International Journal of Korean History

International Journal of Korean History

Basic info

  • Publisher: Korea University, Center for Korean History
  • Country of publisher: korea, republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: History
  • Publisher's keywords: Korean History
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2000
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '224' articles

Lelang Cultural Interaction Sphere: An "Alternative" Approach to State-Formation in Korea - Hyung Il Pai, Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories(Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000), 543 pages

Lelang Cultural Interaction Sphere: An "Alternative" Approach to State-Formation in Korea - Hyung Il Pai, Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories(Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000), 543 pages

Authors: Yingzi Xu
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

No Abstract

Keywords: Lelang Cultural Interaction Sphere, "Alternative", State-Formation
Transformation of Official Rank and Salary System in the Late Koryŏ Period

Transformation of Official Rank and Salary System in the Late Koryŏ Period

Authors: Jin-han Lee
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

The Mongols regarded virtually the whole known world as their legitimate domain and they demanded from conquered people a complete and total submission. Among the states in Northeast Asia, Koryŏ was the only state that was able to retain its own kingship and to exercise some degree of autonomy in the conduct of its internal affairs. Mongols regarded it as fortunate to have secured the submission of a nation that had persisted in a stubborn resistance against them for more than thirty years. 1 However, Koryŏ was still forced to demonstrate its symbolic subordination to the Mongols by making changes in its official languages, rites, and institutions. In 1301, the Koryŏ court restructured its government institutions and renamed all agencies that shared same names with Yüan imperial agencies. Previous studies on the late Koryŏ political history have focused mainly on institutional aspects such as the changes in the official rank system and the emergence of the Personnel Authority (Chŏngbang) as the center of power. While these studies have shown that the power structure and political process in late Koryŏ were clearly different from those of the early Koryŏ period, we still the official rank), and the system of honorary civil official titles did not seem to have functioned. The article will attempt to clarify the late Koryŏ institutional changes in the management of personnel in the officialdom. It will first describe the official rank system during the reign of King Munjong and then compare it to that of the late Koryŏ period, when the official rank system became closer to the T’ang and Sung models not only in name but also in actual operation. It is hoped that this study of the institutional changes in the officialdom will offer some insights into the late Koryŏ period.

Keywords: Transformation of Official Rank, Slavery System
Political Power Groups of Kory ŏ  Dynasty after the Period of Yüan China’s Intervention

Political Power Groups of Kory ŏ Dynasty after the Period of Yüan China’s Intervention

Authors: Hyoung-woo Lee
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

In 1356, King Kongmin of Koryŏ carried out his “anti‐Yüan reforms” that finally ended a century of Mongol interference. This reform came as a result of several factors such as the king’s accurate assessment of political situation in China, his promotion of talented men, and his resoluteness. After the reform, Kongmin personally would control Koryŏ’s state affairs. Kongmin, who came to the throne at the age of twenty‐two, attempted four great reforms during his reign, and in the process, the king would promote or demote groups of officials for his own political end. King Kongmin’s reign was the time of complex and shifting political situations, but it also provided great opportunities for many to rise quickly in the officialdom. Some of these new officials formed political factions to further their own interest and then dominated the late Koryŏ polity. It was the united force of the followers of Yi Sŏnggye and the new scholar officials that eventually destroyed Koryŏ and established the new Chosŏn dynasty. This article will examine the formation, background, and activities of the political groups in late Koryŏ and attempt to relate them to major historical events such as the fall of Koryŏ and establishment of Chosŏn.

Keywords: Political Power Groups, Koryŏ Dynasty, Yüan China's Intervention
Mongols and Western Asian in the Late Koryŏ Ruling Stratum

Mongols and Western Asian in the Late Koryŏ Ruling Stratum

Authors: Peter Yun
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

The Mongol conquests in the thirteenth century reached far outside the sphere of traditional Chinese influence and provided conditions for unprecedented large‐scale movements of people and ideas. The period also offered great opportunities for upward social mobility to those who had traditionally been excluded from the ruling stratum. As Koryŏ was fully incorporated into the vast multi‐ethnic Yüan Empire, composition of Koryŏ ruling stratum was further complicated by arrival of several Mongols and Western Asians (se‐mu jen). From the beginning of the Koryŏ dynasty, many foreigners, mostly Chinese, came and settled in Koryŏ. One such Chinese, Ssang Ki [Shuang Chi in Chinese], came in the seventh year (956) of King Kwangjong’s reign and was immediately appointed as a Hanlim Academician [4a]. 2 King Kwangjong’s preference for Chinese officials was so exceptional that it would invite native backlashes.3 In the eleventh century, several Sung Chinese also attained high government offices in Koryŏ.4 On the other hand, the presence of Mongols and Western Asians in the late Koryŏ ruling stratum was both unprecedented and unparalleled, and it was only made possible by the Mongol political hegemony. Through a preliminary examination of the Mongols and Western Asians in the Koryŏ ruling stratum, this paper hopes to shed some light on the Koryŏ aristocrats’ view of the foreigners and of their own social system and culture.

Keywords: Mongols and Western Asian, Ruling Stratum
Development of Sagonghak during the Transition from the Koryŏ to the Chosŏn Dynasty

Development of Sagonghak during the Transition from the Koryŏ to the Chosŏn Dynasty

Authors: Hyeon-chul Do
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

During the last gasps of the Koryŏ Dynasty the Sadaebu (Literati) attempted to implement Sŏnglihak (Chinese Metaphysics) as an ideal for reform in order to overcome the internal and external crises that were affecting the nation at the time. More specifically, they attempted to reform the dynasty into a new ideal Confucian nation based on metaphysics, a concept that was regarded as being an advanced idea at the time. However, in addition to metaphysics whose emphasis is on improving the moral and self‐cultivation aspects, the Koryŏ dynasty was in need of an ideology covering the general aspects of national administration as well as a political system. More specifically, what was required was a theory of national administration and a political system that in addition to addressing the rampant greed of civil servants, best characterized by injustice and corruption, could overcome the external crisis, namely the continuous invasions by Japanese marauders and the Honggŏn Jŏk (Red Turban Bandits). Notably, the Sadaebu became interested in Sagonghak and took to consulting the Yusŏhak, an encyclopedia like compilation, in order to overcome the external crisis and the rampant social disorder. In addition, recent research has revealed that the Kyŏngjemungam (Literature on Economics) written by Jung, Do‐jŏn contains Sagonghak writings.2 If this is the case, what exactly is this Sagonghak that was selected as the main philosophy during the transition period from the Koryŏ to the Chosŏn dynasty? What relation does it bear to Sŏnglihak? What were the factors that led to Sagonghak being selected despite the fact that Sŏnglihak was the mainstream philosophy of the day? This article will analyze how Sagong was accepted by looking into its historical meaning from a philosophical standpoint. In result, this study will provide important ground for understanding the political philosophy and ruling doctrine of the Chosŏn dynasty.

Keywords: Development of Sagonghak, Transition, Chosŏn Dynasty
Re-evaluation of the Chosŏn Dynasty's Trade Relationship with the Ch'ing Dynasty

Re-evaluation of the Chosŏn Dynasty's Trade Relationship with the Ch'ing Dynasty

Authors: Chul-sung Lee
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

In this study, the overall magnitude and fashions of the Chosŏn dynastyʹs trade relationship with the Chʹing dynasty in China will be examined, to identify the nature and shortcomings of that relationship. Those trade activities included official trade activities, civilian trade activities, and even smuggling. Official trade activities involved tributary & bestowal actions, while civilian trade activities included Palpo(八包) transactions which involved official interpreters and merchants accompanying the emissaries, or transactions which involved Chosŏn dynastyʹs local officials. In the mid‐17th century, the Chosŏn dynasty merchants were heavily conducting intermediary trades. Traded items were purchased from the Chʹing dynasty, and sold to the Japanese markets. The Waegwan(倭館) city of the Chosŏn peninsula was one of the focal points in conducting these intermediary transactions. As a result of this trade traffic, huge amount of Japanese silver flowed into the Chosŏn peninsula, and eventually into the Chʹing dynasty as well. Being one of the major trade fashions of the era, and connecting China and Japan in the process, the intermediary trade efforts conducted by the Chosŏn personnel managed to re‐energize the economical activities of the Chosŏn peninsula in the process which were disrupted and devastated by the recent wars with the Japanese and the Chʹing dynasty. They also managed to bring some changes to the traditional ways of commerce maintained for centuries on this peninsula. And even in the ending days of the 17th century when direct commerce was initiated between the Chʹing dynasty and the Japanese people(which heavily affected the Chosŏn‐Japanese trade activities), the trade relationship between the Chosŏn dynasty and the Chʹing dynasty was maintained, and continued to have economical effects upon the domestic commerce and industrial activities of the Chosŏn dynasty.

Keywords: Chosŏn Dynasty's, Trade Relationship, the Ch'ing Dynasty
The Development of the Chinju Peasants' rebellion of 1862

The Development of the Chinju Peasants' rebellion of 1862

Authors: Chan-sup Song
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

140 years have passed since the peasantsʹ rebellions that broke out in numerous villages in the southern part of the country at the end of the Chosŏn Dynasty. Of late there has been a growth in interest on this subject, which has led to an increasing number of related studies. These days, these rebellions are correctly recognized as being the result of the people’s growing anti‐feudalism, rather than ‘events that resulted from a growing confusion among the public’. Moreover, although all of these rebellions broke out in the same year, 1862, this was not a chance occurrence. There has emerged a growing body of research on the formation, activities and characteristics of the Chinju Peasants’ Rebellion that serve to validate this point. The Chinju Peasants’ Rebellion of 1862 has been recognized as the central uprising that happened that year. In fact, the Chinju Peasants’ Rebellion broke out at the same time as the Dansŏng Rebellion and was the most severe with the greatest number of participants. For these reasons, the central government paid significant attention to this rebellion even going as far as dispatching government officials as high as the Anhaeksa (A government position responsible for the settling of disputes) and Sŏnmusa (a direct envoy from the king) to settle the outstanding issues. These central government officials left behind detailed descriptions of the events surrounding the Chinju Peasants’ Rebellion. As a result, most modern books and textbooks on the subject of the 1862 rebellions have focused for the most part on the happenings in Chinju.

Keywords: Peasants' rebellion
Industrial Exhibitions('Gongjinhoe') and the Political Propaganda of Japanese Imperialism in the 1910s

Industrial Exhibitions('Gongjinhoe') and the Political Propaganda of Japanese Imperialism in the 1910s

Authors: Tae-woong Kim
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

Unlike the 1920’s which was known as the period of cultural rule, the ruling philosophy of the Japanese in Korea in the 1910s is referred to as the period of military rule1, a reference to the system of military police through which the Governor‐General of Chosŏn at the time, an incumbent solider, suppressed the public. However, in addition to its suppression efforts during this period Japan also concentrated on the spread of political propaganda in order to attract mass support for colonial rule; with these propaganda efforts targeted not only at a few elites, but also at the general public itself. As various educational facilities and media outlets were used, the conclusion can be made that political propaganda was employed as a basic means of controlling the public. On the other hand, from time to time the colonial government involved itself directly in the control of the Korean people. Although the exhibitions promoting various products (hereafter referred to as gongjinhoes) held by the Governor‐General of Chosŏn took the form of an exhibition, these actually served as a representative example of Japan’s political propaganda. This propaganda reached its peak during the Chosŏn product gongjinhoe held in Kyŏngsŏng‐bu in 1915 2 during which the theory of administrative improvement and assimilation were promoted. More specifically, Japan had great expectations for this event evaluating that significant benefits could be obtained by making the public attend these gongjinhoes and by using these exhibitions to propagate Japan’s new policies. In addition, even after the gongjinhoes were discontinued many exhibitions were held that bared a significant resemblance to the gongjinhoes. As such, it is apparent that Japan considered the gongjinhoes to be an efficient method of disseminating political propaganda.

Keywords: Industrial Exhibitions('Gongjinhoe'), the Political Propaganda, Japanese Imperialism
Na, Chŏl and the Characteristics of His National Movement

Na, Chŏl and the Characteristics of His National Movement

Authors: Hwan Park
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Na, Chŏl was an active participant in the anti‐Japanese rebellions who in his time was also involved in several diplomatic activities. Moreover, Na is also well known as the person who created the Taejong religion (Taejonggyo) and for being the mastermind behind the plot to assassinate the 5 government officials who participated in the signing of the 1905 Protectorate Treaty with the Japanese. Taejonggyo, a nationalist religion that worshiped Tan’gun, played a critical role in leading the Korean independence movement during the 1910s and 20s. Its influence was particularly strong in Manchuria where most agitators and groups seeking independence were followers of the Taejonggyo. Famous followers of the Taejonggyo include Kim, Chwa‐jin, a famous agitator against Japan in Manchuria, as well as Shin, Chae‐ho and Park, Eun‐shik. In addition, the Northeast Anti‐Japanese United Army, which spearheaded the battle in Chŏngsanli, the Shinminbu, a prominent independence minded organization which operated in Northern Manchuria, as well as the Independence Party of Korea were all established by followers of the Taejonggyo.

Keywords: Characteristics, National Movement
‘Discourse of the Nation and the Modern’ Reflected in Korean History Textbooks

‘Discourse of the Nation and the Modern’ Reflected in Korean History Textbooks

Authors: Su-gol Ji
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

What influences the formation of students’ understanding of history is not the complicated truths or events that are described in History Textbooks, but the main historical contours that are created by the diverse interpretations of basic codes.1 The meeting held in Japan to make a new History Textbook,2 in order to cope with complaints from the Japanese public, opted for a strategy3 of “conceding to provide a more objective description of history, while maintaining the basic framework of historical concepts”. This action can be seen as being nothing more than a cunning measure indicating that these individuals had a clear understanding of what historical education should be focused on. The new History Textbook recently released to the public (Tokyo: Hoososha, 2001) includes the following historical positions: ᇫ The position in which rather than recognizing the crimes and mistakes committed in the past, emphasis is placed, through a distortion of history, on the nation’s innocence and divinity. ᇫ The position in which Japan’s problems are blamed on the internal contradictions within Japanese society caused by the negative influence of other countries (especially Chosŏn, the U.S.A and Russia) or by communism.

Keywords: Modern' Reflected, Korean History Textbooks

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