International Journal of Korean History

International Journal of Korean History

Basic info

  • Publisher: Korea University, Center for Korean History
  • Country of publisher: korea, republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: History
  • Publisher's keywords: Korean History
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2000
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '224' articles

Yu Kilchun’s Concept of Reform of the Tax System in the Korean Empire

Yu Kilchun’s Concept of Reform of the Tax System in the Korean Empire

Authors: Jinah Yang
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

Yu Kilchun in “Semubu (Tax Department)” criticizes the trend of the tax system, in which the authority to impose and collect taxes had been taken away from the local magistrates and the isŏ class (composed of hyangni, local functionaries, and sŏri, petty clerks) during the Kabo Reform was once again returned to them. Yu Kilchun devised a concept of tax system reform on the premise of the reorganization of the administrative districts into the chu-kun-hyang-ri (state-county-district-village) system. Yu’s idea was to make myŏn (hyang, district) a governing administrative unit, placed under direct government control. To fund the operation of local governments, Yu proposed to create local taxes, chu taxes and hyang. Tax amounts were to be determined by local assemblies, chuhoe and hyanghoe, which were given the authority to deliberate on budget. The authority to review tax sources, levy and collect taxes was given to hyang, a small unit of administrative division. By imbuing this authority to hyang, Yu Kilchun planned to exclude local magistrates and the isŏ class in the tax collection process. Since “Semubu” discusses the reorganization of administrative divisions and local tax administration, as well as local tax system reform, the discovery of this text is significant, as it expands the range of the reform ideas proposed by Yu Kilchun, and furthermore the Enlightenment Party.

Keywords: Yu Kilchun, Semubu (稅務部), local taxes, local autonomy, hyanghoe (鄕會)
Textbook Inspection and Censorship in Korea during the Protectorate Period: A Study of Inspection Copies of Textbooks Compiled by the Young Korean Academy

Textbook Inspection and Censorship in Korea during the Protectorate Period: A Study of Inspection Copies of Textbooks Compiled by the Young Korean Academy

Authors: Soyoung Kim
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

Established during the Japanese protectorate period, the censorship system lasted throughout the colonial period as well. Therefore it is necessary to examine such censorship system as part of Japan’s colonization policy and shed light on the historical and current significance of the censorship system as well as its effects. Recently, copies of textbook provided to the Ministry of Education (Hakbu) for inspection in the protectorate period were newly discovered. Materials that have been inspected by the Japanese Residency-General of Korea—inspection copies of textbooks from the Young Korean Academy (Heungsadan)—were included in the “Collection of new materials related to Yu Kilchun”. Using these newly discovered copies of textbooks that had been subject to inspection, this study is the first in a series of research that attempted to examine actual cases of textbook inspection and censorship during the protectorate period and shed light on the historical significance of such activities. This study therefore review legislations on inspection and censorship in this period and studied the early stages in the establishment process of a censorship system in modern Korea. Secondly, this study attempted to provide a bibliographical analysis of the inspection copies of textbooks from the protectorate period, as these are new documents that had never been analyzed or used in research.

Keywords: Textbook inspection, censorship, Japanese Residency-General of Korea, Heungsadan, Yu Kilchun, Pak Chŏngtong
“My Turn to Speak”: Criticism Culture and the Multiple Uses of Class in Postwar North Korea

“My Turn to Speak”: Criticism Culture and the Multiple Uses of Class in Postwar North Korea

Authors: Andre Schmid
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

This paper examines the vexed and complex relationship between class, ideology and criticism in 1950s North Korea after the end of the Korean War. Although the KWP presented class as an unitary category, there were in fact many ways of writing about class in these years. Rather than use high-level KWP sources for a single ‘authoritative’ definition of class, this paper examines sources read in the local social worlds of workers. The paper first examines the anxieties created by the implementation of self and group criticism and the measures taken to mollify these worries. It next considers workers’ criticisms of their colleagues published in the Nodongja sinmun. These writings show how class discourse among workers vacated traditional Marxist discourses on class to become more of a cultural category designed to promote self-evaluation and self-reform.

Keywords: North Korea, class, criticism, ideology, criticism culture, Nodongja sinmun
The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

Authors: Sungho Kang
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

Keywords: Mt. Chirisan, East Asia, Immigrant, Multi-cultural identity, inland mountain region
ROUX, Pierre-Emmanuel, La Croix, la baleine et le canon. La France face à la Corée au milieu du XIXe siècle, Paris, Editions du Cerf, 2012, 462 p

ROUX, Pierre-Emmanuel, La Croix, la baleine et le canon. La France face à la Corée au milieu du XIXe siècle, Paris, Editions du Cerf, 2012, 462 p

Authors: Klaus Dittrich
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

The present volume is an extended version of the author’s master’s thesis submitted to the Institut national de langues et civilisations orientales (INALCO) in Paris in 2007. It sets out to reinterpret the Franco-Korean connections from the 1840s to the 1860s. As the author explains in the introduction, the historiography of early Franco-Korean relations suffered from a too narrow focus on the expedition of 1866 as well as on the role of Korean Catholicism. Moreover, the early relations between France and Korea were largely asymmetrical. Whereas Korea played only a minor role for France and the history of the early contacts between both countries is only known to a small community of French specialists, the situation is completely different for Korea. The author underlines the relevance of early Franco-Korean contacts for Koreans with a personal anecdote in the preface, when he recounts the first encounter with his future father-in-law in Daejeon in 2002. On this occasion, the latter accused the author of belonging to a nation that invaded Korea in 1866. The monograph is based on an impressive variety of hitherto unexploited documents from diverse countries, most importantly French diplomatic sources.

Keywords: Pierre-Emmanuel, La Croix, la baleine
Through the Prism of Masquerade: The Colonial Past in Assassination

Through the Prism of Masquerade: The Colonial Past in Assassination

Authors: Jinsoo An
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

Assassination marks a new phase of colonial representation in South Korean cinema. To explicate the film’s unique, if not revisionist, view toward the colonial past, this review focuses on an analysis of how the film fleshes out the neglected representational features that have nevertheless constituted the stuff of cinematic history toward the colonial past. In doing so, I move away from the issue of veracity which would inadvertently bog down a serious analysis of popular renditions of history. Instead, I attempt to elucidate the ways in which Assassination adroitly changes the coordinates of antinomy and tension in mapping out the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized, thereby achieving a more complex and nuanced depiction of the colonial experience. Specifically, I situate the subject of collaboration at the center of the film’s analysis as it significantly complicates and relates to other key questions such as perception and appearance, the colonial legacy, and postcolonial politics, as well as symptoms of hysteria and perversion. This review also strives to shed light on the significance of the ethical drive in the film’s reckoning of the colonial and postcolonial nexus. I claim that the film breaks away from the deadlock of many conundrums and thereby promises a more radical Korea’s sociopolitical history hitherto unrehearsed in South Kore an’s cinematic history.

Keywords: Masquerade, Colonial Past, Assassination
Guest Editor’s Introduction: Writing the “Empire” Back into the History of Postwar Japan

Guest Editor’s Introduction: Writing the “Empire” Back into the History of Postwar Japan

Authors: Deokhyo Choi
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

Where did the “empire” go in the history of postwar Japan? In postwar Japanese history, one finds a historiographical “amnesia of empire.” The Japanese empire lost its colonies all at once as a result of its defeat in World War II, and the end of the empire was, in the words of Japan historian Lori Watt, a “third party decolonization” managed by the Allied Powers.1 In postwar Japan, this process of decolonization was imagined as a “distant event that happened to other people,” and this conditioned the “amnesia of empire” in collective memory and historiography.2 “The dominant narrative of Japanese historiography,” Japan scholar Leo T.S. Ching claims, “is therefore able to circumvent the dissolution of its empire altogether, insulating itself and moving briskly from defeat to U.S. occupation, from demilitarization to ‘democratization’ and unprecedented economic ‘miracle.’”3 Yet, the presence of Koreans in Japan unsettles this “amnesia of empire.” By the end of World War II, Japan had a population of over two million Koreans, most of whom were both colonial migrant workers and wartime conscripted workers. At Japan’s defeat, issues related to this large colonial population on the empire’s home front formed a critical site where “decolonization” took place, whether in the form of their self-empowerment, their open defiance of Japanese authority, or the U.S. Occupation’s “liberation” and “repatriation” of Koreans in Japan. How can we write the “empire” back into the history of postwar Japan through the prism of the Korean (post)colonial population in Japan? This special issue is intended to be a contribution to the growing body of research on the legacies of empire in postwar Japan.4 With its primary focus on the “postcolonial” Korean population (zainichi Koreans) and the so-called “Korean problem” in U.S.-occupied Japan, this issue seeks to expand the scope of postwar history. In particular, the three articles included here attempt to enlarge the temporal and spatial framework of the existing historiography, which often assumes a temporal divide between wartime and postwar and takes the form of an “island history” centered on a national unit of analysis. In general historical accounts, Emperor Hirohito’s speech announcing Japan’s surrender on August 15, 1945, marks the “postwar” as a “new beginning.”5 The postwar is portrayed as disconnected and inverted from the bleak wartime past, and this idea of discontinuity has dominated the narrative framework for decades. Since the 1990s, however, Japan historians have challenged the idea of discontinuity.6 Studies of the “total war system,” particularly in the volume edited by Yasushi Yamanouchi, Victor Koschmann and Ryūiichi Narita, emphasize the presence of continuity across the divide of the wartime and the postwar.7 Similarly, historians Andrew Gordon and Nakamura Masanori use a “transwar” analysis to understand the recurring dynamic of social change in twentieth-century Japan.8 The new scholarship treats postwar Japan as the product of a long process continuous with past transformations, rather than as a completely “reborn” entity.

Keywords: Guest Editor’s Introduction, Writing, “Empire”
Historicizing “Korean Criminality”: Colonial Criminality in Twentieth Century Japan

Historicizing “Korean Criminality”: Colonial Criminality in Twentieth Century Japan

Authors: Joel Matthews
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

In the context of Japanese colonialism, this article examines the discourse of colonial criminality that came to epistemologically position the Korean colonial subject as criminal and therefore necessitating domination, surveillance and punishment. The discourse of colonial criminality stemmed from Japan's late nineteenth century epistemological commitment to imperialism and concomitant knowledge of law and the legality of colonial subjects. Through an analysis that historicizes the “criminal Korean” (futei senjin) epithet in the prewar and the emergence of <i>yami</i> as a signifier of Korean economic criminality throughout the 1940s, this article illustrates how the racialization of Koreans in Japan was both framed in terms of crime and subversion, and how that criminality functioned as a justification for postcolonial legalized exclusion and discrimination.

Keywords: Zainichi Korean, Japanese Colonialism, Criminality, Futei Senjin, Yami, Third-Country Nationals (Daisankokujin), Postcolonial Racism
The Limits of Decolonization: American Occupiers and the “Korean Problem” in Japan, 1945-1948

The Limits of Decolonization: American Occupiers and the “Korean Problem” in Japan, 1945-1948

Authors: Matthew R. Augustine
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

Korean and Japanese officials have never engaged in direct negotiations to reach a postcolonial settlement, unlike what followed the breakup of many European colonies. Instead, the problem of how to dissolve Japanese colonialism was indirectly addressed by external mediators; namely, US occupation administrations in Korea and Japan after World War II. Examining the history of third-party decolonization must therefore take into consideration how this process was initially mediated between the new American occupiers in the region. In order to understand how decolonization was compromised in part by evolving and competing American occupation policies, this article examines three interrelated issues that greatly affected Koreans in occupied Japan who found themselves displaced by the sudden collapse of the Japanese empire: repatriation, restitution, and nationality. The extent to which American occupation authorities in Korea and Japan jointly engaged in each of these critical issues vividly illustrates the limits of decolonization.

Keywords: Decolonization, American occupation, SCAP, USAMGIK, repatriation, restitution, nationality, Koreans in Japan
The Tokyo Trial and the Question of Colonial Responsibility: Zainichi Korean Reactions to Allied Justice in Occupied Japan

The Tokyo Trial and the Question of Colonial Responsibility: Zainichi Korean Reactions to Allied Justice in Occupied Japan

Authors: Young-hwan Chong
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

This article examines how the zainichi Korean media and organizations responded to the Tokyo Trial and its pursuit of war responsibility. Their critiques of the Tokyo Trial often presented a critical insight from the perspective of anti-colonialism. Zainichi Koreans correctly questioned the absence of colonial responsibility in the pursuit of justice and war responsibility in the trial. In this sense, the problems and limits of the Tokyo Trial that scholars started to “discover” in the 1970s had already been discussed by some zainichi Koreans in the late 1940s. By delving into previously under-explored historical sources, particularly the numerous newspapers published by zainichi Korean groups during the occupation period, this article demonstrates how zainichi Korean critics understood the limits of the Tokyo Trial beyond the binary of “victors' justice” and “the judgment of civilization.”

Keywords: Tokyo War Trial, Korans in Japan, Colonial Responsibility, War Responsibility, U.S. Occupation of Japan, Crimes against Peace, Crimes against Humanity
Helen Kim as New Woman and Collaborator: A Comprehensive Assessment of Korean Collaboration under Japanese Colonial Rule

Helen Kim as New Woman and Collaborator: A Comprehensive Assessment of Korean Collaboration under Japanese Colonial Rule

Authors: AhRan Ellie Bae
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

Although almost seventy years has passed since Korea's liberation from Japanese rule, the issue of collaboration still haunts Korea today. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus attention on the traitorous actions of "collaborators" without considering the gray areas that surround their actions such as the circumstances that influenced the accused to commit their alleged traitorous acts and the intentions that drove their decisions. Helen Kim, as a "new woman" and an educator, valued the necessity of providing education for women. Yet, her efforts to realize this goal, to the contrary, forced her into actions that would later be used to construct a reputation as a Japanese collaborator. Korea's nationalist historiography has a tendency to polarize this issue by categorizing a "collaborator" as either a traitor or a patriot. However, when we take a closer look at these collaborators' lives, we discover that most collaboration happened in gray areas where it is often difficult to clearly draw a line between treason and collaboration. Helen Kim's case suggests that the issue of collaboration cannot be fully explained by nationalist historiography's framework and we must give attention to these gray areas. Through her story I hope to complicate the issue of collaboration by raising questions that address the gray areas that surround the actions of "collaborators." In doing so, I hope to challenge the nationalist historiography's propensity to oversimplify this issue and present a more nuanced understanding of it.

Keywords: Helen Kim, collaboration, pro-Japanese, ch'in'il'pa, gender, nationalism
The “Three National Treasures of Silla (新羅三寶)” and Their Transfer: The Symbol of the Unification of the Koryŏ Dynasty

The “Three National Treasures of Silla (新羅三寶)” and Their Transfer: The Symbol of the Unification of the Koryŏ Dynasty

Authors: Bo-kwang Kim
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

This paper explores the significance of the three national treasures of Silla (Silla sambo) in the history of Koryŏ through analyzing the significance of the Three National Treasures of Silla. There are the three national in Silla—a sixteen-foot bronze Buddha statue and a nine-tiered pagoda at Hwangnyong Temple, and the jade belt bestowed by the heavens. These are made from the time of King Chinhŭng to the time of Queen Sŏndŏk. Moreover, these treasures came to occupy the status of treasures that protect the nation, as the mere existence of the treasures was able to persuade the “king of Koryŏ” to abandon his plan to attach Silla. As a result, the treasures were made by the kings of the “sacred bone” sŏng’gol with the Buddhist background, and again, the treasures added to power and authority to the “sacred bone” sŏng’gol family, so the treasure 'Sambo' became a symbol of the nation. The stories that demonstrate the miraculous powers of the three national treasures of Silla appear in the legends of the nine-tiered pagoda of Hwangnyong Temple and of the jade belt. And it is correct to understand that the “king of Koryŏ” mentioned in these stories is a “king of Koguryŏ” rather than Wang Kŏn, the founder of the Koryŏ dynasty. Above all, it is important to take into consideration the fact that the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms was compiled in the Koryŏ dynasty. Therefore in the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, Koryŏ is consistently referred to as “this dynasty” and Wang Kŏn as “T'aejo.” Such circumstances eliminate the possibility that T'aejo would have been referred to as simply the “king of Koryŏ.” T'aejo Wang Kŏn, who was aware of the need for and had the will to unify the then-divided three kingdoms, or Samhan, showed interest in the three treasures of Silla. Then in 935 and 937, the three treasures were handed over to Wang Kŏn after Silla's surrender and through Kim Pu's presentation of the jade belt to T'aejo. And in 936, T'aejo achieved the “unification of Samhan.” In the end, the transfer of 'the treasures' is the 'gift' of Silla, which means that Koryŏ inherited the legitimacy of Silla through the achievement of the unification of the Three Kingdoms.

Keywords: Three National Treasures of Silla, jade belt bestowed by the heavens, sixteen-foot bronze Buddha statue, nine-tiered pagoda at Hwangnyong Temple, King Kyŏngsun, T'aejo Wang Kŏn, historical legitimacy
BREUKER, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918–1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. Leiden, Netherland: Brill, 2010, xvi+484 pp.

BREUKER, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918–1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. Leiden, Netherland: Brill, 2010, xvi+484 pp.

Authors: Hyung-Wook Kim
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

The issue of pluralism in society is a complicated subject, requiring an even more cautious approach if the society in question is from the premodern period. Although the issue of “diversity” has been raised and discussed lately amidst the conflict found in various elements of society, relatively few research studies have focused on this issue in pre-modern history. Meanwhile, the Chosŏn Dynasty (1392-1910)1 remains the main subject of pre-modern Korean history research among scholars outside Korea. Koryŏ (918-1392), the previous dynasty, is relatively less discussed despite its historical importance. Remco E. Breuker2‟s work is valuable to understanding the Koryŏ dynasty, and his book certainly illuminates an intriguing feature of this state—pluralism.

Keywords: BREUKER, Remco E. Establishing, Pluralist Society
Over the Im/permeable Boundaries: Cinematization of Nianchan in South Korea and Japan

Over the Im/permeable Boundaries: Cinematization of Nianchan in South Korea and Japan

Authors: So Hye Kim
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

Nianchan1, literally meaning “my second eldest brother,” is a journal of an orphaned second-generation zainichi girl, Yasumoto Sueko. It was first published in 1958 in Japan and became a best seller for two years. Describing Sueko and her siblings’ daily struggles against grinding poverty which is about to separate them, it was “read as something like the Japanese equivalent of Anne Frank’s diary.”2 Although it drew the largest Japanese readership in postwar Japan among the books written by a zainichi Korean, it has barely been discussed either as zainichi literature or as postwar popular Japanese literature. Another notable but underexplored aspect of this book is that it was a rare example of a cultural product that managed to cross the border between South Korea and Japan in the late 50s and enjoyed popular attention in both countries. Within three months after the Japanese publish date, Korean translations were published under two different titles.3 In 1959, Nianchan was adapted into films by two noted directors, Imamura Shōhei in Japan and Yu Hyŏn-mok in South Korea, respectively. Under the South Korean government’s rigorous censorship of any representation of contemporary Japan, how could this story have been introduced to Korean readers and audiences? What kind of modifications were at play during this cultural border crossing? By examining the process of the cultural transmission and film adaptation of Nianchan, this review discusses the im/permeability of cultural borders between the two countries, partly occasioned by Rhee Syngman regime’s ban on Japanese popular culture and the intertwined relationship between the process of making national culture and that of situating Korean diaspora on either side of these im/permeable borders. Nianchan, the original journal, its publication, and its film adaptation were all produced against the backdrop of rapidly changing relations between South Korea, North Korea, and Japan. Yasumoto Sueko’s journal covers the period between January 1953 and September 1954; given that the armistice was signed in July 1953, this period briefly overlaps with the Korean War. Furthermore, around the time when the journal was published and made into films, there were heightened tensions between South Korea, North Korea, and Japan over the issue of the zainichi Korean’s repatriation to North Korea. This repatriation effort brought about by the intermediary work of the Red Cross in 1958–59, and was met with vehement opposition from the South Korean government. When two different versions of Korean translation of the journal in question were published without author’s permission in early 1959, Kōbunsha, the original publisher in Japan, as well as the author, criticized the pirated editions in Korea, citing many instances of mistranslation.4 However, the issue of writer’s copyrights suddenly shifted to suspicion of Yasumoto’s identity, ideology, and citizenship. For example, South Korea’s Ministry of Education announced its immediate answer as follows.

Keywords: permeable Boundaries, Cinematization, Nianchan
Guest Editor’s Introduction: Newly Discovered Documents from Ancient Korea

Guest Editor’s Introduction: Newly Discovered Documents from Ancient Korea

Authors: Dae-Jae Park
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

In this special issue, we have included four papers that were presented at the 28th Association for Korean Studies in Europe (AKSE) Conference held in Prague, Czech Republic, in April 2017. All four papers discussed historical texts that were newly discovered after 2000, including inscribed wooden tablets (mokkan, 木簡), stele (sŏkbi, 石碑), and epitaphs (myojimyŏng, 墓誌銘). First, Dae-Jae Park’s paper discusses a new approach to examine the household register of Lelang Commandery, which was discovered in P’yŏngyang, North Korea, and first introduced to the world in 2006. The household register of Lelang Commandery is a set of wooden documents with detailed information on the number of households in each of the 25 counties in Lelang Commandery in 45 BCE. Through an examination of the characters “其戶 (kiho),” found near the end of the register, Park confirms that the households in 18 counties centered around the county town (Chosŏn county) were distinguished from the households in the seven counties of Yŏngdong (嶺東) in Lelang Commandery. Based on this trend in documentation, it is possible to presume that the seven counties of Yŏngdong were areas under the rule of both the governor of Lelang Commandery and the commandant headquarters of the East Section (東部都尉).

Keywords: Guest Editor’s Introduction, Newly Discovered Documents

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