Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities

Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities

Basic info

  • Publisher: ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
  • Country of publisher: belgium
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/May/09

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Psychology, Social Sciences, Education
  • Publisher's keywords: Psychology, Education, Social Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2018
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '13' articles

AUTISM: THE PRE-CONCEPTUAL STATE OF MIND

AUTISM: THE PRE-CONCEPTUAL STATE OF MIND

Authors: Paula WEERKAMP-BARTHOLOMEUS
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Abstract

Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders can be defined as a complex and heterogenous area of clinical characteristics. Adults diagnosed with ASD show a lot of comorbidity and overlapping symptomatology with other neuropsychiatric conditions that require specific approaches. The development of ReAttach supports a dynamic special educational model for autism. Indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage, the ReAttach for autism protocol is characterized by activating the skills that are required for integration, conceptualisation, imagination and coping. ReAttach starts with external arousal regulation by the therapist to obtain optimal environmental conditions for learning. The term dynamic refers to the personal growth that individuals with ASD and patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions have shown. If core ASD symptomatology, such as lack of coherency, monotropic information processing and social communication problems, can be reduced by intervention it is time to embrace a dynamic model for autism. Objective: The objective is to propose a dynamic special education model for autism and to communicate how indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage sheds a different light on comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups. Method: The procedure of a comparative study of an autism and a neurotypical control group is reviewed from a dynamic special education model. The questions and remarks about the instructions and findings are displayed. Results: Reviewing the research procedure and findings from a dynamic special educational model sheds a different light on this comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups.

Keywords: autism, pre-conceptual state of mind, special education
EFFECTIVENESS OF REATTACH THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF EMOTIONAL DYSREGULATION WITH OCPD, PTSD, ANXIETY AND STRESS IN YOUNG ADULTS

EFFECTIVENESS OF REATTACH THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF EMOTIONAL DYSREGULATION WITH OCPD, PTSD, ANXIETY AND STRESS IN YOUNG ADULTS

Authors: Ritu CHAUHAN
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Abstract

Emotional dysregulation has three major components which contribute to some of the major symptomatology in disorders like Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety and stress. These components are: excessive intensity of emotions, poor processing of emotions and negative reactivity to emotions, which overlap as well as distinct symptoms with possible manifestations of emotional dysregulation like angry outbursts or behaviour outbursts such as destroying or throwing objects, aggression towards self or others, and threats to kill oneself, especially in young adults. These patients have a chronically and ongoing difficult time with the level of cooperation and social ability required for a healthy and fulfilling existence. ReAttach Therapy through its Multiple Sensory Integration Processing by Cognitive Bias Modification, has been found to be very helpful in the effective management of maladaptive emotions and helps developing interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation skills (expressing emotions effectively), behaviour control and distress situations management skills, which in turn helps the overall decrease in symptomatology of the above mentioned disorders.

Keywords: Emotional Dysregulation, ReAttach Therapy, Cognitive Bias Modification, Distress Situation Management Skills
REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF SOCIAL ANXIETY IN A YOUNG ADULT: A CASE STUDY ON REATTACH

REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF SOCIAL ANXIETY IN A YOUNG ADULT: A CASE STUDY ON REATTACH

Authors: Renske TER MAAT
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Abstract

Introduction: ReAttach is a new, multi-modal psychological intervention based on the theoretical principles of arousal regulation, information processing and schema therapy. Practical research indicates that ReAttach significantly reduces psychological problems in both adults and children. Theories on ReAttach state that this is done by creating functional schemas, which in turn create more effective coping styles in clients and decrease psychological distress. Objectives: This article aims to provide a better understanding of ReAttach theory and give insight in the treatment process. Methods: This is done by linking theory to the treatment process of a young adult (N=1) with symptoms of social anxiety. Results: The psychological distress in the client decreased from 32 (serious problems) to 12 (no problems). Conclusion: ReAttach decreased symptoms of anxiety in the young adult and the theoretical principles of arousal regulation, information processing and schema therapy seem applicable to the case.

Keywords: treatment, social anxiety, information processing, arousal regulation, schema therapy
REATTACH WITHIN NEUROREHABILITATION: A CASE REPORT

REATTACH WITHIN NEUROREHABILITATION: A CASE REPORT

Authors: Corry HEESTERBEEK
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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Physiotherapists pay more and more attention to improving sensory integration when treating people with a brain injury. It is also more common for physiotherapists to pay attention to cognitive rehabilitation and psychosocial factors. ReAttach is a short-term multimodal intervention combining: a) sensory integration, b) cognitive rehabilitation and c) systemic work. Recently ReAttach was introduced in the field of neuro-rehabilitation and therefore it is professionally applied by medics (physiotherapists, speech therapists and occupational therapists) and by neuropsychologists as well. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case-study is to evaluate the effectivity of ReAttach in a patient with CVA by applying the intervention which includes stimulation of sensory integration and cognitive rehabilitation. Can this patient with CVA benefit from ReAttach? METHOD: Five ReAttach sessions were applied to a patient with CVA in both hemispheres. Also his wife received five ReAttach sessions as part of the systemic approach. Pre- and post- measurements on functional skills, balance, fatigue and global condition were conducted to evaluate results. Follow up after 2 months. RESULTS: The results of this case-study suggest that by simultaneously stimulating sensory integration, cognitive rehabilitation and influencing environmental factors (ReAttach) a significant positive change can be achieved in a patient with CVA. CONCLUSION: Although this result is promising, more research is needed to further investigate the effectivity of ReAttach in larger controlled samples in neuro-rehabilitation. This case-study must be interpreted as a first positive impression.

Keywords: Neurorehabilitation, physiotherapy, brain injury, medic, systemic approach, cognitive rehabilitation
An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics

An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics

Authors: Luis ANUNCIAÇÃO
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Abstract

Introduction: The use of psychometric tools such as tests or inventories comes with an agreement and acceptance that psychological characteristics, such as abilities, attitudes or personality traits, can be represented numerically and manipulated according to mathematical principles. Psychometrics and its close relation with statistics provides the scientific foundations and the standards that guide the development and use of psychological instruments, some of which are tests or inventories. This field has its own historic foundations and its particular analytical specificities and, while some are widely used analytical methods among psychologists and educational researchers, the history of psychometrics is either widely unknown or only partially known by these researchers or other students. Objectives: With that being said, this paper provides a succinct review of the history of psychometrics and its methods. From a theoretical approach, this study explores and describes the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and the Item Response Theory (IRT) frameworks and its models to deal with questions such as validity and reliability. Different aspects that gravitate around the field, in addition to recent developments are also discussed, including Goodness-of-Fit and Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning. Conclusions:This theoretical article helps to enhance the body of knowledge on psychometrics, it is especially addressed to social and educational researchers, and also contributes to training these scientists. To a lesser degree, the present article serves as a brief tutorial on the topic.

Keywords: Psychometrics, History, Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, Measurement
AUTISTIC CHILD AND HIS MOTHER: MARKER MOLECULES OF BLOOD AND REFLECTION OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR DISTURBANCES

AUTISTIC CHILD AND HIS MOTHER: MARKER MOLECULES OF BLOOD AND REFLECTION OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR DISTURBANCES

Authors: Alexander B. POLETAEV
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Abstract

Autism is gradually becoming an epidemic. The frequency of this disorder now is one per 60–80 infants, against 1:5000-10000 approximately 60–70 years ago. Because epidemics of genetic disease do not occur, this confirms that most cases of autism are not associated with the genome problems but rather with the progressive deepening of environmental problems. Environmental pressure may be barely noticeable for an adult, but this could disturb the development of a much more fragile foetus. A variety of industrial and agricultural pollutants, heavy metals, pathogenic bacteria, etc. may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. All of them cause similar persistent changes in the production of autoantibodies and cytokines influencing the foetal development. Moreover, trans-placental transfer of the excess of some maternal аuto-antibodies of IgG class leads to pre-birth ‘tuning’ of the immune system of the foetus by mechanisms of maternal immune imprinting. This phenomenon could be an additional factor in the pathogenesis of autism. It is noted that the environment-induced immune changes are mostly adaptive for the mother; however, for the unborn child, they can often be the factors of pathogenesis. Discuss the possibility of the study of repertoires of maternal autoantibodies for the prediction of normal or abnormal development of the foetus and the birth of the newborn with congenital disorders that are not caused by gene defects.

Keywords: autism, environmental factors, maternal immune deviations, foetal development, autoantibodies
Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy?

Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy?

Authors: Joanna Kossewska
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Abstract

Review of the book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula WeerkampBartholomeus. The book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula WeerkampBartholomeus is new monograph in the field of psychotherapy and support for patients with mental health problems. The content of the book has contributions by international professionals working in the field of clinical psychology, psychiatry, immunology as well as genetics. It is organised into a preface and five separate chapters, which are briefly analysed below, presenting a differentiated but coherent perspective of the ReAttach approach proposal. The Preface and Epilogue by Michael Fitzgerald are two sections that bind the contents together. The beginning entitled “Sentimus ergo sumus: we sense therefore we are. ReAttach”, points out the core assumptions of ReAttach which are as following: the orthopaedagogical background, the integrated therapeutic perspective (sensory perception, emotion and cognition) and a dimensional rather than categorical approach. This means that separate psychiatric diagnoses is not so important, due to the fact that mental health problems are comorbid. The ending gives the readers the future perspective and sums up the ReAttach results. The contents of the book might be divided into two sections. The first is strictly related to biological aspects of autism and the second is dedicated to the ReAttach treatment analysis. Autism is the core topic of two chapters: Chapter 2 entitled “Oxytocin and autism spectrum disorder” by Donatella Marazziti and Federico Mucciand and Chapter 5 entitled “Autism: genetics or epigenetics?” by Alexander B. Poletaev and Boris A. Shenderov. These texts present the contemporary research finding in the field of the biological, genetically and prenatal critical development conditionals of autism. Also the background of autistic characteristics located in the imbalanced secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters is discussed. The biological fundament of attachment and social engagement is related to the level of oxytocin and either genetic or environmental variables might be responsible for the neurological damage. The authors discuss findings on oxytocin receptor genes in ASD familial studies and came to the conclusion that novel effective treatment for ASD patients should be concentrated on the reduction of pathophysiology abnormalities. This conclusion seems to be also adequate for improving the functioning of patients with differentiated mental diseases who suffer from social problems.

Keywords: AUTISM, REATTACH THERAPY
THE HISTORY OF AUTISM IN THE FIRST HALF CENTURY OF THE 20TH CENTURY: NEW AND REVISED

THE HISTORY OF AUTISM IN THE FIRST HALF CENTURY OF THE 20TH CENTURY: NEW AND REVISED

Authors: Michael M. FITZGERALD
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Abstract

This paper examines the prehistory and history of autism in the first half of the 20th century. The prehistory focuses on Heller’s dementia Infantilis and Bleuler’s autism and schizophrenia. The more formal history begins with Tramer (1924), and continues with Ssucharewa (1926), which still contains some of the best descriptions of autism, although she called the condition schizoid psychopaths or schizoid personality disorders. There is still debate about when and whether Asperger and Kanner read Ssucharewa (1926), but the paper was republished in German in 1932 and quoted by Kanner, post his 1943 paper. The point is that Ssucharewa publication has precedents. George Frankl, the predecessor of Hans Asperger by many years, in the Heilpadogik Clinic was therefore a key figure in the description of autism in Vienna and later he went to America and worked under Leo Kanner, whom he described autism to.

Keywords: Asperger syndrome, history, autism, origins
How to tailor a transdiagnostic intervention to the individual state of mind of individuals with ASD?

How to tailor a transdiagnostic intervention to the individual state of mind of individuals with ASD?

Authors: Paula WEERKAMP BARTHOLOMEUS
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Abstract

Introduction: ReAttach is a trans-diagnostic tailored intervention based on a conceptualization model. The intervention includes arousal-regulation, multiple sensory processing, conceptualization, affective mentalization and associative memory formation (active learning). Autism Spectrum Disorder is a clinical diagnosis for a heterogeneous group of individuals who experience pervasive neurodevelopmental problems including perceiving the world in a fragmented way: the pre-conceptual state of mind. Tailored ReAttach sessions support individuals with ASD to develop a coherent sense of the self and the world. Objective: The aim of this article is to describe how a to tailor a ReAttach session to the individual state of mind of individuals with ASD. Method: ReAttach-C.A.T. is a Computer Adaptive Tool, built to assist therapists to map the individual state of mind before the start of ReAttach sessions. The instrument is in its early stage of development. Results: A group of 52 patients with complex developmental challenges were interviewed by their ReAttach therapist, using the inclusive ReAttach-C.A.T. Mapping the individual state of mind in co-creation with the individual with ASD, makes sense and is helpful for a variety of reasons. It also sheds a new light on the Forms of Vitality of the co-creators.

Keywords: ReAttach, Autism, Forms of Vitality
ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS IN DISSOCIATIVE PHENOMENOLOGY

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS IN DISSOCIATIVE PHENOMENOLOGY

Authors: Sushma RATHEE, Ajay KUMAR
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Abstract

Background: Dissociative phenomena have been observed in clinical populations as an independent diagnostic category as well as in non-clinical populations. It has been observed that a person with dissociation has relatively more adverse stressful life experiences than healthy controls. Various studies indicated that stressful life events may have a causative role in dissociative disorders, however findings are inconsistent. Objectives: To study this link the present study has been planned with the aim to assess and compare stressful life events and dissociative experience in patients with dissociative disorders and healthy controls. Methods: The study comprises 80 participants (40 dissociative patients and 40 healthy controls). In the sample total, 16 males and 64 females were enrolled. All participants assessed using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation. Healthy controls were screened by the General Health Questionnaire-12. Results: In the results of both groups have significant difference in the experience of life time psychological stress [t=2.92; p=0.05] and the correlation positively related with dissociative experiences and stressful life events. The finding from regression analysis indicates that the degree of life time stress emerged as a predictor of dissociative psychopathology treatment outcome (R2= 0.23, Beta coefficient = 0.48, p = 0.000, 95% Cl = 0.21- 0.50). This indicates that patients who had significantly higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology. Conclusion: A significant difference was found between both groups in the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, the clinical population has higher scores than the normal population and higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology.

Keywords: Stressful life events, psychological stress, dissociative experience, dissociative phenomenology
THE RELATION BETWEEN A DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SCREENING TEST USED IN PUBLIC CHILD DAYCARE CENTERS IN BRAZIL

THE RELATION BETWEEN A DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SCREENING TEST USED IN PUBLIC CHILD DAYCARE CENTERS IN BRAZIL

Authors: Chieh-Yu CHEN, Luis ANUNCIAÇÃO, Jane SQUIRES, Alberto FILGUEIRAS, Jesus LANDEIRA-FERNANDEZ
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Abstract

Background: Two developmental screening instruments for infants and young children, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires-Third Edition (ASQ-3) and the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE), are widely used in the US and internationally. Both tools are sometimes used concurrently but the relation between children’s scores on the two tools is seldom investigated. Methods: The Brazilian versions of ASQ-3 and ASQ:SE, known as the ASQ-BR and ASQ:SE-BR, were used for assessing 13,470 children ages one to four in public child daycare centres in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four groups were defined according to children’s ages as one, two, three, and four year-olds. Correlation and multiple regression were employed to explore the relation between children’s scores on the ASQ-BR and the ASQ:SE-BR. Results: Results indicated that the domain scores of ASQ-BR, including communication (r = -0.38 to -0.44), gross motor (r = -0.19 to -0.32), fine motor (r = -0.33 to -0.45), problem solving (r = -0.36 to -0.42), and personal-social (r = -0.38 to -0.51) were significantly correlated with ASQ:SE-BR scores. Regression analyses suggested that the communication and personal-social domains were significant predictors of social-emotional scores in most of the age groups. Conclusion: General developmental assessment is suggested to be conducted with social-emotional screening. If the workload is heavy for administers to use both screeners concurrently, social-emotional screening is recommended for children who fail communication or personal-social domains on developmental screening tests.

Keywords: development, developmental screening, social-emotional competence
SEXUAL HEALTH ISSUES IN WOMEN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM

SEXUAL HEALTH ISSUES IN WOMEN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM

Authors: Monica PARCHOMIUK
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Abstract

Introduction: Women with intellectual disability have a low level of competencies that would allow them to better manage their sexuality; consequently, they have a low level of control over their own health. Objectives: The article describes the results of author’s own research into selected aspects of sexual health of women with intellectual disability (ID). The focus has been on issues such as menstruation, health and gynecological care, pharmacologization, contraception, STDs, and menopause. Methods: The research was conducted with 11 women using structured interviews. Results: Results suggest that these women have a low level of competencies to manage and control health problems in an optimal way. Their behavior is determined by people from their living environment to a large extent. Women with ID report various abnormalities in the course of developmental phenomena and in their own health, indicating potentially serious diseases and disorders. Conclusion:Women with intellectual disability require lifelong support in meeting their health needs. Such support should be provided by institutions of care, health and social assistance.

Keywords: sexual health, intellectual disability, gynecological care, contraception, STD
HEALTH CONDITION IN PERSONS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

HEALTH CONDITION IN PERSONS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Authors: Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI
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Abstract

Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are behaviourally defined syndromes where the etiology and pathophysiology are not very well understood. If the child has been diagnosed with autism, parents already face special behavioural challenges. What makes ASD even more difficult, are the many other medical health issues that often arise in this population. The purpose of this article is to summarise the latest understanding of autism’s commonly associated physical and mental health conditions. Methods: An analysis of relevant literature, sources from the internet and published literature, personal experience and observations of the author. Recent findings: Autism is a disorder of the whole body. It is often in co-morbidity with: epilepsy, gastrointestinal disorders, neuro-inflammation and immunological disorders, asthma, eczema, sleep disturbances, eating and feeding disorders, food allergies, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), headaches, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Fragile X syndrome, intellectual disability, nonverbal learning disorder, motor clumsiness, Tourette syndrome, sensory problems, tuberous sclerosis, oxidative stress, acquired mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. Many of the issues outlined here can overlap each other. Conclusions:Improved understanding of the underlying pathology of ASD and associated conditions, and the development of a common purpose across multiple treating sites, can improve the consistent and coordinated healthcare of children with autism. There is need for the development of improved strategies for delivering effective health education and healthcare to this large population. Improving the ability of these persons to lead relatively independent lives has a great economic impact.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, health, condition, medical disorders

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