Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Basic info

  • Publisher: Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Feb/24

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacy, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical Management, Health Care Management, Hospital Management, Biochemistry, Regulatory Affairs
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '151' articles

DETERMINING THE IMPACT RATE OF TRIAGE TRAINING ON AWARENESS AND SKILL LEVEL OF PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY PERSONNEL OF FASA CITY

DETERMINING THE IMPACT RATE OF TRIAGE TRAINING ON AWARENESS AND SKILL LEVEL OF PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY PERSONNEL OF FASA CITY

Authors: Ali Khani Jeihooni, Mohammad Kazemi, Abbas Yazdanpanah
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Abstract

This study was conducted with the aim of determining the impact of triage training on awareness and skill level of pre-hospital emergency personnel of Fasa City. The present study is applied in respect of objective. The statistical population of this study includes all members of crisis management system of Fasa emergency 115 (n=103) that the sample was considered equal to the population. The questionnaire has been adjusted based on 5-value Likert scale. For analysis of data collected from Pearson correlation coefficient, the research hypotheses were examined and tested using SPSS software version 18. There is a significant positive relation between participating in training courses and triage awareness of Fasa city pre-hospital emergency personnel. Also, there is a significant and positive relation between participating in training courses and triage skill of Fasa City pre-hospital emergency personnel. Then, with healthcare information, it is recommended that the topics relating to performance and awareness to be noticed by authorities.

Keywords: awareness level, Fasa, pre-hospital emergency, triage training
THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MARKETING IN MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY IN POINT OF VIEW OF MEDICAL TOURISM POLICY MAKERS OF SHIRAZ IN 2017

THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MARKETING IN MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY IN POINT OF VIEW OF MEDICAL TOURISM POLICY MAKERS OF SHIRAZ IN 2017

Authors: Abbas Yazdanpanah, Afshin Parsaei, Ali Khani Jeihooni
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Abstract

Medical tourism refers to traveling to places where the individual could use medical services. Therefore, such a travel requires various activities in any of which the individual health is considered. Main samples of these types of travels include healthcare, beauty of organs, passing convalescence and rehabilitation, using hydrotherapy springs and good climate regions. The general objective of this study is to analyze the relation between digital marketing and medical tourism in point of view of Shiraz medical tourism policy makers. This study is applied in respect of objective and in respect of collecting descriptive information it is of correlation studies type in which data collection was performed through library and field method. The statistical population of this study includes all strategic personnel and managers of Shiraz Medical Sciences University which is equal to 97. Regarding Cochran table for low number societies, the sample number was considered equal to the population. For collecting data, for the role of digital marketing in medical tourism industry from view of Shiraz medical tourism policy makers, scholar made questionnaire was used. This questionnaire includes 40 questions. The questionnaires were regulated based on 5-value Likert scale. Reliability and validity of this questionnaire was confirmed. For statistical techniques used for analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire, various statistical methods have been used. In the research descriptive section, descriptive statistical methods, relative frequency distribution and its percent diagrams have been used. And in the inferential statistics analysis, Kolmogorov- Smirnov test has been used for investigating data normality and then Pearson correlation factor and route analysis have been used The study results showed that there is a relation between digital marketing and medical tourism from viewpoint of Shiraz medical tourism policy makers. Also, there is a relation between factors relating to product or service, advertising, place, individuals, evidences and physical facilities and price and medical tourism from viewpoint of Shiraz medical tourism policy makers. Therefore, educating usage of modern marketing methods and mixing them should be one of operational objectives of healthcare organization and this should be considered in educational planning.

Keywords: digital marketing, health policy making, medical tourism, Shiraz
INVESTIGATING THE OBSTACLES OF IMPLEMENTING HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS FROM VIEWPOINT OF PERSONNEL OF MEHRIZ HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN 2017

INVESTIGATING THE OBSTACLES OF IMPLEMENTING HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS FROM VIEWPOINT OF PERSONNEL OF MEHRIZ HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN 2017

Authors: Abbas Yazdanpanah, Hamid Eatemadololama, Somayeh Hessam
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Abstract

Health centers have a special significance as one of main organizations of providing services and first line of access to services for people. These centers severely require using various means of information systems due to existence of high volume and variety of information in various fields and the best tool for managing this collection of wide and different information is Sib health information systems. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating obstacles of implementing Sib health information system from viewpoint of personnel of Mehriz healthcare network in 2017. This study investigated the obstacles of health information system qualitatively and with content analysis method. The research environment includes Mehriz city healthcare network and the study sample was 12 managers and authorities of Mehriz health center as key authorities who entered interview with purposeful sampling method with personal consent. Data collecting tool in this study was open questions. After performing interviews and implementing them, the data obtained from interview was analyzed based on topics and subtopics. the results obtained from interviews analysis showed that totally there are 5 main topics from view of Mehriz health network personnel for implementing Sib system. These topics include obstacles relating to human forces about commissioning and implementing health information system, financial obstacles before Sib health information system, legal obstacles before Sib health information system, organizational and structural obstacles of health information system, and technical obstacles (software and hardware) obstacles for health information system. Regarding the identified obstacles, informing about application and development of information system in health domain, holding conferences with the objective of providing the latest achievements and using people with competence in training affair and providing applied training in this field and also increasing of commitment between user and support is a suitable way of obviating obstacles

Keywords: Health information system, Mehriz health network, obstacles, Sib
http://ujpr.org/index.php/journal/article/download/3/1

http://ujpr.org/index.php/journal/article/download/3/1

Authors: Asmaa A. Khalifa, Mai El-Sayed Ghoneim
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Abstract

Because of the high rate of baseline oxygen use by renal cells, kidney is highly influenced by obstruction of arterial blood inflow and subsequent shortage of the received oxygen, this condition is known as Ischemic injury. There are many clinical settings associated with unavoidable ischemic state such as kidney transplantation, partial nephrectomy or suprarenal procedures of the aorta. During ischemia many cellular changes occur including vascular congestion and adhesion of inflammatory cells to the endothelium with subsequent infiltration into the kidney tissue. Following ischemia, a phase known as Reperfusion begins and involves a return of blood and oxygen supply to micro vessels. Reperfusion was expected to restore the damage occurred during the ischemic phase, paradoxically, reperfusion leads to more congestion, red cells trapping and excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can oxidatively modify significantly every type of biomolecule, thereby inducing cell dysfunction and induce reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is also related to a phenomenon called Remote Organ Injury (ROI) in which the damaging effect induced by I/R is not only restricted to the tissue that undergoing the initial ischemia but also it leads to injury to remote organs such as the liver, lung, gut. ROI usually occurs by the same mechanisms seen in the local injury induced by I/R including the generation of ROS, leukocytes, and inflammatory mediators (e.g; TNF-α). These substances are directly released from the primary injured tissue or indirectly from activated leukocytes or other inflammatory cells causing organ dysfunctions in distant organs.

Keywords: remote organ injury, Renal ischemia, reperfusion injury reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory response
Editorial Message.

Editorial Message.

Authors: Mostafa Essam Ahmed Eissa
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Abstract

It gives me immense pleasure to express my deepest congratulations to all staff and members of Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (UJPR) for their progressive and steady success in scientific publication pathway. It is a great honour to be a member of this team. One of the prime objectives of UJPR is the continuous development and improvement coupled with motivation and determination to meet the highest academic publication standards. The main emphasis of the journal is to promote scientific papers of good quality and the boundaries were released to cover a broad scope of pharmaceutical studies in different fields. It is felt that there is a huge horizon to explore various fields of scientific research. With clear aims, the editorial board welcomes all researchers and scientists to present their valuable scientific work through the journal. The rapid development in the healthcare sciences has stimulated new ideas and innovations. Accordingly, authors are requested to stick in providing truly genuine high-quality unplagiarized manuscripts that really contribute to the scientific research and will add benefits to mankind. Finally, hearty thanks to all sincere contributors to the success of the journal to cover wide audience interests globally and to disseminate the research internationally which makes the UJPR takes part in contributing to the scientific field effectively.

Keywords: Egypt
COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE OF HOSPITAL MANAGERS IN BUSHEHR PROVINCE ABOUT NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS

COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE OF HOSPITAL MANAGERS IN BUSHEHR PROVINCE ABOUT NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS

Authors: Abbas Yazdanpanah, Laleh Basri Boushehri, Shaghayegh Vahdat
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Abstract

Nosocomial infections are one of the social and economic medical problems in developing countries, which contribute to the spread of infectious diseases and long hospitalization and mortality among patients. The aim of this study was evaluating the knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital managers in Bushehr Province in the field of nosocomial infections. The study was a descriptive – analytic carried out on 52 managers of hospitals governmental and non – governmental in Bushehr Province in 2018. The world health organization questionnaires were used to collect knowledge, attitude and practice data. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted on 52 managers of governmental and semi-private hospitals in Bushehr province in 2018. The needed data on knowledge, attitude and performance was collected by 3 questionnaires published by the World Health Organization. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 20. The results of this study showed that 11.54% of managers had good knowledge of nosocomial infection, 67.31% had good attitude and 42.31% of managers had advanced level of performance. There was not any significant association between knowledge and Practice and also knowledge and attitude; but there was a significant association between, attitude and practice .(p<0.05). According to the results of this study, although managers’ attitude towards nosocomial infections is quite good, most of them had not desirable knowledge and practice to prevent them. Considering the important role of managers in prevention of nosocomial infections, it is very important to pay more attention to the training of this group in order to improve the management of infection control in hospitals.

Keywords: Hospital managers, infection authorities, nosocomial
INTERLEUKIN-22 SERUM LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN

INTERLEUKIN-22 SERUM LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN

Authors: Dekra A. EL-Aghbary, Safa'a M. Darwiesh, Khaled A. Al-Moyed
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Abstract

Interleukin (IL) -22 is a novel mediator of a member of IL-10 family cytokines that is produced by many different types of lymphocytes including both those of innate and adaptive immune system. This cytokine has potent proliferative and inflammatory effects on different cell lines. Recently, accumulated data has indicated that IL-22 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to investigate the levels of IL-22 and its association with demographic, clinical data as well as serological markers in RA. IL-22 serum levels were measured in 45 newly diagnosed RA patients without any treatment and 45 healthy individuals as control by a manual Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations of IL-22 serum levels were sought with demographic, clinical data and serological parameters. IL-22 levels were significantly elevated in serum of RA patients (median= 86.89ng/ml and range = 896) compared to serum of healthy control (median=75.36ng/ml and range=459), p=.022. The IL-22 levels were correlated positively with C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibodies in RA patients. Significant higher levels of serum IL-22 in RA patients compare with those in healthy control. Highly significant association between serum levels of IL-22 and the serological markers (CRP and ACCP antibodies) in the diagnosis of RA suggest the potential levels of IL-22 as a valuable biomarker for the evaluation of disease severity in RA patients.

Keywords: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, C-reactive protein, Interleukin-22, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid factor
WOUND DRESSINGS UPLOADED WITH MYRTLE BERRIES EXTRACT AND NIGELLA SATIVA HONEY

WOUND DRESSINGS UPLOADED WITH MYRTLE BERRIES EXTRACT AND NIGELLA SATIVA HONEY

Authors: Zam Wissam, Hammadi Maher
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Abstract

Wound dressings are frequently developed by introducing new products to target different aspects of the wound healing process. Many medicated dressings incorporated with natural extracts and chemicals have been developed. Chronic wounds could be invaded by many bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureusare the most common. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are usually detected in the higher layer of wounds or in the deepest region of wound bed, respectively. They can express many virulence factors affecting wound healing process and leading to severe infections and antibiotic resistance. Starch based impregnated gauze containing either N. sativa honey, myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract or a combination were prepared. There efficacy against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolated from chronic wounds. N. sativa honey mixture was the most potent against P. aeruginosa with an inhibition zone diameter of 18.1±0.3 mm, while the myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract mixture was the most potent against S. aureus with an inhibition zone diameter of 18.4±0.5 mm. The prepared impregnated gauzes deliver a moist environment that helps wounds epithelialize more rapidly. In addition, honey and myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract provide antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that will accelerate the healing process of wounds.

Keywords: Myrtle berries hydro-alcoholic extract, N. sativa honey, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, starch based impregnated gauzes
PREVALENCE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS AMONGST SLAUGHTERHOUSE WORKERS AND BUTCHERS IN SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

PREVALENCE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS AMONGST SLAUGHTERHOUSE WORKERS AND BUTCHERS IN SANA'A CITY-YEMEN

Authors: Essam Mohammed Alastot, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy
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Abstract

Zoonotic infections can be work-related risks to people who labor in nearby connection with animals. The goals of present study were to find out the prevalence of leptospira antibodies and impact factors of leptospirosis among this risk groups in Sana'a city. A 267 serum samples were assembled from the study groups and a written record was completed for all workers to record individual and behavioral information. The sera were tested for leptospirosis IgG antibodies by commercial ELISA technique. The acquired data illustrated that 100% of individuals did not employ at all personal protective equipments (masks, gloves, overalls and boots) and 100% of participants had absolutely not used disinfectants to their blades and hands, while 10% be aware of they were at risk of zoonotic infections like leptospirosis only. The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 41.3%. There was highly significant associated between positive of IgG antibodies and older age (median>27 years) (OR= 3 times, PV<0.001), work history median > 8 years (OR=2.8 times, PV<0.001) and history of >5 times cut in the last year (OR=3.7, PV<0.001). In conclusion: the present of leptospira IgG antibodies among slaughter-house workers and butchers in Sana'a city is relatively common, similar to that reported previously from Yemen, and from neighboring countries among risk groups. Encouraging universities in Yemen to undertake active disease surveillance because these efforts will eventually allow policy makers and other authorities to convert knowledge into policy by set appropriate evidence foundation priorities in the field of Leptospirosis disease control and prevention.

Keywords: Butchers, leptospirosis, Sana'a city-Yemen, Seroprevalence, slaughter house workers
IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING FACTORS EFFECTIVE ON HOSPITAL SERVICES QUALITY FROM THE PATIENT ATTENDANTS VIEW USING FUZZY AHP TECHNIQUE IN 2017

IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING FACTORS EFFECTIVE ON HOSPITAL SERVICES QUALITY FROM THE PATIENT ATTENDANTS VIEW USING FUZZY AHP TECHNIQUE IN 2017

Authors: Shaghayegh Vahdat, Leila Samarmand, Somayeh Hessam
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Abstract

Hospitals play a very significant role in providing healthcare services and supplying the society's health. So, the method of evaluating hospitals services quality has a special importance. The aim of this study is to identify and prioritize factors effective on hospitals services quality from view of patients' attendants in Zeinab Hospital of Shiraz City. This study is applied in respect of objective and in respect of method, it is descriptive- applied and qualitative method has been used. The statistical population of this study is patient's attendants referring to Zeinab Hospital in 2017. For prioritizing indicators, fuzzy AHP questionnaire was used. For data analysis, Excel software was used. The study results indicate that among indicators effective on hospital services quality from patient attendants view, the access indicator with weight of 0.3373 and the general services indicator with weight of 0.3327 were located in the first and second priority respectively and the environmental indicator with weight of 0.1629 was identified as the least significant indicator respectively. Also, among subcategories of access component, sub-branches of access to medical team with weight of 0.4003 and access to round the clock services with the weight of 0.3304were in the first and second rank respectively. Among subcategories of general services indicator, subcategories of low cost with weight of 0.3623 and hospital responding to patients needs with weight of 0.3304 were the most effective sub-branches. Among subcategories of communicational component, personnel liability with weight of 0.5836 and sub-branch of personnel correct contact with patients with weight of 0.2773 were in the first and second priority respectively and finally relating to environmental component two indicators of services and facilities being up-to-date with weight of 0.4140 and having parking were in the first and second priority. Decision makers and managers of Zeinab Hospital should more notice the indicators of access and general services due to their significance and impact on hospital services as one of Zeinab Hospital operational approaches for promoting and improving services quality.

Keywords: fuzzy AHP, hospital services quality, patient attendants, Zeinab hospital
EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO POLIO VACCINE IN MALNOURISHED CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY

EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO POLIO VACCINE IN MALNOURISHED CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY

Authors: Mogahid Y. Nassar, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy, Ansam Mansor Mohammed AL-Barq
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Abstract

This study was made to evaluate the immune response to polio virus vaccine among PEM children by measuring the level of circulating Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against polio virus (IgG-PV) after immunization with the primary series of POV, and determining the coverage rate of universal childhood vaccine for polio virus. A cross-sectional laboratory study was conducted in Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, and Al-Sabeen University Hospital, Sana’a University. A total of 279 PEM children were selected and investigated for universal childhood vaccination coverage rate for polio vaccine. Blood samples were collected from all, then tested for levels of IgG-PV by ELISA method. For assessment IgG-PV levels more than 10 units/ml were considered protected against polio virus infection. The coverage rate of polio virus vaccine for first year vaccine was 96.8%; and 91.1% of vaccinated PEM children responded to the vaccine with mean level of 46.2 U/ml. A statistically significant difference was observed with respect to sero-protective IgG-PV between males and females (85.7% and 94.1% respectively, p=0.002); and older children (>37 months) (97.7%). We conclude that a small proportion of malnourished vaccinated children with a normal immune status were not serologically immune to polio virus infection, and remain to be reconsidered for either revaccination or booster doses due to lack of or inadequate response. PEM group gave slightly reduced response to OPV hence there is need to give this group IPV (injectable polio vaccine) along with OPV and different micro-nutrition deficiencies like Zinc and iron.

Keywords: children, malnutrition, PEM, polio vaccine, POV, Sana'a city, Yemen
SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-MANNOSE BINDING LECTIN AUTOANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN SANA'A CITY- YEMEN

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-MANNOSE BINDING LECTIN AUTOANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN SANA'A CITY- YEMEN

Authors: Dekra A. El-Aghbary, Aliza G Al-Jaaidi, Khaled A. Al-Moyed, Abdul Baki A. Al-Robasi, Arwa M. Othman
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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of cartilage and bone. Until now there is no single test that diagnoses RA, however, several blood tests may suggest the presence of this disease. RA is associated with the presence of a number of autoantibodies as such as rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACPA) and anti-mannose binding lectin (anti-MBL). This study aimed firstly to investigate the presence of anti-MBL autoantibodies in the sera of RA patients and healthy controls and secondly to determine the diagnostic value of this marker in comparison with the classical RF, C- reactive protein (CRP) and ACPA among RA cases. This case-control study was conducted at four health establishments; two public (Al-Thawra Modern General Hospital and National Center of Central Public Health Laboratories) and two private (University of Science and Technology Hospital and Aulqi Specialized Medical Laboratories) in Sana'a city. Ninety-four individuals were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven persons were clinically diagnosed to have RA by a rheumatologist and 47 healthy subjects without RA were used as controls. Sera were separated and tested for presence of serum anti-MBL autoantibodies, ACPA, RF and CRP by a commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination technique. Study results showed that the mean±SD for the levels of serum anti-MBL autoantibodies among RA cases were 394±243 ng/ml which were significantly higher than that recorded among healthy controls (217±173 ng/ml). The levels of serum anti-MBL autoantibodies were associated with positive RF and CRP tests (p=.02 and .007 respectively), but not with positive ACPA test (p=.42). The result of this study showed higher levels of serum anti-MBL autoantibodies among RA cases comparing with the healthy controlsand reveal an association with positive results for RF and CRP, but not with ACPA.Therefore, the anti-MBL antibody levels may associated with systemic autoimmune diseases and might not exclusive to RA.

Keywords: ACPA, anti-MBL autoantibodies, CRP, rheumatoid arthritis, RF
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF FIXED OILS OF NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS

GC-MS ANALYSIS OF FIXED OILS OF NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS

Authors: Sania Feroz, Ghias Uddin
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Abstract

Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Applications of GC-MS include drug detection, fire investigation, environmental analysis, explosives investigation, and identification of unknown samples. The present study also relies on use of GC-MS for detection and interpretation of compounds present in N. sativa oil samples. Fixed oil was obtained through column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction. The oil samples were subjected to GC-MS analysis which showed 5, 18, 12 and 20 compounds in four fixed oil samples respectively. The major components were linoleic acid, methyl ester (35.5%), oleic acid, methyl ester (15.007%), palmitic acid, methyl ester (8.208%).

Keywords: column chromatography, fixed oil, GC-MS, Nigella sativa
EpCAM- AN OLD CANCER ANTIGEN, TURNED ONCOGENIC RECEPTOR AND ITS TAGETING IMMUNOTHERAPY

EpCAM- AN OLD CANCER ANTIGEN, TURNED ONCOGENIC RECEPTOR AND ITS TAGETING IMMUNOTHERAPY

Authors: George Zhu
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Abstract

EpCAM is a cell adhesion molecule. Its structure, its expression and the oncogenic potential, and its signaling network and target therapy were in concise reviewed. In recent advances,in addition to PI3K/akt and Raf/MAPK pathway involving in cell survival,anti-apoptosis and proliferation,and malignant initiation and progression(see figure by Zhu,1986-91), three distinct pathway are illustrated: EpCAM/E-cadherin-catenin-actin cytoskeleton, EpCAM/ wint-catenin signaling and its major EpCAM/ nuclear signaling presented by Maetzel D in 2009 and Munz M in 2004. Moreover, more accumulated data are needed in detail mechanism. The data may provide its cancer biology and clinical targeting therapy benefits.

Keywords: EpCAM, nuclear signaling, structure, target therapy
THE EFFICIENCY OF INEFFICIENCY: MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN

THE EFFICIENCY OF INEFFICIENCY: MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN

Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
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Abstract

The strategy of price liberalization and privatization had been implemented in Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatization policy, the government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. To improve the effectiveness of the public pharmacy, resources should be switched towards areas of need, reducing inequalities and promoting better health conditions. Medicines are financed either through cost sharing or full private. The role of the private services is significant. A review of reform of financing medicines in Sudan is given in this study. Also, it highlights the current drug supply system in the public sector, which is currently responsibility of the Central Medical Supplies Public Corporation (CMS). In Sudan, the researchers did not identify any rigorous evaluations or quantitative studies about the impact of drug regulations on the quality of medicines and how to protect public health against counterfeit or low quality medicines, although it is practically possible. However, the regulations must be continually evaluated to ensure the public health is protected against by marketing high quality medicines rather than commercial interests, and the drug companies are held accountable for their conduct.

Keywords: Counterfeits medicines, drug importers, quality of medicines, regulatory authorities

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