International Journal of Korean History

International Journal of Korean History

Basic info

  • Publisher: Korea University, Center for Korean History
  • Country of publisher: korea, republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: History
  • Publisher's keywords: Korean History
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, Other

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2000
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '224' articles

Imagining Ritual and Cultic Practice in Koguryŏ Buddhism

Imagining Ritual and Cultic Practice in Koguryŏ Buddhism

Authors: Richard D. McBride II
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Due to the scarcity of extant source materials, the ritual and devotional practices of Koguryŏ Buddhism cannot be known in any great detail, but they probably had much in common with those practiced in Northern China. Merit-making rituals like the Convocation for the Recitation of the Sūtra for Humane Kings and Assembly of the Eight Prohibitions show the relevance of the poṣadha in Buddhist communities and suggest a host of devotional practices associated with observing the practices. Extant images allude to the importance of the cults of the thousand buddhas, Maitreya, and Amitāyus. Inscriptions indicate that rebirth in Tuṣita Heaven was an important goal for Buddhist monks and laity, as well as rebirth on the earth in the distant future when Maitreya comes. Buddhist literature describes the devotional practice of meditation visualization, a way of using pensive images to aspire for rebirth in Tuṣita Heaven in the presence of Maitreya.

Keywords: Imagining Ritual, Cultic Practice, Koguryŏ Buddhism
The Modern Korean Nation, Tan’gun, and Historical Memory in Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Korea

The Modern Korean Nation, Tan’gun, and Historical Memory in Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Korea

Authors: Soo-ja Kim
( 9 downloads)
Abstract

Tan’gun was the symbol of a community connected by blood that accompanied the image of unity and purity in Korean history. It played a major role in the development and settlement of a homogenous nationalism, defining Koreans as descendants of Tan’gun and therefore members of a “single” ethnic group. “Tan’gun” was also at the center of the process of creating a modern nation. Historically in each period, the “symbolic” Tan’gun moved with its own life force and performed various functions apart from the “real” Tan’gun. The making of a Korean national consciousness was closely related to the process and the way of remembering Tan’gun. Ways to remember Tan’gun differed depending on the times in the face of the national crisis. The “bundling” of Tan’gun and Kija that continued from the early Chosôn period began to be disintegrated as foreign countries plundered the Korean sovereignty. Kija was gradually excluded from the historical consciousness of the Korean people while the memory of Tan’gun was emphasized. This reflected the sentiment of the times as people tried to overcome the crisis by strengthening national consciousness through Tan’gun. Hereby, Koreans escaped from the medieval self-awareness centered around China and acquired the national self-identity of the modern times with an independent history and a unique culture, different from China and the rest of the world.

Keywords: Tan’gun, Kija, Minjok, Shin Ch’aeho, Taejonggyo, History, Memory
South Korea’s Democratization Movement of the 1970s and 80s and Communicative Interaction in Transnational Ecumenical Networks

South Korea’s Democratization Movement of the 1970s and 80s and Communicative Interaction in Transnational Ecumenical Networks

Authors: Misook Lee
( 9 downloads)
Abstract

Transnational network studies in international relations, sociology, and history have grown rapidly since the 1990s. Research often tends to take a top-down (North-South) approach in which developed countries or international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) are assumed to “help” the developing ones. However, this one-way approach cannot fully explain the dynamics of transnational activist networks. The following paper aims to better understand the dynamics of transnational networks by focusing on the ‘communicative interaction’ among various groups supporting the democratization movement in South Korea. It specifically investigates the formation and activities of transnational information exchange networks in Japan and the United States that worked with Korean Christians. In addition, this research examines the meaning and political implications of forming transnational networks with struggling others; transnational networks can work reflexively by problematizing the structural relationships among differently situated actors.

Keywords: Transnational Advocacy Networks, Communicative Interaction, Democratization Movement, Reflexivity
A Whirlpool of History: Roaring Currents between A Determined War Film and A Deifying Biopic

A Whirlpool of History: Roaring Currents between A Determined War Film and A Deifying Biopic

Authors: Kyu Hyun Kim
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

The summer season of 2014 has been a boon for fans of the cinematic genre of Korean historical drama or period pieces (sagŭk). Three blockbuster productions with sizable production budgets, ranging from 12 to 20 billion won, including: The Admiral: Roaring Currents (Myŏngnyang), a rousing account of the Myŏngnyang sea battle (1597) starring Choi Minshik [Ch'oe Min-sik] as Admiral Yi Sun-sin facing off an armada of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Japanese forces; Kundo: The Age of the Rampant (Kundo) a spaghetti Western-inflected action film set in the 19th century in which a group of mountain bandits, including a former butcher who uses a pair of meat cleavers like samurai swords, square off against a corrupt yangban notable; The Pirates (Haejŏk: Padaro kan sanjŏk), ostensibly set in the period of the late Koryŏ-early Chosŏn dynasty transition, concerned with a group of pirates, court officials and other motley crew of characters desperately looking for the royal seal swallowed by a whale. Each production was the subject of much industry speculation in terms of ameliorating (or exacerbating) the anxiety about the markedly poor performance of Korean domestic films in the first half of 2014. When the curtain dropped, however, Roaring Currents emerged as the uncontested winner. Not only did the film best Kundo and The Pirates (with approximately 4.7 million and 6.8 million tickets sold as of August 31, 2014, both films have managed to recoup their production costs and can be safely considered substantial hits) in the box office competition, it also beat James Cameron's Avatar (2009) to become the all-time box office champion in Korea, having sold a whopping 16.8 million tickets (the film's revenue is estimated at an equally mind-boggling 129.5 billion won, about six and a half times more money than its estimated production cost) in less than a month since its theatrical release.

Keywords: A Whirlpool of History, Roaring Currents, Determined War Film
Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012, xxvi

Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012, xxvi

Authors: K. Kale Yu
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

At first glance, it seems improbable that a comparative study of early twentieth-century engagement between Korean and Japanese Buddhist orders could tell us much about larger issues regarding Japanese colonialism in Korea. The presence of Buddhism in Korea and Japan extends to ancient times, enjoying periods of major influence over the centuries; but in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Buddhism faced an uncertain future due to geo-political shifts in their respective countries. Unseating Buddhism from its pedestal was one of the mandates of the founders of the Chosŏn Dynasty (1392–1910) that systematically suppressed Buddhism and banned Buddhist monks from the capital. While Japan’s Tokugawa bakufu (1600–1868) did not target Buddhism in the same manner as Chosŏn Korea, Buddhism after the establishment of Imperial Japan (1868) became secondary to the Emperor who was ascribed with god-like characteristics and demanded religious devotion and observance.

Keywords: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Cambridge, Harvard University Press
The Development of Rice Farming, Regional Development, and Changes in the Economic Views of Local Elites in Chosǒn Dynasty Korea (1392~1910)

The Development of Rice Farming, Regional Development, and Changes in the Economic Views of Local Elites in Chosǒn Dynasty Korea (1392~1910)

Authors: Sung-woo Kim
( 9 downloads)
Abstract

The agricultural structure of modern Korean society is based on the cultivation of rice. However, the climatic and natural conditions of Korea were significantly different from those of Jiangnan, China or Kansai, Japan, where rice farming was well developed. As a result, rice farming in Korea followed a different route compared to the aforementioned regions. Securing irrigation facilities was most important, and a particular emphasis was put on early cultivation in order to overcome the seven to eight-month-long dry season during the winter and spring (October to May). The development of rice farming in Korea accelerated the development of the mountainous regions, where it was possible to construct diversion weirs, which were traditional irrigation facilities. As rice farming came to be closely associated with regional development, which became particularly prominent in the mountainous regions, sajok (hereditary yangban), or local elites, began to move from the plains and hilly regions, where they had originally resided, to the mountainous regions. Various aspects of premodern Korean society that became distinct after the mid- to late eighteenth century were different from those of China and Japan during the same period of time. The Chinese gentry and Japanese samurai generally resided in cities around the mid- to late seventeenth century. However, a closed regional structure in which agricultural villages ruled over cities was firmly instituted in Chosǒn. Behind the development of rice farming technologies and regional development, which created differences in the process of modernization in the three countries, were the differences in natural environment. Korea, which had the least suitable environment for rice farming, attempted to circumvent this environmental problem by developing the mountainous regions and adopting yiangbǒp (transplanting rice seedling), which led to the development of the mountainous regions and movement of local elites to agricultural villages. Local elites in agricultural villages abhorred and oppressed trade and craft, which threatened agricultural communities, and as a result, it was barely possible for merchants to flourish or for commercial capitalism to develop. This was the fundamental difference between Korea and Jiangnan, China or Japan. Due to the fact that Korea had the least favorable agricultural environment and geographic conditions among the three East Asian countries, and thus least developed commercial capitalism, Korea suffered the most in the process of modernization among the three nations, being annexed and colonized by Japanese Imperialism for 36 years (1910~1945).

Keywords: yaǔp (野邑; field county), sanǔp (山邑; mountain county), “yaǔp and sanǔp combination, rice farming, agricultural method of Huabei, China, agricultural method of Jiangnan, agricultural method of Yǒngnam area, korean pattern regional development, irrigation facilities, sajok, panch’on, modernization
Hydraulic Theory and Hydraulic Engineering Projects of the Wusong River (吳淞江) Basin Between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Hydraulic Theory and Hydraulic Engineering Projects of the Wusong River (吳淞江) Basin Between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Authors: Chulwoong Chung
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

This paper attempts to explore the significance of the overall water control system and numerous water control projects in the Jiangnan region. Through a series of large-scale dredging projects, the Ming and Qing Dynasties attempted to achieve the goals of securing national tax revenue and guaranteeing the production activity for the farmers. However, due to the weakened hydraulic system, excessive expenses, and interests on various levels, large-scale hydraulic engineering projects were unable to achieve their original goals. Starting in the sixteenth century already, interests about practical one-time hydraulic engineering projects on a small scale began to surface. Meanwhile, in the Qing Dynasty, when the socio-economic transformation developed more, a new awareness of hydraulics surfaced due to the expansion of commercial cultivation over a large amount of land in the Jiangnan region. This was the result of an attempt to break away from the heavy dependence on water control facilities that had little room for improvement by growing a variety of plants and crops instead of focusing solely on simple grain production. Therefore the cultivation of a variety of commercial crops and plants and the development of the handicraft industry in the Jiangnan region since the sixteenth century are two aspects of Chinese society that resulted from ineffective water control facilities. However, despite these limitations and failures, large-scale hydraulic engineering projects were carried out repeatedly due to the economic importance of the Jiangnan region and to the efforts to achieve the ideals of flood control.

Keywords: Jiangnan region, Suzhou Prefecture and Songjiang Prefecture, Wusong River, flood control, irrigation, repair cost, commercial crops, records of water conservancy, Collected Writings on Statecraft of the Ming Dynasty, Collected Writings on Statecraft of the Reigning Dynasty
The Nipponophone Company and Record Consumption in Colonial Korea

The Nipponophone Company and Record Consumption in Colonial Korea

Authors: Hye Eun Choi
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

This paper is a history of the Korean record industry in the 1910s and 20s, focusing on the record company Nihon Chikuonki Shōkai (Nitchiku hereafter). As the first record company in the Japanese empire and the only one which operated a Korean branch until the middle of the 1920s, Nitchiku provides a gateway for understanding the formative period of the Korean record industry. In this paper, I pay special attention to the fact that Nitchiku was a foreign-funded and foreignmanaged company and explore how it was able to take root in its markets by studying the company’s localization strategies, which I call “image politics.” I challenge the common perception that Nitchiku was an independent company and thereby demonstrate that it had special connections with major record companies in Europe and the U.S. even before its transition to Nippon Columbia. I also argue that consumers targeted by Nitchiku in the Korean market were not limited to Koreans, but also included multicultural groups residing in colonial Korea, especially Japanese. Such a business approach helped expose Korean record consumers to the global sound culture of the era, mediated through records. In doing so, I hope to illuminate how colonial Korea was intricately interconnected and interdependent with Japan in the circumstances engendered by Japanese imperialism as well as the capitalism of the era.

Keywords: Nipponophone Company, foreign-funded and foreign-managed company, image politics, early 20th century
An Australian View of the Pusan Political Crisis in Korea, 1952

An Australian View of the Pusan Political Crisis in Korea, 1952

Authors: Ronald Munro, Daeyeol Yea
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

This paper examines the ‘Pusan Political Crisis’ through Australian archival documents. Though Australia was a member of the UNTCOK (United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea), it opposed the strategy of the US to establish a divided government in Korea. Thus, Australia paid sharp attention to the political situation in Korea as it took part in the UNCURK (United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea). The scramble for power broke out in Pusan, which was the ROK’s interim wartime capital. The president was to be elected by the National Assembly according to the Constitution, but the majority of National Assembly members didn’t support Syngman Rhee. Thus, he intended to change over to a direct presidential election system to win re-election. The members of the National Assembly opposed to Syngman Rhee appealed to the Australian diplomat to assist in preventing Rhee formally becoming a dictator. Although the Australian diplomat sincerely desired to intervene in this event due to his belief in and desire for adherence to democratic principles he was to some extent reluctant to do so as he did not have specific orders and to interfere in the domestic affairs of a sovereign was not a step to be taken lightly. Plimsoll was also fully aware of the propaganda victory it would give the Soviet Union-the UNO removing the head of state of a country it had brought into being. Eventually Rhee concluded this crisis by proclaiming martial law and arresting his opponents in the National Assembly.

Keywords: James Plimsoll, Korea-Australia Relations, Pusan Political Crisis, Syngman Rhee, UNCURK
Intertextual Dynamics in Ode to My Father: Competing Narratives of the Nation and the People

Intertextual Dynamics in Ode to My Father: Competing Narratives of the Nation and the People

Authors: Elli S. Kim
( 9 downloads)
Abstract

Recently, films based on a specific historical figure or background are smashing South Korean box office records. For example, over 10 million viewers flocked to watch each of the following films: The Attorney (released December 2013, 11 million viewers), The Admiral: Roaring Currents (released July 2014, 17 million viewers), and Ode to My Father (released December 2014, 13 million viewers as of December 6th 2014). These films are also embroiled in a heated ideological debate between political conservatives and progressives.

Keywords: Intertextual Dynamics, Competing Narratives
When the Future Disappears: The Modernist Imagination in Late Colonial Korea. Janet Poole. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014

When the Future Disappears: The Modernist Imagination in Late Colonial Korea. Janet Poole. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014

Authors: Mickey Hong
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

A lucid study of Korean literary history during the colonial period seems almost impossible, especially during the politically oppressive “dark period” (amhŭkki), from the late 1930s to the early 1940s. As Janet Poole outlines in her book’s introduction, the problem of “triple censorship”—by the Japanese colonial authority, and the ideologically divided two Koreas after liberation—will always cast a shadow in the reading of colonial Korean writers’ works. Poole’s book sheds a ray of light by focusing on the theme of a disappearing future in late colonial modernist works. The fading future of Korea and Koreanness is articulated in several experiments until, ultimately, the work is literally not in Korean, but in Japanese. However, Poole reminds the reader to distinguish what is literary and literal. What must be examined is the writer’s language within the national language—whether it is Korean or Japanese. What matters is not to search word-for-word for what is missing, but how the writers were able to pass on their meanings in the rhetorical. Poole sets out to do exactly that, by choosing to write on the “productivity of [the] silence” rather than “impose substitutes or presume what a writer ‘really’ wanted to say” (16). Chapter 1 is centered on Ch’oe Myŏngik’s (1903-?) “Walking in the Rain” (1936). Poole notes several features and methods that make the bleak future of Korea acutely felt in the story. The “photographic tale” is set in a portrait studio, and the story ends with the death of the photographer. The photography of P’yŏngyang and its residents represent the life of the urban petite bourgeoisie at the time. Photos are freeze frames of the present—mementos for the future, to reminisce about the past. What Ch’oe documents is not always picture perfect as it is seen through Pyŏngil. The depiction of the city alleys on Pyŏngil’s route is less than “postcard aesthetic” (24). Pyŏngil might “have little faith in turning time ‘upside down’” (17) but he is a camera obscura that shows the “upside down” image of what seems to be true about progress and the future. The photographer who is saving money for the future dies of typhoid, making his effort pointless. The details of quotidian life “disrupt the forward moving narrative of modernization” (38). Chapter 2 explores the motif of nostalgia, concentrating on the writings of philosopher Sŏ Insik (1906-?). In the crisis of future which is either inconceivable or too painful to envision, contemplating the past becomes a coping mechanism. If to be modern is a way of overcoming colonialism, to suffer from nostalgia, what Svetlana Boym claims “a disease of the modern age,” was a new “way of being universal” (54). Poole notes, “Sŏ’s definition of nostalgic longing constructs a relationship between past and present that refuses to trust the linear time of continuity and progress” (57). Longing for the past that is lost becomes an act of metaphysical possession. In “The Beauty of Longing and Decadence,” Sŏ declares “When we submerge ourselves in the memories of something old that has been lost, the past returns again to the present like a phantom. Only memories can be mine eternally. No power on earth can steal those memories of old things that rise in our emotional world” (57). The objects with which Sŏ attempts to recapture are tradition, a “temporal concept,” and the East, a “spatial form.” How Yi T’aejun’s essays create a microcosm of a “private orient” by delving into antiquity is discussed in Chapter 3. Yi’s preoccupation with “feudal nostalgia” is beyond a “form of escape and a refusal to confront the contradictions of the present by submerging oneself in a love of old objects” (85). It is unclear if Yi’s intent was to subvert colonial power— the exoticization and idealization elevating the Orient and antiquity above the modern and the West which the Japanese tried to imitate. The striking antithesis in Yi’s Eastern Sentiments (1941) reveals Manchuria embodying both “cosmopolitan modernity” and “endless farmland” (111). Ironically, Yi is able to fantasize himself as “a lonely shadow on the endless plain” because he identifies with the White Russian waitresses on the Asia Express dining car, “without even a homeland to embrace with their homesickness.” (111) Yi’s antiquarianism could also be argued as “that of a dilettante indulging himself, a scandalous turning away from the political and social pressures of his time” or as he tried to defend after liberation, an attempt to “save the traces of an honorable Korean cultural past” (113). Poole concludes Yi’s travelogue as simply a literary and historical artifact when a “Confucian literati” was displaced in an imperialist capitalist regime. The space of “peri-urb” is surveyed in Chapter 4, beginning with the urban planning development of Seoul to Kyŏngsŏng/Keijō. The city’s overhaul included major expansion and reorganization of boundaries. The works of Yi T’aejun, Pak T’aewŏn (1910–86), and O Changhwan (1918–51) are cited to illustrate the new peri-urban landscape. The most symbolic structure that appears repeated is the City Wall (Sŏngbyŏk). In 1914, Seoul was a “smallish city with a population of a quarter of a million” (119), but thirty years later, that number quadrupled with rural migration and Japanese settlers: “the city was literally breaking out of its walls” (120). The wall is a constant reminder for those who live outside, how they are excluded to the fringe of the city while the Japanese settler can afford housing within the walls. The walls no longer delineate the boundaries of the city but the “meaning of the city walls” (130) cannot be eliminated. The walls “thrive for ten thousand years as generations change” (125) in O’s poem and in Yi’s essay, a true “artwork, their beauty stemming from passing beyond functionality” (128). Chapter 5 is exclusively about literary critic Ch’oe Chaesŏ (1908–64) and his collection of essays Korean Literature in the Age of Transition [Tenkanki no Chōsen bungaku] (1943). Ch’oe, a colonial subject writing in Japanese, fully supporting the war mobilization can be disturbing to understand, but Poole interprets Ch’oe’s logic: “the powerful attraction and comfort offered by the possibility of becoming Japanese” (149). Poole investigates how Cho’e’s literature written in Japanese embodies his logics of incorporating into the rhetoric of the co-prosperity sphere of East Asia. The fall of Paris to Hitler’s Germany declared a “new European order” (152), and it was a shock for Ch’oe who realized that the only future that is imaginable for Korea is as Japan via imperialization. “When Ch’oe discusses the concrete literary policies of kokumin bungaku (national literature), the loss of writing in Korean is more than recompensed by the possibility of liberating oneself from the restrictions that come with being Korean within the Japanese empire” (172). Ch’oe’s new view of the Japanese empire as a “nation without centers” is to envision Japan sprawling beyond Korea (Asia). Within that vast empire, according to Ch’oe, Korea would not be a colony but a region, and he compares Korea to Scotland in the United Kingdom. “Likening Korean literature to that of Scotland raised the prospect of Korean literature being considered an integral part of a Japanese national literature, thus adding ‘richness’ to its metropolitan partner. Henceforth Korea would not have to be a margin but an equal part of the center” (173)—not a bad trade-off for writing in Japanese. Thus, Ch’oe urged young Koreans to find meaning in their lives by sacrificing themselves to the cause of the war, and he encouraged Korean writers to glorify the emperor and the empire. In Ch’oe’s case, the anxiety of the unknown future as a colonial Korean was too much to bear, and he participated in a future that is at least promising as a kokumin, an imperial-national. The last chapter further deals with other writers who wrote in Japanese and the politics of Korean writers making the choice over language. The background of language policy in colonial Korea helps the reader to observe the political climate of the time as the pressure intensified for writers to produce works in Japanese in order to be published. By the 1940s, “Korean culture was now considered a region of Japan, and the Korean language, a dialect” (188). She shows that Korean culture was recognized as a regional culture within the multi-ethnic Japanese empire while the Korean language became a dialect of the empire. Kim Namch’ŏn’s “One Morning” (“Aru asa”) (1943) is in the spotlight to answer the question “Was it possible to take possession of the imperial language without being possessed by the spirit of the emperor?” (188). Poole’s outlook of her subject is complex and subtle—she tries to explain how writers convey the experience of time when the future for Korea was dismal to non-existent. The writers’ sense of time manifests in different styles and techniques. The book reminds us that even under the worst of political oppression, writers still have the skills to express themselves and their particular time and place, despite the hopeless future. Poole reminds us, “We can only honor them by reading their work, keeping in mind perhaps that what little we know about what later came to pass, but bearing in mind also that what was believed possible at one moment also matters, even if its future remained only on a printed page” (207). Poole has chosen to research literature at a particular time that was extremely desperate and anxious for Korean writers. The works are not comforting or entertaining. The weight of the historical and political context forces the present reader to be constantly conscientious of the writers’ limitations. Poole has done an outstanding job in reminding us that it is actually the restraint of censorship that challenged the writers, and its what “makes colonial writing most literary, as it demonstrates in an intense fashion the qualities that already mark literary language” (16).

Keywords: the Future Disappears, Modernist Imagination
European Porcelain for the Royal Court in the Late Chosŏn Dynasty: Production, Analysis and Evaluation

European Porcelain for the Royal Court in the Late Chosŏn Dynasty: Production, Analysis and Evaluation

Authors: Jungmin Lee
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

In accordance with the accession of the Emperor and establishment of the Korean Empire, Kojong’s government mandated modification of the traditional way of receiving envoys by altering rituals to fit the West, with Western style banquets using European tableware. These tableware and toiletry were imported from France, Britain and Germany. This study examines European porcelain in terms of stylistic features, production technology and periodization. While previous museum catalogues provide general information on the European porcelain, existing scholarship is limited to French-Korean relations in porcelain production and the armorial crest on craftworks of the Korean Empire period. Through careful analysis of European porcelain, this study revises errors in the catalogues. The examination of each object, made of durable and innovative material compounds produced with the best industrial production technology of the time, ultimately demonstrates the Chosŏn court consumed Western porcelain in pursuit of a modern state.

Keywords: Late Choso, Kojong’s Reformative Strategy, Royal Court, Western Style Banquet, European porcelain
Mobilized Spontaneity: The Park Chunghee Regime’s Conversion of College Student Volunteer Activities for Rural Communities as Observed Through the Taehan News

Mobilized Spontaneity: The Park Chunghee Regime’s Conversion of College Student Volunteer Activities for Rural Communities as Observed Through the Taehan News

Authors: Bowoon Keum
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

This article aims to examine the Park Chunghee regime’s mobilization of college students, who were participating in the volunteer activities for the rural community, by erasing their original goal and characteristics using government- made films such as “Taehan News.” It is the process of excavating the people’s forgotten history under the Cold War system. The rural problem in the 1960’s was the most important task for the military government of Park Chunghee to resolve during the Cold War. The Park regime turned to college student activities because the students were leading social movements to reform South Korean society after the April 19 Student Revolution. Using films, the government propagandized that the college students’ activities were part of the government’s efforts and part of the government’s contingency plans for the rural community problems, even though the students’ goal for volunteer activities in the rural areas differed from the government’s policies. Consequently, the students’ activities for the rural community in the 1960's lost their “name,” and the standards to correctly evaluate their past as well as their rightful identity have been stolen from them.

Keywords: College student activities for the rural community, Taehan News, culture film, interpellation, Cold War, Park Chunghee Regime
“Breaking the Dam to Reunify our Country”: Alternate Histories of the Korean War in Contemporary South Korean Cinema

“Breaking the Dam to Reunify our Country”: Alternate Histories of the Korean War in Contemporary South Korean Cinema

Authors: Kristen Sun
( 10 downloads)
Abstract

This article analyzes three contemporary South Korean films that (re)present alternate histories of the Korean War: 2009 Lost Memories (2009 Rosŭt’ŭmemorichŭ) (Lee Simyung (I Simyŏng), 2002), Welcome to Dongmakgol (Welk’ŏm t’u Tongmakkol) (Park Kwang-hyun (Pak Kwanghyŏn,) 2005), and Joint Security Area (Park Chan-wook, 2000). Despite focusing on different eras of history, I argue that they rewrite dominant narratives of the Korean War (Cold War logics of anticommunism v. communism) and instead focus on North Korean- South Korean friendships/collaborations. Each film also presents similar situations in which a group of disparate “heroes” (made up of unified Koreans) band together to circumvent the circumstances of division. This article analyzes historical conditions that influence the emergence of these similarly-themed films as well as film content in order to further think through memorial legacies of the Korean War, as well as to take seriously the radical possibilities of a different future that each film presents.

Keywords: Korean War, Memory, Alternate History, JSA, 2009 Lost Memories, Welcome to Dongmakgol, epistemology, Cold War division cultures
Kim Wŏn-haeng’s Intellectual Influences on Hong Tae-yong: The Case of Relations between Nakhak and Pukhak

Kim Wŏn-haeng’s Intellectual Influences on Hong Tae-yong: The Case of Relations between Nakhak and Pukhak

Authors: Login Lok-yin Law
( 9 downloads)
Abstract

In the 18th century Chosŏn (1392-1910), some scholars, such as Hong Tae-yong (1731-1783) advocated that Chosŏn should learn the advantages of the Qing (1644-1912) society to reform the social structure and government of Chosŏn. The school of these advocates has been known as Pukhak by historians. The intellectual factors of the school of Pukhak’s formation and development have been overlooked by the academia of Chosŏn intellectual history. In fact, Pukhak was closely related to the idea of the school of Nakhak which believed that nature of things was equivalent to humans. Kim Wŏn-haeng, was one of the supporters of Nakhak and Hong Tae-yong was one of the students of Kim. Hong’s thought and writing exposed that his thought was profoundly influenced by Kim Wŏn-haeng. Hong was deemed to be the first prominent scholar of the Pukhak School during the 18th century Chosŏn. Hong and other scholars of Pukhak advocated learning the new knowledge from Qing China even though it was a barbarian society. Therefore, this paper will investigate the intellectual relationships between Hong Tae-yong and Kim Wŏn-haeng to reveal how intellectuals of Nakhak shaped the formation of Pukhak School and exposed the idea of learning from Qing China.

Keywords: Pukhak, History of Chosŏn Confucianism, Hong Tae-yong, Kim Wŏn-haeng, Nakhak

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.