Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Basic info

  • Publisher: UJPR
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Feb/24

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacy, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical Management, Health Care Management, Hospital Management, Biochemistry, Regulatory Affairs
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '151' articles

DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MATRIX-TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM

DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MATRIX-TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM

Authors: Fatima A . Adamude, Uhama Kingsley Chukwuka
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Abstract

Since last decade drugs through skin has received great attention of many researchers. The aim of present study was designed to develop a suitable matrix type transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of Losartan potassium using blends of different polymeric combinations of polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) and ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and chitosan. Physical studies including thickness, folding endurance moisture content, tensile strength and flatness were performed on all formulations. In-vitro diffusion study of 10 hrs was performed by means of Franz diffusion cell. All the formulations were found to be suitable for formulating in terms of physicochemical characteristics. Stability study performed on selective batch, TP1 for 12 weeks at different temperature indicates stability of transdermal patches at room temperature. Present study concluded that Losartan potassium can be formulated into the transdermal matrix type patches to sustain its release characteristics. Polymeric composition of batch TP1 (PVP K30 : Chitosan:: 70:30) was found to be the best choice for manufacturing transdermal patches of Losartan potassium among the formulations studied.

Keywords: Losartan potassium, skin, transdermal drug delivery system, Franz diffusion cell, in-vitro diffusion
A REVIEW ON NEEDLE FREE INJECTIONS

A REVIEW ON NEEDLE FREE INJECTIONS

Authors: Ali Gamal Ahmed Al-kaf, Ahmed Mohamed Othman
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Abstract

At present scenario many researchers are working to develop technology that promises to deliver the drug in more efficient and less painful way in order to produce the therapeutic effects. Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Needle free injection gives very effective injections for a wide range of drugs. Needle free systems are designed to avoid the problems associated with conventional needles making them safer, less expensive, and more suitable. Additional benefits include very fast injection compared with conventional needles and no needle disposal issues. This review intends to throw light on the basic mechanisms by which this technology works, different types of technologies available at present and its applications.

Keywords: Needle free injection, drug delivery, needleless technologies
A REVIEW ON CONSTITUENTS, PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND MEDICINAL USES OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA

A REVIEW ON CONSTITUENTS, PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND MEDICINAL USES OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA

Authors: Savita Pandey, Bipin Verma, Priti Arya
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Abstract

Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines for human being and animals since the ancient time. At present scenario there is an increasing demand for herbal medicines, health products and pharmaceuticals products. Herbal medicines have attained popularity at global level to replace the synthetic chemicals as they have shown less adverse reactions. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is a commonly used herb for different diseases. Present review article deals with chemical constituents present in various parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and pharmacological activities. Present article aim to comply all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed by widely different methods. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, antimalarial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyper glycemic properties. Various other effects like antiulcer, antiviral, antifungal have also been discussed. This article may be useful for many researchers in discovering potential therapeutic effects and developing new formulations.

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, glycyrrhizin, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti malarial
A REVIEW ON COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES FOR PARACETAMOL DEGRADATION

A REVIEW ON COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES FOR PARACETAMOL DEGRADATION

Authors: Wadhah Hassan Ali Edrees, Qais Yusuf Mohammed Abdullah, Ali Gamal AL-Kaf, Khalid Mohamed Naji
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Abstract

Paracetamol has emerged as one of the most frequent pharmaceuticals that found in natural waters and even in drinking water due to its high consumption and therefore deserves a review on the possible treatments for its remediation. The purpose of this review work is to give a compare between the physicochemical and biological processes for removing paracetamol from aquatic environment. Different types of processes are described in this review: from physicochemical process such as membrane filtration, chlorination, activated carbon, and advance oxidation, which applied for pracetamol degradation, to biological process such as microbial, membrane bioreactor, aerobic and anaerobic degradation, which are more recently focused on the degrading paracetamol. Physical processes, that eliminate the pollutant without degrade it, are not efficient enough to completely remove paracetamol from aquatic environment. While the chemical processes that are shown to be fast and efficient to remove paracetamol substance possess some drawbacks representing in high operational cost which make them not a desirable choice for treating wastewater. Biological process receives currently a significant attention for the removal of pollutants because it is found to be the most efficient technology which can be applied in degrading different pollutants. Regardless of its disadvantages, it has been found more efficient on degrading the paracetamol when compared to physicochemical processes. Furthermore, the combination between the biological and physicochemical processes overcomes all of the problems of processes that presented during treatment. Also, the combined processes improve the paracetamol degradation rate and reduce the treatment costs.

Keywords: Biodegradation, biological and physicochemical process, Paracetamol
EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA STEM BARK ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS, SERUM AND TISSUE LIPIDS IN A PRECLINICAL MODEL

EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA STEM BARK ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS, SERUM AND TISSUE LIPIDS IN A PRECLINICAL MODEL

Authors: M. Salim Mirza, Sayed Ayaz Ali, Indrajeet Sanghvi
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Abstract

The present study is undertaken to evaluate the effect of Euphorbia neriifolia stem bark on blood glucose and lipid levels in experimental diabetic rats. Methanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia stem bark (MEEN) was administered at different doses and its effect on blood glucose, haemoglobin, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Euphorbia neriifolia methanolic extract (MEEN), at doses of 100,200 and 400mg/kg body weight for 30 days, suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Euphorbia neriifolia at 400mg/kg was found to be comparable to glibenclamide. The study indicates that the Euphorbia neriifolia possess antihyperlipidaemic effect as well as antidiabetic activity.

Keywords: Blood glucose, carbohydrate enzymes, euphorbia neriifolia, insulin, lipids
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE PATCHES FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY OF PREGABALIN

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE PATCHES FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY OF PREGABALIN

Authors: Okorochukwu Nnamdi, Ihuaku Emmanuel C.
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Abstract

Pregabalin is a structural analogue of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) having short half-life (5-6 hrs) and is used in the management of epilepsy. The aim of this study was to prepare a buccal patch containing Pregabalin by the means of solvent casting method. Six formulations were prepared using different ratio of polymers including HPMC K4M, Eudragit RL, and PVP K30. Since buccal mucosa is relatively permeable with rich blood supply and acts as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs so, it is an attractive alternate to other conventional methods of systemic drug administration. Franz diffusion cell with commercially available dialysis membrane was used for the in-vitro diffusion study of buccal patches for duration of 12 hrs. Kinetics and mechanism of drug release from all formulation was evaluated on the basis of zero order, first order, Hixon-Crowell, Higuchi equation and Peppas model. Based on different parameters i.e. folding endurance, drug content, moisture absorption, moisture loss, water vapor transmission rate in-vitro release study buccal patches of batch F4 (HPMC K4M and Eudragit RL 100) was found to an optimum formulation.

Keywords: Pregabalin, buccal patch, buccal mucosa, the in-vitro diffusion study
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF IN SITU GELLING GASTRORETENTIVE FORMULATIONS OF MELOXICAM

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF IN SITU GELLING GASTRORETENTIVE FORMULATIONS OF MELOXICAM

Authors: Anyanwu NC J, Adogo L Y, Ajide B
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop a novel gastro retentive oral floating in situ gelling system for controlled release of Meloxicam. Meloxicam is a NSAID that inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) synthesis and has analgesic and antipyretic effects. Four polymer based floating in situ gelling systems of Meloxicam were prepared by dissolving varying concentrations of different ingredients including sodium alginate, HPMC K100M, calcium carbonate, sodium citrate. The prepared gels were characterized for solution viscosity, pH, gelling capacity, floating lag time, floating duration and in-vitro release study. All the formulations showed instant gelation maintaining integrity for at least 12 h. The study demonstrated that a stomach specific in-situ gel of Meloxicam could be prepared using the floating mechanism to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and improve bioavailability and thus improve patient compliance.

Keywords: Meloxicam, novel gastro retentive, floating in situ gelling system
SOLID DISPERSION TECHNOLOGY, A CONTEMPORARY OVERVIEW ON A WELL ESTABLISHED TECHNIQUE

SOLID DISPERSION TECHNOLOGY, A CONTEMPORARY OVERVIEW ON A WELL ESTABLISHED TECHNIQUE

Authors: Mahmoud A. Younis
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Abstract

Solubility is a significant physicochemical parameter that affects the absorption, bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness of any drug. Formulation development would fail if drug has a poor aqueous solubility. The low aqueous solubility of drug substances will lead to inadequate absorption and consequently, low bioavailability. Improvement of the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of hydrophobic drugs remains one of the most difficult challenges in drug development process. Among various techniques used to improve poor aqueous solubility of drugs, solid dispersion technology has been extensively used in the literature and has become one of the well-established pharmaceutical procedures during formulation process. Although the technique seems to be “a part of the past”, literature tells us that it is still used and developed to suit current needs of pharmaceutical industry. This review article highlights recent advances in solid dispersion technology and its applications in contemporary pharmaceutical research.

Keywords: Dissolution rate, hydrophilic carriers, poorly-soluble drugs, solid
BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A TOOL FOR THE EFFECTIVE DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICALS

BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A TOOL FOR THE EFFECTIVE DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICALS

Authors: Bhartee Pathak, Kapil Kumar
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Abstract

The Buccal drug delivery system includes drug administration through the buccal mucosa, mainly composed of the lining of the cheeks. Buccal drug delivery system provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. Buccal films can improve the therapeutic effect of drug by increasing the absorption of drug through oral mucosa which increases the drug bioavailability by reducing the hepatic first pass effect. In recent years, many researchers are working on the delivery of drugs through the oral mucosa which have a high first pass metabolism or degrade in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, buccal drug delivery has a high patient acceptability compared to other non-oral transmucosal routes of drug administration. It provide direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein thus avoids acid hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract and bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. This article deals with the development and evaluation parameters used at present and future role of the system for the treatment of diseases by incorporating different class of drugs.

Keywords: Buccal drug delivery system, hepatic first pass effect, buccal films
GLAUCOMA: SECRETS OF SILENT THIEF OF VISION – A REVIEW

GLAUCOMA: SECRETS OF SILENT THIEF OF VISION – A REVIEW

Authors: Oyeniran Taiwo Opeyemi
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Abstract

Glaucoma has been highlighted as a priority eye disease by the World Health Organization’s global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020. Glaucoma is defined as an optic neuropathy, characterized for loss of visual field and injury of the optic nerve. However the mechanism leading to the disease is still unclear. Factors that are responsible for it include glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, nitric oxide based damage, disruption of neurotrophic factor transport and immune-induced neuro destruction. At present treatment options primarily aim at decreasing intra-ocular pressure (IOP) by utilizing pharmacological agents, laser therapy and surgery. Gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis can aid in the development of new treatment options and, perhaps, even a cure for glaucoma. Since there is no cure for Glaucoma, early detection and treatment can slow or prevent further vision lossThis article discusses the pathophysiology of glaucoma, its detection, diagnosis monitoring and treatment.

Keywords: Glaucoma, neuropathy, glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, intra-ocular pressure
NANOSPONGES: A NEW ERA OF VERSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

NANOSPONGES: A NEW ERA OF VERSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Authors: Neha rahi, Kapil Kumar
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Abstract

Nanotechnology is a multi disciplinary science which is getting considerable attention in development of new chemical entities, diagnosis and treatment of several ailments. Nanomedicine technology has developed many drug delivering systems like nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanosponges etc., which are associated with many advantages including improved bioavailability. Nanosponges are tiny sponges having size of about a virus and can be filled with variety of drugs. This sponge can circulate around the body until interact with specific target site and stick on surface and start releasing drug in a controlled manner. Nanosponge play vital role in targeting drug delivery in a controlled manner. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs are incorporated in nanosponges. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing controlled release of drug. Important characteristic of these sponges is their solubility in aqueous form and suitable for the drugs with poor solubility. This review is focusing on the preparation methods, applications of nanosponges in the field of drug delivery.

Keywords: Nanosponges, nano delivery, targeted site
DENDRIMERS: A NOVEL TOOL FOR DRUG DELIVERY AND TARGETING

DENDRIMERS: A NOVEL TOOL FOR DRUG DELIVERY AND TARGETING

Authors: Udokwu Japhet Chigbo, Adim Ekene Ugochukwu, Dingwoke Francis John
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Abstract

Dendrimers are hyper-branched macromolecules having tree like structure, consisting of a core molecule and alternating layers of monomers. Due to their unique architecture these have improved physical and chemical properties like high solubility, miscibility and reactivity. Dendrimers consist of well defined size, shape, molecular weight and monodispersity. These properties formulate the dendrimers a suitable carrier in drug delivery application. These are built from number of molecular entities of colloidal particles that exists in equilibrium with the molecules or ions in nature and due to these increases the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Dendrimers have the ability to encapsulate and bind the guest molecule can be used for solubility enhancement, sustained release and various drug delivery applications. The terminal groups are modified to attach biologically active substances for targeting purpose. Dendrimers are suitable for a wide range of targeted drug delivery, controlled drug delivery, gene delivery and industrial applications. This review gives concise information about the dendrimers, its synthesis, characterization and application in drug delivery.

Keywords: Dendrimers, drug delivery, monomers, solubility enhancement
LEAD ACETATE: A DANGEROUS ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT THAT IS AMELIORATED BY THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FICUS VOGELII (FV)

LEAD ACETATE: A DANGEROUS ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT THAT IS AMELIORATED BY THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FICUS VOGELII (FV)

Authors: UCHEWA Obinna O, Okafor Samuel O, NWAFOR Joseph A
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lead toxicity on the histoarchiteture of the vagina and cervix of adult female Wistar rats and the currative role of Ficus vogelii (Fv) in lead toxicity. The experiment lasted for a period of 21 days involving 20 adult female albino Wistar rats with an average weight of 145g. The rats were divided into five (5) groups A, B, C, D and E. A is negative control group that received normal saline, B is positive group that received lead acetate solution, C received Aqueous extract of Fv (100g/kg) and lead acetate solution, D received aqueous extract of Fv (300g/kg) and lead acetate solution group while E received aqueous extract of Fv only. Examination of the vagina and cervix histologically revealed various damages such as, necrosis, oedema and reduction is size suspected to be as a result of lead toxicity. These changes were ameliorated by the administration of Fv extract. Exposure to lead also produced significant reduction in blood supply to the vagina and cervix which caused the mucosa to necrotize. These structural changes correlated with the level of exposure in the vagina. They were mainly oedema, necrosis and denudation of the vaginal walls. These alterations can make the vagina and cervix acidic which have been implicated as one of the cause of infertility in females. The results of this study suggested that treatment with F. Vogelii has an ameliorative effect.

Keywords: Vagina, lead, cervix, Ficus vogelii and Ameliorate
PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF GOMPHRENA SERRATA ROOT

PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF GOMPHRENA SERRATA ROOT

Authors: DSNBK Prasanth, M Mohini Prasanna, Priyanka M, N Neelot Pala, P Bhagya Lakshmi, Mounika Y, A Lakshmana Rao
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Abstract

Gomphrena serrata (Amaranthaceae) has been utilized for many ailments in the conventional system ethnomedicinally; most significantly against bronchial asthma, diarrhea, hay fever, pains, tonic, carminative, diabetes, dermatitis, and piles. The key challenge experienced in the standardization of herbal drugs is the correct identification of the plant source. Thus, setting up quality control parameters by means of pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis which assures the purity, safety, and efficiency of G. serrata is necessary. The current research was conducted to assess the pharmacognostic characteristics including macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical and physicochemical parameters of the root of G. serrata. Micro, as well as macroscopic characteristics were investigated. Physicochemical parameters had been done by implementing WHO suggested parameters; preliminary phytochemical and fluorescent evaluation of root was executed for appropriate identification and standardization. The color, shape, size, odor, and surface characteristics were reported from the root and powdered root material of G. serrata. Light microscope images of cross section and powdered root revealed the presence of lignified xylem fibers, xylem vessels, cork cells and parenchyma cells. Phytochemical testing confirmed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, proteins, amino acids, phytosterols and flavonoids. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, ash value, extractive value and fluorescent behavior of root powder have also been established. The current research is useful in order to supplement the information with regard to its standardization, identification and in carrying out further investigation in Ayurvedic system of medicine.

Keywords: Pharmacognostic, Gomphrena serrata, lignified xylem vessels, phytochemical analysis
EFFECTS OF EMODIN ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BODY WEIGHT IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC RATS

EFFECTS OF EMODIN ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BODY WEIGHT IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC RATS

Authors: Kaijian Hou, Chao Chen, Xuhuang Wang, Yuanyuan Guo
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Abstract

Objective of present study was to analyze the effect of emodin on blood glucose and body weight in rats with type 1 diabetes. A total of 45 healthy SD rats were selected followed by being adaptively fed for one week and then from them 15 rats were randomly selected out as the control group and the remaining 30 healthy SD rats were given intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to establish diabetic model with the control group receiving intraperitoneal injection of citrate buffer solution of same doses; At the fifth day, the rats were fasted for 6h and appropriately fed with water. Then the tail blood was collected to measure the fasting blood glucose of rats and this step was repeated 15 days after the injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rat model was established successfully when the blood glucose was detected to be no less than 16.9mmol/L; thirty diabetic model rats were randomly divided into diabetes group and emodin group with 15 cases in each group (n = 15); 15 days later, the rats in diabetes group and control group were treated with intragastric administration of PBS, 5ml/kg, and the rats in emodin group were given intragastric administration of emodin suspension (8g/L), 5ml/kg. The changes of fasting blood glucose and body weight were observed and compared in three groups from the time point of before model establishment to fifth and fifteenth days after successful establishment of model. There was no significant difference among three groups in fasting blood glucose and body weight at the initial stage of establishing model; In diabetes group and emodin group, the rat’s body weight in T2 was significantly lower than that in T1 with the body weight decreasing more significantly in diabetes group (P<0.05), while the blood glucose in T2 was significantly higher than that in T1 with the blood glucose increasing more significantly in diabetes group (P<0.05). Emodin can relieve hyperglycemia in type I diabetic rats but has little influence on body weight.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, rats, emodin, body weight, blood sugar

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