus calamus (Araceae) leaves, collected from twenty different ecological niches of Uttarakhand, in India with oil yield ranged between 0.2-1.4 percent, were analyzed by GC/MS. DPPH assay were performed for determination of antioxidant activity of each oil. Results: The major component ranging 43.4-60.7% of the total oil was identified as β- asarone. The other predominant constituents were α-asarone (2.6-7.9%), shyobunone (3.4-6.3%) and Z- isoelemicin (3.2-5.4%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was studied by their ability to scavenge free radicals with different IC50 values (10.79-106.44 μg/ml) in comparison to standard antioxidant. Recommended applications/industries: The vast chemical diversity of the herb essential oil and its antioxidant potential can be good natural source for herbal neutraceuticals and phenyl propanoids, the biologically important class of terpenoids.

Keywords: Acorus calamus  α-asarone  Antioxidant  Essential oil
Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L., Cultivated in Southwestern, Iran

Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L., Cultivated in Southwestern, Iran

Authors: Haleh Mohamadpoor; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Fatemeh Malekpoor; Behzad Hamedi
( 8 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) a valuable medicinal plant in herbal medicine is native to the eastern Mediterranean region and western Asia. It is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of climate on quality and quantity of the essential oil of M. officinalis at Shahrekord climate, southwestern (Iran) and evaluate the antioxidant activity of the oil. Experimental: Plants were cultivated during 22-25th March 2016 in the greenhouse and transferred to the main site after three months (May), and finally harvested at the full flowering stage during August.Dried plant material (100 g) was powdered and subjected to hydro–distillation for three hours using a Clevenger–type apparatus. The hydrodistillated essential oil analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH method. Results: Results indicated that the major essential oil constituents of M.officinalis L. were β-caryophyllene (23.06%), E-citral (17.61%), Z-citral (13.64%), and caryophyllene oxide (10.83%). The antioxidant activityof the essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity (IC50=749.60 µg/g), that was lower compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Recommended applications/industries: This potential applicability can be used as antioxidant agents for food and pharmaceutical industries

Keywords: Melissa officinalis  DPPH  Chemical composition  GC-MS/FID

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