Journal of Herbal Drugs

Journal of Herbal Drugs

Basic info

  • Publisher: Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Feb/04

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Marketing, Agricultural Science, Biotechnology, Botany, Genetics, Plant Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacology, Toxicology
  • Publisher's keywords: Herbs, Cultivation or Agronomy, Breeding, Biotechnology, Marketing and Economy, Medicinal Plants, Genetic
  • Language of fulltext: english, persian
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '260' articles

Comparison of antibacterial activity of some of the medical plants extracts of Golestan province against Staphylococcus aureus

Comparison of antibacterial activity of some of the medical plants extracts of Golestan province against Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Alireza Safahani; Mehrdad Ataie; Mohammad Rabie; Tina Dadgar; Ezzatollah Ghaemi
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: During human history, most of infectious diseases have been cured with herbal drugs traditionally so that, nowadays, in most developing countries, herbal drugs play an important role in primal remedy. This study has been done according to the appropriate climate and biodiversity of plants in Golestan province in order to investigate the antimicrobial activity of alcoholics, aqueous and boiling extracts of 23 medical plants species of Golestan province on clinical and standard stains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) and do comparison among them and determine the appropriate plant for next studies. Experimental: 23 medicinal plants were collected from their natural habitat in Golestan province in north of Iran. Their ethanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained by percolation methods. Antibacterial effects were assessed by disc diffusion method against 14 clinical and standard strains of methicillin resistant and sensitive strains of S. aureus. Results & Discussion: The result of antibacterial activity of these plants revealed that, ethanolic, aqueous and boiling extracts of 8, 3and 5 plants showed best effect. The ethanolic extract of Artemisia herbaalba, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum posed the most outstanding in vitro antibacterial activity which the maximum inhibition zone was between 18-25 mm. Also, the results showed that ethanolic extract had better antibacterial effect than aqueous and boiling extracts and boiling extracts had better antibacterial effects than aqueous extract. Anti-staphylococcal activity of ethanolic extract of plants against MRSA was better than MSSA strains. Industrial and practical recommendations: The ethanolic, aqueous and boiling extract of Punica granatum had the best antibacterial activity against microorganism. The result obtained from these plants might be considered sufficient for further studies.

Keywords: Antibacterial Medicinal Plants Extract Staphylococcus aureus
Assessment of knowledge, belief and function of people about herbal medicines who referred to one of clinics dependent to medical university of Shiraz in 2010

Assessment of knowledge, belief and function of people about herbal medicines who referred to one of clinics dependent to medical university of Shiraz in 2010

Authors: Nooshin Beheshti-Poor; Neda Jamali Moghadam; Sara Soleimani; Ali Haghnegahdar; Alireza Salehi
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Herbal medicine usage is prevalent among world people from a long time ago and, It has been five times from 90th to 97th in the USA. According to increasing usage of herbal drugs and investigating the knowledge, beliefs and function of patients to herbal drugs, this research was done. Experimental: It is a descriptive, cross sectional study which carried on 30 patients who referred to one of the clinic centers that researchers have referred to this center and have filled out questionnaires that consist of demographic and knowledge, beliefs, and function of patients to herbal medicines. Then data analyzed with SPSS version 15. Results and discussion: Range of woman age was 19-47 y/o with mean 30±8 and rang age of men was 22-50 y/o with mean 27.4±12. About 23.3% are under diploma, 63.3% are diploma and higher, 10% are graduate and higher. The results show that 63.3% of patients had knowledge about herbal medicines and 93.3% of them expressed that recognize special herbal medicines for some disease. Also, 73.3% expressed that herbal medicine use is safe and 96.7% believed herbal medicines. About 30% of them believed that medicinal herbs must be bought from pharmacy. In addition, 93.3% expressed that medicinal herbs use is not limited to Iran. The most prevalent herbs respectively are: thyme (63.3%), borage (56.6%), mint juice (36.6%), four seeds (23.33%), Fumitory juice (20%), camels-thorn juice, green tea, London rocket seeds (16.6%), and lavender (13.33%). The most cause of herbal medicine use is stomach illness, sweating, common cold, relaxing, kidney stones and menstrual disorders. Industrial and practical recommendations: Because 93.3% of the patient referring to clinics used herbal drugs and regarded them safe, giving useful and comprehensive information about herbal drugs and increasing the knowledge of herbalists to prevent from medicinal introduction in order to boost the awareness, belief and function of patients and finally their heath, is so necessary.

Keywords: Knowledge Medicinal Plants Ethnobotany Traditional Medicine
Herbal remedy to relieve of dysmenorrhea by students of Iranshahr Universities in 2010

Herbal remedy to relieve of dysmenorrhea by students of Iranshahr Universities in 2010

Authors: Tahmineh Salehian; Faranak Safdari; Arezoo Piry; Zahra Atarody
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in all over the World. Nowadays, using medicinal plants has increased because of undesirable effects of the chemical drugs. More than 10000 plant species are used for medicinal purposes, mainly as traditional medicines in the treatment of dysmenorrhea. The aim of this study was determining the rate of herbal remedies to relieve dysmenorrhea by universities students of Iranshahr in 2010. Experimental: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1080 female students in Iranshahr universities. Data were collected by means of questionnaire including open-ended questions. We asked them about self-comforting strategies and herbal remedies that they use to relieve their discomfort of dysmenorrhoea. Data analyzed by SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results & Discussion: 580 students used medicinal plants for reveling dysmenorrhoea. The average age of participants was 23.14±0.76 years; menarche occurred around age 12.78±1.27 years. The current survey revealed that 29 species of medicinal plants were used by the students. According to 66 percents of participants, medicinal plants were effective in reducing their discomfort of dysmenorrhoea. The most plants frequently used to treat dysmenorrhoea were ginger, dill, Cinnamon, thyme, fennel, chamomile, cumin, saffron and yarrow. Industrial and practical recommendations: The results of this study showed that 69.8 percents of the students used. So clinical trials are needed for investigating the efficacy of this herbal drug in the treatment of dysmenorrhea.

Keywords: Dysmenorrhorea Medicinal Plants Traditional Medicine
Assesment of different DNA extraction methods in medicinal plants

Assesment of different DNA extraction methods in medicinal plants

Authors: Mehdi Rahimmalek
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Medicinal plants have high importance in medicine and pharmacogonosy because of their secondary metabolites. Essential oils, antioxidants and flavonoids are the major compounds of many medicinal plants. These compounds especially antioxidants can increase oxidation of DNA in response to wounds. Nowadays, progresses in biotechnology such as molecular markers were used for phylogenetic relationships, construction of linkage maps and decreasing the repeated plants in gene bank. Most of these methods need high DNA quality and purity. Different methods for DNA extraction have been improved. In most cases three hints are considered including quality, quickness of extraction and its quantity. Medicinal plants need to improve methods to prevent DNA oxidation because of their phenolic compounds. In this study, four DNA extraction methods were compared in thyme, spearmint, peppermint, horsemint and some yarrow species. These methods include Murry and Thompson, Prittila et al, Dellaporta et al and Komatsuda et al method using blender. The results showed that the combination of Prittila et al and Murry and Thompson methods using two steps buffer and using mixed of 2- Mercaptoethanol and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) can decrease DNA oxidation and improve DNA amount. The lowest amount of DNA and the quickest method was Komatsuda et al procedure. In the studied plants, the highest and the lowest oxidation were observed in yarrow and spearmint, respectively.

Keywords: DNA extraction Medicinal plants DNA oxidation DNA purity
Interactive effects of salicylic acid and cold stress on activities of antioxidant enzymes in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Interactive effects of salicylic acid and cold stress on activities of antioxidant enzymes in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Authors: Nargess Soltani Delroba; Roya Karamian; Masoud Ranjbar
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Glycyrrhiza L. (Fabaceae) consists of perennial herbs grow in sandy soils with hard lightness. Three species of the genus grow in Iran, among them G. glabra L. has the widest distribution. It is well known in English as Licorice and the root extract includes flavonoids and glycyrrhizin are used widely in medicine, food industry, tobacco products and other industries. Liquiritin and glabridin are the major constituents of flavonoids in its extract, which have quasi estrogenic, ant oxidative, anti-helicobacter, anti-nephritic activities and ROS scavenging. Experimental: In this research, the interactive effects of salicylic acid (SA) with cold stress on some antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase (PRX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were studied by spectrophotometric method in a factorial experiment of completely randomized design with three replications. SA pretreatments were included 10, 50, 100 and 500 µM and three levels of cold stress, 5, 10 and 20h in 4 oC were applied. Results & Discussion: The results showed that cold stress did not affect PPO activity, while SA decreased it. In addition, PRX activity was decreased with increasing cold stress and SA resulted in similar response at this condition. It seems that SA can considerably alleviate oxidative damage that occurred under cold stress condition with direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Thus it resulted in decrease activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Peroxidase polyphenol oxidase reactive oxygen species
The study of flora Ghaysari region in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province with 179 species of medicinal plants

The study of flora Ghaysari region in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province with 179 species of medicinal plants

Authors: Hamzeh Ali Shirmardi; Asghar Shahrokhi; Hossain Mohammadi Najaf-abadi; Mahmood Talebi
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: The present study was to identify the medicinal plant species and introduced as one of the key priority areas for conservation and determination of endangered species were done. Experimental: The method of plant collection in this region was classical method of regional plant taxonomic studies. Collected plants were recognized and determined families, genera and species of them by using of indispensable references. The life form of plant species was determined by using of Raunkier’s method. Results & Discussion: The results of this study show that, 487 plant species belonging to 65 families and 301 genera exist in this area. Among the 487 species listed in this area, about 179 species (36.76% of the species) are medicinal. Furthermore, threatened species have been analyzed according to the IUCN criteria and Red Data Book of Iran. On the basis of this study, four categories of rare species so called endangered, vulnerable, lower risk and data deficient are determined. Accordingly, 86 threatened species were identified in this area that they all belong to the region, Iran – Tourna and 33 species that have some medicinal properties. Of these 86 species, two species in endangered class, three species in vulnerable class, 67 species in lower risk class and 14 species in data deficient class. Due to use nomads and villagers in the area of ​​medicinal plants, some species such as, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferula gumosa, Allium ampeloprasum, Allium jesdianum, Allium hirtifolium and Zaravschanica membranacea are subject to destruction.

Keywords: Medicinal plants Endangered plants Life forms Flora
Determine optimum of harvest time on the quantity/quality of essential oil and thymol of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) in Isfahan

Determine optimum of harvest time on the quantity/quality of essential oil and thymol of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) in Isfahan

Authors: Amin Hadipanah; Ahmad Reza Golparvar; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Hossian Zaynali
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Thyme is common named Thymus vulgaris L. belongs to Lamiaceae family. Thyme is a most important medicinal plant that was used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics hygienic industries in most of developed countries. Experimental: Determine optimum of harvest time this plant was done in a random block design with three replications was conducted in field Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan (Isfahan) 2009 and 2010. Treatment phonological stages such as: 1) before flowering stage; 2) at beginning of flowering stage; 3) 50% blooming stage; 4) at full flowering step and 5) at fruit set stage. The essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger- type apparatus and, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results & Discussion: Statistic analysis showed that the effects phonological stages had significant effect on essential oil yields & percent, thymol. The highest essential oil content (2.42%) was extracted at the beginning of flowering stage. Analysis and identification of components showed thymol main compounds in all samples. Industrial/Practical recommendation: According to the results of this project 50% blooming stage optimum of harvest time on the Quantity/Quality of Essence and thymol of Thyme.

Keywords: Thymus vulgaris Phonological stages Essential oil yields Thymol
The effect of different concentrations of IAA and NAA on the essential oil of Chaerophyllum aureum L.

The effect of different concentrations of IAA and NAA on the essential oil of Chaerophyllum aureum L.

Authors: Ali Reza Fayzbakhsh; Fatemeh Makavipoor
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Introduction & Aim: Plant growth regulators (PGR) have same effect as natural plant's hormones and can change the main components in plant samples. Chaerophyllum aureum L. is related to Apiaceae family. Experimental: In this paper the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile oils of ‎Chaerophyllum aureum L. were reported after using different concentrations of IAA and NAA ‎on aerial parts of the plant at flowering time. The essence was recovered by using ‎hydro-distillation with a Clevenger type apparatus and investigated by GC and GC/MS.‎

Keywords: IAA NAA ‎ Essential oil ‎ Chaerophyllum aureum L.‎
Determination of alkaloids amount from Iranian Papaver bracteatum Lindl. by HPLC

Determination of alkaloids amount from Iranian Papaver bracteatum Lindl. by HPLC

Authors: Zohreh Kadkhoda; Sajjad Sedaghat; Shams Ali Rezazadeh; Hasan Ali Naghdi Badi; Rahim Taghizad Farid; Farhad Harriri
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Papaver bracteatum Lindl. (Papaverace) is an important pharmaceutical plant which contains isoqinoline alkaloids. Isoqinoline alkaloids constitute one distinct group of secondary metabolites of the Papaverace family. Codeine and thebaine are important alkaloids of Papaver bracteatum which use widely due to its medicinal properties. Therefore it is necessary to determination the contents of these alkaloids in different parts of Iran. In order to determine the best natural habitat of Papaver bracteatum, containing the highest concentration of thebaine and codein different sample collected from different parts of Iran. Experimental: Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard curve with the presence of two major alkaloids (thebaine and codeine) were drawn and alkaloids were extracted from capsule Papaver bracteatum and were determined by HPLC. Results & Discussion: Codeine contents in the sample of dry capsule Zanjan, Plour, Chalus road, Siah Bisheh, and Mazandaran were determined 0.04, 0.04, 0.03, 0.01 and 0.02% respectively. Thebaine content was determined 3.3, 0.61, 0.34, 0.31 and 0.06% respectively. Amounts of codeine for different regions ranged between 0.001 to 0.004% and, 0.06 to 3.3% for thebaine. The accessions collected from Zanjan has highest percentage of codeine and thebaine (3.34%) Industrial/Practical recommendation: The capsules collected from region of Zanjan in Iran have more contents of thebaine and codeine which possess many pharmaceutical applications, therefore it is highly recommended using accessions from the region of Zanjan to extract thebaine and codeine consumed in the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Papaver bracteatum Alkaloid Codeine Thebaine
Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. gum resin administration during lactation on morphology of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus of rat

Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. gum resin administration during lactation on morphology of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus of rat

Authors: Mohammad Hosseini-Sharifabad; Ebrahim Esfandiari
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: In traditional medicine, Boswellia species gum resin known as Frankincense or Olibanum, has been administrated in elderly for enhancement of memory and also in pregnant women to increase memory and intelligence of progeny. However, it has been rarely scientifically documented so far. We have previously reported that maternal administration of Frankincense during lactation increased learning and memory performance. In this study, using animal model of rat, we investigated the morphological changes of pyramidal neurons of hippocampus, an important brain centre involved in learning and memory, following maternal administration of Frankincense during three week of lactation. Experimental: Two months-old male Wistar rats whose mothers were given by gavage the aqueous extract of the B. serrata (0.100 mg/kg/day) during lactation were deeply anesthetized and transcardially perfused with fixative solution. Each brain was then removed from skull and divided into two hemispheres. The right hemispheres were selected for morphometerical study. Transverse sections (100 μm thick) were cut through the entire extent of the hippocampus. In a Golgi study, the number of dendritic branching and segments was counted by Sholl’s method. Results & Discussion: Statistical analysis of data indicated that administration of Frankincense during lactation increase the number of dendritic segments, branching of Cornu Ammonis (CA) pyramidal cells in the hippocampus of rat offspring. There was no significant difference in the dendritic length of CA pyramidal cells between experimental and control groups. These results suggest that maternal administration of Frankincense during lactation increase dendritic arborization in the hippocampus. It can be concluded that such morphological changes leads to an increase in the synaptic contacts and it provides one of the bases for the memory improvement induced by Frankincense administration. Industrial/Practical recommendation: Our findings suggest that Boswellia resin and its active ingredients to be extensively studied in neurophysiology. It also suggests that compounds from Boswellia resin may be used in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Dendrites Cornu ammonis Frankinsence Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa L. on the immune system and blood protein components in mice

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa L. on the immune system and blood protein components in mice

Authors: Mehrdad Modaresi
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Black seed (Nigella sativa L.) in traditional medicine is well known that the chemical composition of the immune system with many applications in traditional medicine to fight the infection. This study investigated the effect of the plant's role in the immune system and blood protein. Experimental: In this study male mice of Balb/c strain were divided into four groups tested. Control and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, 50, 100 and 200 dose mg/Kg of the extract of Nigella sativa seed hydro alcoholic extract in 20 days and injected intraperitoneally received. At the end of the experiment, blood was taken for white cell count and blood protein electrophoresis was used. The data obtained with the SPSS software. Results and discussion: Studies suggest that the extracts of Nigella sativa in the groups are able to increase white blood cell count, protein and albumin, alpha 1 and 2 and the A/G. Industrial/Practical recommendation: According to the survey results appear in the pharmaceutical industry play an effective role in strengthening the immune system of Nigella sativa and, play in this context can be used as a medicinal plant use.

Keywords: Nigella sativa L. Protein electrophoresis Immune system Mice
Comparison of antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Malva neglecta Wallr.

Comparison of antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Malva neglecta Wallr.

Authors: Majid Doostmohammadi; Peyman Abdolahzade; Hamed Alizadeh
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Very studies results show that many plants can be used safety and successfully to treat bacterial diseases without presenting the disadvantages affects and antibiotic resistance. Eucalyptus globulus and Malva neglecta are native plants in Iran that due to containing different chemical compounds have been antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. The aim of this study is comparison of antibacterial effects of Eucalyptus globulus and Malva neglecta extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Experimental: In this study, at the first time aquatic, ethanolic, acetonic and chlorophormic extracts of E. globulus and M. neglecta dried leaves prepared. Then MIC and MBC of the extracts for the bacteria with micro-dilution method and well diffusion method performed for dosage depending effect. Results & Discussion: The results showed that both plant extracts have antimicrobial activity against bacteria, but antibacterial activity of various extracts of E. globulus is more than M. neglecta extracts and, this extracts can be used in the manufacture of new drugs of plant origin. Industrial/Practical recommendation: According to antimicrobial effects of Eucalyptus globulus and Malva neglecta extracts in this study recommended after human studies, it is prepared herbal drug from this plant and presented.

Keywords: Herbal drugs Eucalyptus globulus Malva neglecta Extract Antibiotic resistance
Effect of some of plant extracts on the growth of two Aspergillus species

Effect of some of plant extracts on the growth of two Aspergillus species

Authors: Sima Yahyaabadi; Elnaz Zibanejad; Monir Doudi
( 29 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: In recent years using from plant product has been considered wildly as main factor for preventing pathogenic diseases cassed by attacking viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. There are some funguses which could be the factors for affliction of some diseases in human, plants and animals. Plant extracts are those which could act and be used as preventing from these diseases as product of opposed fungus. The main aim of this article is considering the effects of Anethum graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Coriandrum sativum and Rosa damascena is on standard strains and separated as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Experimental: The sink was used for preventing the development of plant extract and not growing different density of extract were considered separately. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated by the serial diluted method. Results & Discussion: The result showed that Aspergillus flavus standard (PTCC 5006), nystatin and extracts of A. graveolens, C. sativum and T. vulgaris in equal amount and finally R. damascena had more effects in opposed fungus. About separated strain of this fungus from the environment, nystatin, T. vulgaris, A. graveolens, C. sativum and finally R. damascena had the most effect against fungus. About standard Aspergillus fumigatus (PTCC 5009), the most effective mixtures against fungus were included extracts of A. graveolens, R. damascena, and C. sativum respectively. About separated strain of this fungus until the most effective mixture of opposed fungus respectively were including nystatin, A. graveolens, T. vulgaris, C. sativum and finally R. damascena. The result of this investigation shows that the existence extracts will be the main cause of reducing the growth of fungi. In this case by increasing the extracts of A. graveolens, T. vulgaris, C. sativum and R. damascena will be increased. Industrial/Practical recommendation: By proving the effect distributing the extracts leaves of Anethum graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Coriandrum sativum and Rosa damascena on growing of two kinds of Aspergillus containing as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus, there will be a hope that in future, by delivering the effective substances of above plants, and doing more experiment and investigation we would be able to reach an acceptable effects and having less side effect and complications for curing fungus infection diseases.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Extract Minimum Fungicide Concentration
Identification and application of anthocyanine from wild safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus) seed coat color

Identification and application of anthocyanine from wild safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus) seed coat color

Authors: Mohammad R. Sabzalian; Farhan Tirgir; Aghafakhr Mirlohi; Ghodratollah Saeidi
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Despite valuable medicinal properties of safflower, breeding new varieties and development of the crop culture area has been limited due to the lack of genetic variation for some crucial characteristics as resistance to diseases and pests like safflower fly. In this study, populations of wild safflower, C. oxyacanthus were collected from western, central and southern regions of Iran to investigate their genetic variation for resistance to safflower fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi. Then mechanisms of plant resistance to safflower fly and effective bio-chemical compounds involved in the resistance were also investigated. Experimental: Germplasm collection of wild safflower, C. oxyacanthus, was carried out from central, southern and western Iran including provinces Fars, Kohgiluyeh, Isfahan, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari, Markazi, Tehran, Lorestan, Kordestan, Ilam, Kermanshah and Hamadan. In each province, 3 to 5 samples were gathered from collection sites 50-100 km apart from each other. Each accession was composed of seeds from 30 to 50 individual plants in each collection site. Accessions were planted and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications for resistance to safflower fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi) in terms of dead larvae frequency. Results & Discussion: Fresh brown-black and white seed coats from immature seeds of C. oxyacanthus were soaked for 48 h in DMF in three replications. The extracted solution was chromatographed on TLC. The compounds isolated by chromatography were dissolved in 1 mL of DMSO-d6 and 1D proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) and carbon nuclear resonance (C-NMR) spectra were recorded. The results showed that brown-black seed coat color in C. oxyacanthus is due to the presence in high concentration of a main anthocyanidin. The compound in the seed coats predominantly undergoes polymerization due to desiccation and exposition to atmosphere during ripening and performs as indigestible and anti-nutritional polymers against fly larvae feeding. Industrial and practical recommendations: Safflower varieties with black seeds containing high amount of anthocyanidin may help to overcome or alleviate insects and diseases problems in front of developing safflower production area and to extract novel metabolites for medicinal purposes.

Keywords: Antibiosis Flavonoid Flavanol glycoside Wild safflower Safflower fly
The effect of salinity on seed yield and oil of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

The effect of salinity on seed yield and oil of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Authors: Nasrin Ghavami; Hasanali Naghdi Badi; Aliakbar Ramin; Ali Mehrafarin
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn] is an annual or biennial plant, native to the Mediterranean area, which has spread in north and south of Iran. A fruit of milk thistle contains a relatively high amount (approx. 20%) of oil, which exhibits wound-healing, anti-burn, and hepatoprotective properties. Experimental: In this research, a pot experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with seven level of salinities [1.09(control), 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 dS/m] for two genotypes, Ahvaz wild type and cultivated German origin (Royston). Results & Discussion: At the harvest, the results have showed that both genotypes grow satisfactorily and had a normal size in soils up to salinity of 9 dS/m, compared to the control plants. However, growth parameters such as number of capitula per plant, main shoot capitulum's diameter, and seed yield and yield components per plant was reduced with salinity greater than 9dS/m in both genotypes. The seed oil content reduced with salinity greater than 9 dS/m slightly. Industrial and practical recommendations: Our results suggested that both types of milk thistle could survive salinity up to 15 dS/m and produced seeds but maximum yield seed get in up to 9 dS/m. Growing milk thistle in low fertile soil and under moderate salinity (≤9.0 dS/m) conditions could be important not only such as a cover crop against soil erosions but also for producing seeds of greater value for medicinal and nutrition purposes.

Keywords: Silybum marianum Salinity Seed Oil

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