Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Basic info

  • Publisher: Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Feb/24

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacy, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical Management, Health Care Management, Hospital Management, Biochemistry, Regulatory Affairs
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '151' articles

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIALS OF PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. (LAURACEAE) FRUIT EXTRACT

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIALS OF PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. (LAURACEAE) FRUIT EXTRACT

Authors: Mahadeva Rao US
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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and the management of blood glucose level is an important strategy in the control of the disease and complications associated with it. Therefore, components that cause uptake of glucose from the bloodstream and inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes can be useful in treatment of DM and medicinal plants are often used to achieve this aim. Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals necessary for treatment of DM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Persea americana fruit extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The percentage yield, phytochemical screening (both qualitative and quantitative), in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabeticassays, and kinetic studies were performed with different solvent extracts of Avocado fruit pulp. Results: Avocado hadgreat and promising potential as pharmaceutical agent, particularly to be developed as anti-diabetic through the inhibition of α-glucosidase and α- amylase enzymes. In vitro studies of the antioxidant activity of the fruit extract gaveanevidence and strong biochemical rationale of their therapeutic potential. The fruit extract of P. americana may play an important role in the development of nutraceuticals and also in the management of oxidative stress induced DM.

Keywords: α-amylase, antioxidant, glucose, α-glucosidase, nutraceutical, phytochemical
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF LEAF, STEM-BARK AND ROOT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF LEAF, STEM-BARK AND ROOT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM)

Authors: Nwali ON., Idoko A., Okolie JE, Ezeh E, Ugwudike PO, Rita ON, Ezenwali MO, Odo IA, Ani PN, Okolie SO
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Abstract

Plant chemicals abound in different parts of plants, in different compositions. Thus, the comparative screening of the leaf, stem-bark and root of Azadirachta Indica becomes imperative. The presence of nine phytochemicals which include; Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Glycosides, Phenols, Steroids, Tannins, Reducing sugars and Anthraquinones, and the quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and glycoside in the leaf, stem-bark and root of Azadirachta indica were investigated. The plant parts were collected from a plantation grown in Okpotegu Echara, Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Plant samples were air dried at room temperature, ground into uniform powder, sieved, bottled and labeled, ready for physico – chemical analysis. Results of the investigation revealed that anthraquinones were beyond detection limits in all the plant parts tested in both ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alkaloids were not detectable in leaf, stem-bark and root samples of aqueous extract. Glycosides were not detectable in leaf sample of ethanol and aqueous extracts. Quantitatively, the phytochemical compositions of each part showed higher concentrations of Alkaloids in the leaf, stem-bark and root (11.63%, 4.93% and 3.79%), compared to flavonoids (2.19%, 2.72% and 0.92%), saponins (0.70%, 1.12% and 0.44%), tannins (0.33 mg/100, 0.50mg/100 and 0.17mg/100) and glycosides (0.23%, 0.27% and 0.19%), respectively. Obviously, except for the higher percentage (11.63%) of alkaloids in the leaf, the phytochemicals in the stem-bark are higher as shown by the results, which could support the reason that the bark is preferably chewed commonly together with the stem as chew stick for its germicidal and antifungal action.

Keywords: analysis, composition, concentration, extracts, Plant chemicals, screening
THE EFFECT OF TRAFFIC FACTORS AND TECHNOLOGY FACTORS ON CHRONOLOGICAL DELAY OF EMERGENCY (115) ON THE BESIDES OF INJURED PEOPLE IN BOYER AHMAD CITY IN 2017

THE EFFECT OF TRAFFIC FACTORS AND TECHNOLOGY FACTORS ON CHRONOLOGICAL DELAY OF EMERGENCY (115) ON THE BESIDES OF INJURED PEOPLE IN BOYER AHMAD CITY IN 2017

Authors: Seyed Ehsan Sadat, Parviz Aghayii Barzabad, Iravan Masoudi Asl
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate traffic factors and technology factors on chronological delay of emergency (115) on the besides of injured people in Boyer Ahmad city in 2017. The research method of this investigation from the point of view related to target is operational and according to nature is descriptive-analytic. The target population is users of 115 emergency services of Boyer Ahmad city from the first of March to August2017. On the basis of the similar statistics of the first six months of 2016, 2240 people have used emergency services of Boyer Ahmad city that on the basis of Krejcie and Morgan table, 100 people will be chosen as statistical sample. In this study, data has been gathered by using researcher made questionnaire. At first, needed data has been achieved by responses to questionnaires and then study variables have been tested and analyzed by using SPSS statistical software and statistical methods in two sections of descriptive and perceptive. The results of the study indicated that there is a meaningful relation between environmental, relational and traffic factors and also between technological factors and 115 emergency delay on the patient’s beside in Boyer Ahmad city (p>0.05). As, the meaningfulness level and correlation coefficient between studied variables with 115 emergency delay respectively are: traffic factors (P=0.001, r=0.73), technology factors (P=0.001, r=0.62). So, research hypothesis is verified.

Keywords: Chronological delay, emergency (115), traffic factors
STUDY OF RESISTANCE FOR RECENTLY MARKETED CARBAPENEM DRUG AMONG HOSPITALISED PATIENTS IN SANA'A, YEMEN

STUDY OF RESISTANCE FOR RECENTLY MARKETED CARBAPENEM DRUG AMONG HOSPITALISED PATIENTS IN SANA'A, YEMEN

Authors: Ali Alyahawi, Ali Alkaf, Rashad Alnamer, Taha Alnosary
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Abstract

Carbapenem resistance is a major and a future public health problem globally. It occurs mainly among Gram-negative bacteria. Meropenem is the recently marketed carbapenem drug in Yemen. However, recent emergence of carbapenem-resistant isolates has become a major healthcare concern. The current study was designed to estimate the prevalence of meropenem resistance among hospitalised patients in Sana'a, Yemen. The study was performed at a local hospital in Sana’a, Yemen. The records of Meropenem susceptibility were taken for hospitalised patients. A total of 443 Meropenem susceptibility samples were collected from August, 2017 to July, 2018. The meropenem susceptibility was studied against several isolated pathogens. Out of 443 study sample, 316 (71.3%) were meropenem sensitive isolates and 25.3% of samples were resistant. The Escherichia coli isolates were observed in 27.5% of sample, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.6%). 36.4% of total meropenem sensitive isolates (115/316) were Escherichia coli. In addition, 94.3% (115/122) of Escherichia coli isolates were meropenem sensitive. However, the Klebsiella species had higher meropenem resistance than other pathogens (30/112; 26.8%). Moreover, 89.7% (26/29) of Acinetobacter species isolates were meropenem resistant. 82.4% (42/51) of Klebsiella pneumonia isolates were meropenem sensitive and 32.2% (28/87) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were meropenem resistance. In the present study, 34.5% (109/316) of meropenem sensitive isolates were from blood cultures, followed by sputum cultures (23.7%; 75/316). However, 58% (65/112) of sputum culture isolates were meropenem resistance. This study concluded that the percentage of resistance to meropenem was high (25.3%) and cannot be neglected. Continued surveillance to closely monitor trends as well as infection control and antibiotic stewardship activities are necessary to preserve treatment options. A more careful monitoring for use of broad-spectrum antibiotics should be instituted.

Keywords: Meropenem, prevalence, resistance
PREVALENCE OF HBV AND HCV; AND THEIR ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER CLEANERS AT SELECTED PUBLIC HEALTH CENTERS IN SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

PREVALENCE OF HBV AND HCV; AND THEIR ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER CLEANERS AT SELECTED PUBLIC HEALTH CENTERS IN SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

Authors: Waleed Hasan Mohammed AL-Marrani, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy
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Abstract

Occupational exposure of public health center cleaners (PHCCs) to blood and body fluids after skin injury or mucous membrane contact constitutes a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens. In the industrialized world, occupational surveillance is performed to assess and monitor health hazards related to blood borne pathogens. In contrast, in developing countries as Yemen, exposure and health impacts are rarely monitored and much remains to be done to protect PHCCs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV and their potential risk factors among PHCCs. A cross sectional prospective study was conducted among 388 PHCCs. Data was collected using pre-tested and structured questions. Venous blood was collected and the sera were tested for HBV surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibodies using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay technique. The data were analysis by EPI-Info. Chi square and Odds ratio tests were used to assess the association of risk factors with HBV and HCV positivity. Results revealed that among the total 388 PHCCs examined, HBV and HCV were detected in 32 (8.2%), and 4 (1.03%) of them respectively. There was significant risk factors of hepatitis viruses with age group 20-24 years (OR=2.8), exposure to patients blood (OR=3), accidental stick of used needles (OR=2.3), sharp injury (OR=5.6), history of blood transfusion (OR=2.5), and hospital admission (OR=2.7). Also significant protected roles for HBV vaccine was found with infection. In conclusion high prevalence rates of HBV and HCV occurred in PHCCs. Unfortunately; all workers did not take training on medical waste and few workers use protective measures consistently as vaccination. There is needed to make vaccination of health care workers against HBV infection a firm policy and ensure complete and consistent adherence to work standard safety measures.

Keywords: HBV, HCV prevalence, Public Health Center Cleaners (PHCCS), Risk factors, Yemen
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIRECT COMPRESSED MATRIX MINI TABLETS OF NAPROXEN SODIUM

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIRECT COMPRESSED MATRIX MINI TABLETS OF NAPROXEN SODIUM

Authors: Oyeniran Taiwo Opeyemi, Obanewa opeyemi Adegbenro
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Abstract

The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of Naproxen sodium. Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production of high quality mini-tablets. The drug-excipients compatibility studies were performed using FTIR techniques. Ten different matrix mini tablets were manufactured by direct compression using various polymers like HPMC K4M, PVP K30 in different ratio. The prepared mini tablets were subjected to pre and post compressional parameters and the values were within the prescribed limits. The in-vitro performance showed the desired biphasic behaviour. Drug release from matrix mini tablets was sustained over a period of 10 hours and release rate. Study concludes that Naproxen sodium can be successfully released in a controlled manner by the use of developed matrix mini-tablets.

Keywords: HPMC K4M, in-vitro study, mini tablets, Naproxen sodium, NSAIDs, PVP K30
Editorial...

Editorial...

Authors: Idoko Alexander
Editorial... 2019/Feb/24
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Abstract

With an immense sense of approbation and unalloyed concession, I appreciate my appointment as an editorial board member of Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (UJPR). My sincere and heart-felt congratulation to all members of the editorial board for these milestone achievements of three successful volumes and issues of the UJPR. Obviously, all these would not be possible without the unswerving high put-through efforts of members of the board who took a painstaking and guided constructive criticisms process in the review of accepted manuscripts, maintaining and updating UJPR’s standard. Such excellent and thorough manuscript review process is encouraged to produce a UJPR of high quality and repute among other international/world journals. The progress made thus far by our journal is un-doubtly a collective and collaborative effort by both authors and editorial board members. The provided platform for meaningful suggestions targeted at promoting our journal has immensely helped and more cutting edge suggestions and contributions are welcome until we have Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research a SCOPUS, THOMSON REUTERS, ISI and SCIMAGO indexed journal. As a follow up, in this era were research has taken a multidisciplinary approaches, involving diversified interconnected methods touching different fields, UJPR encourages board members and authors alongside their colleagues and students to submit original articles having citations of relevant literature published in UJPR in their subsequent publications.

Keywords: Nigeria
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS G VIRUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS, SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS G VIRUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS, SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

Authors: Esmail Mohammed Saad Al-Dabis, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy, Maria Mansour Saeed Al-Hadad, Emad Hassan Al-Shamahi
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Abstract

Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a newly discovered and enveloped RNA positive-stranded flavivirus-like particle, which has not yet been proven to have major negative effects on liver. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis G virus infection in Yemeni viral hepatitis patients and general population to design standard prevention and treatment plans. Screening HGV antibodies among 60 chronic HBV and 144 chronic HCV patients comparing with it's prevalence in 218 healthy controls were carried out. Serum samples were collected and tested for human HGV IgG by commercially available ELISA technique. Demographic data such as gender, age, and risk factors of contracting HGV virus were recorded in predesigned questionnaire. The crude prevalence rate of HGV was 2.8%, female specific rate was 0% and male specific rate was 3.5%. The prevalence of HGV among HBV patients was 0%; HCV was 1.4% while in healthy individuals it was 4.6%. When age groups considered, the prevalence of HGV among age groups 20-29 years and 30-39 years was 3.5%, while in older age groups the rate of HGV was 0%. There was a trend towards increased levels of HGV infection with the second and third decades of life (3.5%). There was no significant association between HGV infection and risk factors of hepatitis viruses. It can be concluded from this study that HGV virus is circulating in the risk groups and in the community in general Yemen, and there is a possibility that this virus may at some time become epidemic if preventive measures are not applied. The risk of community among healthy people more than in risk groups as HBV and HCV patients. Additionally HGV increases with young male adults.

Keywords: Hepatitis G virus (HGV), HBV, HCV, Prevalence, Sana’a city-Yemen
ESTIMATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AS WELL AS APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CROCUS SATIVUS

ESTIMATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AS WELL AS APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CROCUS SATIVUS

Authors: B. Arirudran, P. Priyadharshini, US Mahadeva Rao
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Abstract

Inflammation is a body reaction which embroils cellular and biochemical responses, which is not only symptom for shared diseases but also known to be an initial phase for certain serious Alzheimer’s, cancer, heart vascular diseases. In order to overcome these drawbacks, there is an urgent need for nutraceuticals with excellent anti-inflammatory response with minimum side effects. Aim: An attempt has been made to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity along with gene expression analysis on ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus (CSEE). Dried stigmas of C. sativus were analyzed for anti-inflammatory activity by macrophage scavenging assay. In this study, the phagocytic activity of the extract was tested on oxidative burst reduction of macrophages. RT-PCR was performed to analyze the anti-apoptotic gene expression during cell death, as a result of the compound treatment on cancer cells. The CSEE unveiled high phagocytic activity on the oxidative burst reduction, presenting intracellular killing and the enhancement of lysosomal enzyme activity, showing the active degranulation of macrophages. These findings suggest that C. sativus possessed excellent anti-inflammatory as well as apoptotic activities. Hence it was proposed that C. sativus could be exploited against oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, cancer and ageing therapy to justify their use in traditional medicine as a nutraceutical.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, crocus sativus, macrophage, nutraceutical, oxidative stress
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METOCLOPRAMIDE HCL RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METOCLOPRAMIDE HCL RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES

Authors: Deborah Ejiogu Chioma, Felix Sunday Yusuf
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Abstract

Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a dopamine receptor antagonist, used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems as it is a prokinetic agent. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the suppositories of Metoclopramide HCl. Six different, rectal suppositories were developed by fusion (pour-moulding) method by employing various hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric bases like gelatin, PEG-400 and hydrogenated vegetable oil using propylene glycol as plasticizer and beeswax as hardening agent. Metoclopramide HCl suppositories were evaluated for appearance, weight variation, drug content uniformity, liquefaction time and temperature, micro-melting range, disintegration and in-vitro release study. The in-vitro release rate data was evaluated statistically and was found that from all the formulations the drug release is by diffusion mechanism. Optimum formulation of batch S1 has shown 83.427% Metoclopramide HCl in a study of 2 hrs. These drug release results are supported by the disintegration time of suppositories. Lesser the disintegration time faster the drug release. All formulations has shown zero, first and Higuchi release kinetics. The result suggests that the Metoclopramide HCl suppositories can be prepared by employing hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers.

Keywords: Hydrogenated vegetable oil, in-vitro release study, Metoclopramide hydrochloride, suppositories
PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA SKIN-NASOPHARYNGEAL COLONIZATION IN THE IN-PATIENTS: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN SANA'A CITY -YEMEN

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA SKIN-NASOPHARYNGEAL COLONIZATION IN THE IN-PATIENTS: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN SANA'A CITY -YEMEN

Authors: Rahma Taher Farea AL-Magrami, Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy
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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of most important cause of healthcare-associated infections. This active surveillance cross sectional study was aimed to determine the rate of P. aeruginosa colonization among inpatients at three tertiary hospitals in Sana'a city. In addition, to determine risk factors of colonization and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated P. aeruginosa. The study included 327 inpatients. Skin and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from all participated patients and data were collected by predesigned questionnaire. Standard methods of isolation and identification were used to isolate bacteria in pure culture then identify. Also, antibiotic sensitivity for isolated P. aeruginosa was determined by the disc diffusion method. 42 patients (12.8%) were colonized with P. aeruginosa on skin and nasopharyngeal. The significant risk factors of colonization were male patients (OR=2.5), older age (OR= 2.2), burn ward (OR=37), long stay in hospital (OR=4) and burn as underlying disease (OR=45). The isolated P. aeruginosa were completely resistant (100%), to Aztroneome, Ceftriaxone, and Ciprofloxacine; and the rates of resistant were ranged between 83.3-85.7% for Amikacin, Ampicillin sulbactam Levofloxacin. Also the rates were 71.4% for Netilmicin and 92.9% for chloramphenicol. Moreover, the rates of resistant were low for Gentamicin (35.7%), Imipenem (11.9%), Pipracillin Tazobactam (11.9%), Ticaracillin calvulanic acid (31%) and Colistin sulphat (14.3%). In conclusion, this study has highlighted the role of hospitalization as a significant risk for P. aeruginosa colonization; concerted and coordinated efforts are required both in the hospital and community to tackle this. These data emphasize the need to identify hospitalized patients colonized with P. aeruginosa on admission. Prediction rules or rapid diagnostic testing will help clinicians more appropriately choose empiric antibiotic therapy if subsequent infections occurred.

Keywords: active surveillance, antibiotic resistance, colonization, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, risk factors, tertiary hospitals
THE PREVALENCE AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN

THE PREVALENCE AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN

Authors: Mukhtar Abdullah Al-Hammadi, Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy, Abdulaziz Qaid Ali
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Abstract

The emergence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli in clinical isolates is posing a serious threat for treating nosocomial infections. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from clinical specimens in several teaching and general hospitals in Sana'a city, Yemen, and to compare the phenotypic methods used for the characterization of ESBL producing strains. This cross sectional observational study was conducted from 1st July to 28th of August 2017, at the Department of Medical microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sciences and Technology in Sana'a city, Yemen. A total number of 3500 various clinical samples were analyzed during the study period. Escherichia coli were identified using API 20E system and ESBL detection was carried out using double-disk synergy test (DDST) and CLSI confirmatory test. Escherichia coli were isolated from 100 samples, out of which 63 (63%) were ESBL producers and 37 (37%) were non-ESBL producers. The gender distribution of ESBL producing Escherichia coli was 35/45 (77.8%) in males and 28/55 (50.9%) in females. Highest frequency of ESBL producing Escherichia coli was detected in sputum (100%), wounds (83.3%) and urine (65.7%) samples. Comparison of DDST and CLSI confirmatory test showed that 65 (65%) isolates were characterized by DDST and 63 (63%) using CLSI confirmatory test. All ESBL-positive isolates were susceptible to imipenem, indicating that this agent is the best drug for treating serious infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli. In conclusion, the present study shows moderately high frequency of ESBL producing Escherichia coli among patients suffering from sepsis in tertiary hospitals in Sana'a city. DDST was found to be less efficient in ESBL detection as compared to CLSI confirmatory test.

Keywords: Characterization of ESBL, CLSI confirmatory test, Double-disk synergy test (DDST), ESBL producing Escherichia coli
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPICAL NANO EMULGEL OF TERBINAFINE

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPICAL NANO EMULGEL OF TERBINAFINE

Authors: Sonia Paliwal, Gurleen Kaur
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Abstract

Terbinafine is a broad spectrum antifungal drug. The aim of present study was to develop topical nano emulgel of terbinafine using carbopol 934 as a gelling agent. The objective behind the formulation was to avoid dosing frequency and to increase the stability and bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism. The formulations were prepared by using oleic acid, carbopol 934, span 20, propylene glycol in different ratios and analyzed by pseudo tertiary phase diagram. All the five prepared nano emulgel formulations have shown satisfactory physiochemical properties. The stability and particle size is been determined by zeta potential. The highest drug release 82.38 %was found in formulations of batch F4, which follows non-fickian mechanism. The studies showed that changing the concentration of oil, surfactant, co surfactant and double distilled water as aqueous phase has an impact on the behavior and thermodynamic stability of the nanoemulsion. Study concludes that of Terbinafine can be deliverered effectively by nano emulgel formulations.

Keywords: Antifungal drug, nano emulsion, nano emulgel, Terbinafine, topical drug delivery, tertiary phase
VITAMIN A, RETINOIC ACID AND TAMIBAROTENE, A FRONT TOWARD ITS ADVANCES: A REVIEW

VITAMIN A, RETINOIC ACID AND TAMIBAROTENE, A FRONT TOWARD ITS ADVANCES: A REVIEW

Authors: George Zhu, Ali Gamal Ahmed Al-kaf
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Abstract

Vitamin A and its derivative retinoic acid (13-cis RA, 9-cis RA, all-trans RA) and recent tamibarotene have been shown a broad variety of biological actives in human, such as vision, embryonic development, cell growth and cellular differentiation and immune function. These precise functions of RA are mediated by their retinoic acid receptors (RARs). In the past five decades, retinoic acid (RA) proved therapeutic benefits in cancer prevention, in skin diseases and in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).The elucidation of the molecular basis of vitamin A acid and its retinoid pharmacology in APL has been illustrated in several publications, the detail molecular model of gene regulation had also been proposed by Zhu in earlier 90s. A molecular model is further revised. As an approach to APL treatment, one possible the action of retinoic acid (RA), A consensus sequence (TCAGGTCA motif ) has been postulated for thyroid hormone (TRE) and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE)-containing in the promoter region of target genes. High dose of RA-RARE-PML/RARa complexes in intracellular localization appears to relieve repressors from DNA-bound receptor, including the dissociation of co-re pressor complexes N-CoR, SMRT and HDACs from PML-RARa or PML-RARa/RXR. Also release PML/RARa -mediated transcription repression. This transcriptional derepression occurs at RARa target gene promoter. Consequentially, PML-RARa chimera converted receptor from a repressor to a RA-dependent activator of transcription. The resulting pml-RARA oncoprotein proteolytic degradation occurs through the autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin SUMO-proteasome system(UPS) as well as caspase 3, or lysosomal protease (cathepsin D) enzyme or/and EI-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme(UBEIL) induction. Accordingly the expression level of PML-RARa downregulated. PML protein relocalizes into the wild-type nuclear body (PML-NB) configuration or a truncated PML-RARa fusion fragment detected or/and the wild-type RAR upregulated. An effect is to relieve the blockade of pml/RARa-mediated RA dependent promyelocytic differentiation, and retinoic acid (9-cid RA,ATRA, Am80) in APL therapy. Here, oncogenic pml/RARa as constitutive transcriptional repressor that block myeloid differentiation at promyelocytic phenotype. RA can overcome the transcrptional repressor activity of pml/RARa. The oncogenic pml/RARa uncovers a pathogenic role in leukemogenesis of APL through blocking promyelocytic differentiation. This oncogenic receptor derivative pml/ RARa chimera is locked in their "off" regular mode thereby constitutively repressing transcription of target genes or key enzymes (such as AP-1, PTEN, DAPK2,UP.1, p21WAF/CCKN1A)that are critical for differentiation of hematopoietic cells. This is first described in eukaryotes.

Keywords: Gene transcription, molecular model of RA, retinoic acid and retinoid pharmacology, Vitamin A
ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF INSULIN IN DIABETES MELLITUS: AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATE TO OVERCOME INVASIVE ROUTE

ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF INSULIN IN DIABETES MELLITUS: AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATE TO OVERCOME INVASIVE ROUTE

Authors: Pooja Mathur, Chandra Kant Mathur, Kanchan Mathur
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Abstract

The subcutaneous injection of insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus can lead to patient non-compliance, discomfort, pain and local infection is a chronic metabolic health disease affecting the homeostasis of blood sugar levels in human beings. Oral route of drug delivery system has been the most widely accepted means of drug administration other than invasive drug delivery systems. For the development of an oral insulin delivery system, we have to focus on overcoming the various gastro-intestinal barriers for insulin uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. To overcome these barriers various types of formulations such as insulin conjugates, micro/nanoparticles, liposomes, hydrogel, capsule, and tablets are designed to deliver insulin orally. Various potential ways to administer insulin orally has been explored over years but a fluctuating level of insulin release have been recorded. A number of advancement has taken place in the recent years for understanding the needs of improved oral delivery systems of insulin. This review article concentrates on the challenges for oral drug delivery of insulin as well as various carriers used for the oral drug delivery of insulin and also provides the relevant information about the clinical tested formulations of oral insulin and its patents.

Keywords: Formulation technology, insulin, oral drug delivery, patient compliance

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