Agricultural Advances

Agricultural Advances

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sjournals
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Sjournals
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Feb/19

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Agricultural Science, Entomology, Food Science and Technology, Plant Sciences, Soil Sciences, Agricultural Economics
  • Publisher's keywords: Agricultural Sciences, Soil Sciences, Biological Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english

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  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 EUR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2012
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

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  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '122' articles

Genetic improvement and utilization of indigenous cattle breeds for beef production in Zimbabwe: past, present and futur

Genetic improvement and utilization of indigenous cattle breeds for beef production in Zimbabwe: past, present and futur

Authors: N. Assan| Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture Management
( 50 downloads)
Abstract

Indigenous cattle breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic material which developing nations have failed to give adequate recognition. Changes in economic situation, the changing consumer preference and therefore the need for change in production methods to comply with these are the major forces dictating the future of indigenous cattle breeding. Genetic improvement programs for indigenous cattle in developing countries have lagged behind chiefly because the infrastructural element necessary for planned breeding programs such as performance recording and artificial insemination centers are unavailable. The traditional methods of livestock husbandry practices in most of these countries is based on subsistence farming characterized by low input system and majority of the livestock owners are peasant farmers, making it impossible to establish planned indigenous cattle breeding schemes as is done in developed countries. It now seems clear that without a thorough understanding of the small cattle production sector’s goals and strategies and without their participation, indigenous cattle genetic improvement programs are unlikely to be successful. Indigenous cattle genetic improvement must be based on empirically sound research if efforts are to be successful, more often than not previous projects implementation have been based on incorrect assumption about the behavior and goals of smallholder cattle sector. This may mean the evaluation of indigenous cattle breeds performance must be approached systematically, but is expensive and requires considerable professional dedication at national level. Unfortunately at least one of these perquisites is often lacking, and as a result few accurate data on indigenous cattle performance are as yet available to introduce suitable genetic improvement strategies. An open nucleus breeding scheme for indigenous cattle breeds should be advocated. This may be attractive particularly in smallholder cattle sector with small populations where within herd selection programs are ineffective. There can be little doubt that the opportunities for indigenous cattle breeding are great if local breeders are willing to accept the challenge of a changing beef industry and realize the necessity for having to be competitive. The specific strategy for genetic improvement of indigenous cattle proposed by this review is based on open nucleus breeding scheme where performance testing and progeny testing are applied as tools for selection.

Keywords: Genetic improvement, Indigenous cattle, Open Nucleus breeding scheme
Symptomatology, survey and surveillance of citrus gummosis disease caused by Phytophthora spp.

Symptomatology, survey and surveillance of citrus gummosis disease caused by Phytophthora spp.

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani ,Maharashtra, India, M.C. Dhavale| Department of Plant Pathology, M...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

An extensive roving survey was conducted in different districts of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state to isolate the pathogen associated with the gummosis of sweet orange. In all 103 sweet orange orchards surveyed the average disease incidence of 38.83 per cent had been observed. Highest disease incidence and severity noticed in Nanded district (63.38%) followed by Jalna (58%), Parbhani (50.66%), Hingoli (46.66%), Aurangabad (39.11%) and Latur (14%). The lowest disease incidence noticed in Osmanabad district (10%). Peak period of disease expression was August-September that was concomitant with heavy rainfall, high humidity percentage and temperature range of 18 oC – 35 oC. The harvest of disease free fruits was increased in adopted orchards.

Keywords: Sweet orange, Survey, Surveillance, Gummosis, Phytophthora spp.
Effects of age on organ weight and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica)

Effects of age on organ weight and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica)

Authors: R. Tarhyel| Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State., S.A. Hena*| Department of Animal Health and P...
( 39 downloads)
Abstract

The work was carried out to study the effect of age on organ weight and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). The birds were housed in deep litter pen at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm. Both sexes were reared together and raised on the same feed using broiler starter marsh from 5-8 weeks of age then, layer mash from 8-52 weeks and the experiment lasted for a period of 52 weeks. Weight of birds, weight of carcass and weight various organs were recorded on weekly basis and these were continued on the birds at 6, 8, 10, 16, 20, 24, 30 and 52 weeks of ages respectively. All data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance using GLM sub routine of SPSS 16.0 statistical package, and the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Effect of age on carcass characteristics were significant (p<0.05) live weight at weeks 6 and 52 were 97.19g, 119.93g, 132.00g, 134.44g, 129.72g, 142.11g, 154.33g and 162.67g. Carcass weight were 67.60g, 86.57g, 93.42g, 92.35g, 89.82g, 96.98g, 104.14g and 119.54g and back weight were 24.42g, 30.10g, 28.40g, 31.52g, 29.24g, 33.12g, 36.99g and 51.90g respectively. The effects of age on different organ weights was significant (P<0.05) except gizzard weight which showed no significant difference (P<0.05) at all the ages. It was generally observed with different relative significance that organs and meat/carcass of the Japanese quail were correlated with age increase; it could be of advantage to both the producer and the consumer of the birds to slaughter the birds at appropriate ages since there are relative organ/carcass developments to corresponding ages and/or interest. This will reduce economic losses to producers and results in enhanced quality products for consumers.

Keywords: Age, Organ weight, Carcass, Japanese quail
A tentative case of tuberculosis detected at postmortem examination of animal carcasses slaughtered at some local slaugh

A tentative case of tuberculosis detected at postmortem examination of animal carcasses slaughtered at some local slaugh

Authors: S. A. Hena| Department of Animal health and Production, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Bakura, B.K. Tanimomo| Department of Animal health...
( 46 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out in Bakura local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria, where a total number of 592 cattle carcasses were sampled at different slaughter slabs for a period of six months, out of the cattle carcasses sampled at postmortem examination, 28 were found positive with granulomatous lesions as seen in bovine tuberculosis. Similarly, 910 sheep were sampled with 9 cases positive for tuberculosis and with a prevalence rate of 0.99%. In this study also, a total number of 894 goats were sampled with 12 goats being positive for tuberculosis and a prevalence rate of 1.34% was recorded for the total goats sampled. The diagnoses were however tentative, based on the presented gross tubercle lesions as seen on the carcasses. Tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease which affects human being as well as animals; it is of public health importance and hence the public, more especially, butchers and other abattoir workers need to be properly enlightened on the risks associated in handling infected carcasses or animals. Although, the study area is a microcosm of the society, it represents a picture of prevalence of the disease in the state. The result obtained can be used to extrapolate other parameters in determining the extent of the spread of tuberculosis in both animal and human population. Though, routine meat inspection is not confirmatory (Isolation and identification of the organism is the gold standard) it is to be noted that the presence of other bacteria like nocardia could present similar nodular lesions. This becomes useful since most slaughter houses and abattoirs here in Nigeria do not have facilities to confirm tuberculosis and similar chronic infections. This call for proper meat inspections procedures which if properly carried out could identify most of animals with visible tuberculous lesions.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Postmortem, Animal, Slaughter slabs, Nigeria
Integrated management of pea powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe Polygoni DC.

Integrated management of pea powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe Polygoni DC.

Authors: G.P. Jagtap*| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani- 431 402 Maharashtra, P.V. Khalikar| Department of Plant Pat...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) occupies a prominent place in the vegetable cultivars in India. Powdery mildew disease on pea (Pisum sativum L.) incited by fungus Erysiphe polygoni DC is an important limiting factor in pea cultivation in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. In the integrated disease management trial application of different bioagents showed reduced disease severity. The disease severity ranges 13.84 to 27.68 per cent. Treatment Trichoderma hamatum was most effective followed by Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescences. In Chemical management experiment the fungicide Bayleton (0.05 %) showed significantly lowest disease severity (15.93 %) with maximum (26.87 %) disease control. On the basis of effectiveness in controlling the powdery mildew disease of pea the most effective fungicide recorded in the order of merit were Bayleton (0.01 %), Tridomorph (0.05 %) and Dinocap (0.05%).

Keywords: Pea, Powdery mildew, Erysiphe Polygoni DC.
Control of Colletotrichum truncatum causing anthracnose/pod blight of soybean by aqueous leaf extracts, biocontrol agent

Control of Colletotrichum truncatum causing anthracnose/pod blight of soybean by aqueous leaf extracts, biocontrol agent

Authors: G.P. Jagtap*| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani- 431 402 Maharashtra, D.S. Gavate| Department of Plant Patho...
( 43 downloads)
Abstract

A study was conducted in the of Department Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra during 2009 to 2010 to control Colltotrichum truncatum causing anthracnose / pod blight of soybean with plant extracts and bio-agents. All the nine aqueous leaf extracts and four species of antagonist Trichoderma evaluated in vitro were found effective against C. truncatum and recorded significant inhibition of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded 18.53 mm mean colony diameter and recorded significantly highest growth inhibition (79.40 %) of the test pathogen. This was followed by T. hamatum and Pseudomonas fluorescens with 73.74 and 69.31 per cent growth inhibition, respectively. Of the aqueous leaf extracts evaluated, Garlic recorded significantly highest growth inhibition (81.82%) of the test pathogen. The second and third best plant extracts found were Tulsi (65.17 % inhibition) and Onion (60.31% inhibition) both of which were on par. Among the nine fungicides, Carbendazim recorded least mean colony diameter (7.52 mm) and highest inhibition (91.63 %) of mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control, followed by Mancozeb which recorded mean colony diameter of 10.38 mm and mean mycelial growth inhibition of 88.45 per cent. In field, Carbandazim (@ 0.1%) recorded least mean disease intensity (19.55%), mean pod infection (9.63%), highest seed yield (2605 kg/ha) and test weight (14.33 g). It also recorded highest reductions in the disease intensity (40.73%), pod infection (75.73%) over unsprayed control followed by Mancozeb (@ 0.1%) which recorded the minimum mean disease intensity (21.50%) pod infection (10.78%). Considering incremental cost: benefit ratio (ICBR), the most economical treatment which recorded highest cost: benefit ratio was the fungicide Carbendazim (C:B ratio, 1:14.45) followed by Carbendazium + Mancozeb (C:B ratio, 1:8.92).

Keywords: Glycine max, Bioefficacy, Aqueous leaf extracts, Bioagents, Fungicides, Colltotrichum truncatum
Genetic parameters for weaning weight of Zimbabwean Nguni cattle accounting for direct-maternal genetic covariances

Genetic parameters for weaning weight of Zimbabwean Nguni cattle accounting for direct-maternal genetic covariances

Authors: N. Assan*| Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo Region, Box 3550, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe., A. Masache| Depart...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

Five models were fitted to weaning weight data of indigenous Nguni cattle to investigate their suitability for evaluation of breeding values. The animal models were ranked using a simple Mallows statistic. Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance between additive direct and maternal effects were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting five animal models from 1278 weaning weight records of indigenous Nguni cattle collected over a period of 10 years (1989- 1999). All investigated models included a random direct effect, but different combinations of random maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects as well as for direct-maternal genetic covariance. The direct heritability (h2a) ranged from 0.0 to 0.25 when the maternal genetic effects were included in the model, while h2a estimates were 0.21 and 0.68 when maternal effects were excluded. The maternal heritability (h2m) was lower (0.04) than h2a (0.09) when only maternal genetic effects were included in the model, and were 0.13 and 0.17 when the permanent environmental effects of the dam was fitted. The permanent environmental effects of the dam were not important. A large and negative covariance (σ2am) between direct and maternal genetic effects was observed. Using Mallows statistic test Model 5 could be the best for genetic evaluation of weaning weight and this could maximize genetic response.

Keywords: Variance components, Maternal effects, Weaning, Mallows Cp statistic, Nguni
Mitigating the effect of climate change on Nigerian agricultural productivity

Mitigating the effect of climate change on Nigerian agricultural productivity

Authors: I.C.E. Umeghalu*| Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria., J.C. Okonkwo| Department of Agri...
( 61 downloads)
Abstract

Advances in technology in addition to natural and other anthropogenic factors exacerbate global warming and triggers climate change. Climate changes have serious repercussion on rainfall pattern of a place and on other micro and macro factors on which agricultural production depends. Nigerian system of agricultural production is still outmoded and immensely depends on natural rainfall together with other climatic factors, and is therefore vulnerable to climatic changes. This paper examines the possible factors effecting climatic changes of the country and advances measures that could mitigate its impacts on the sector. The factors identified include deforestation, overgrazing, gas flaring, land clearing, bush burning, and measures advocated are selection of livestock’s and crops that will adapt easily to the climate regimes of the country; use of drought resistant crops, healthy seedlings, and disease resistant animals and crops; adoption of practices to minimize CO2 emission/ climate change; legislative acts that will minimize gas flaring, bush burning, excessive land clearing, among others.

Keywords: Anthropogenic, Global warming, Climate change, Mitigate
Modern technologies and Nigerian’s small scale farmers: constraints and prospects of its adoption

Modern technologies and Nigerian’s small scale farmers: constraints and prospects of its adoption

Authors: I.C.E. Umeghalu*| Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria., J.C. Okonkwo| Department of Agri...
( 42 downloads)
Abstract

In spite of abundant modern technologies and guide lines available for use in increasing Agricultural productivity, most of the Nigeria small scale farmers who constitute the majority in agricultural sector cannot adopt these new innovations. The result is failure to produce enough food for the nation and poor standard of living of the farmers who could not also contribute anything to the economy and development of the country. This paper looks into the problems militating against the adoption of these modern technologies. It further discusses strategies for their acceptance by the small scale farmers.

Keywords: Modern technologies, Small scale farmers, Adoption, Strategies, Increased productivity
Economics of paddy processing industry in India: a case of Karnataka

Economics of paddy processing industry in India: a case of Karnataka

Authors: K. Singha| Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 72, India
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

With the growth of demand for food crops, especially the rice and quality product, the need for improved technology of paddy processing industry has been realised. This improvement of technology saves post-harvesting losses to some extent. However, the viability of the industry depends on the economics of paddy processing done by different mills. With the help of 92 sample mills (67 modern and 25 traditional), the conversion ratio of rice was found to be 63 percent and 58.7 percent by the modern and traditional mills respectively. Though, the net profit accrued by the modern mills was found to be lesser than the traditional mills, the former is beneficial and preferred than the latter, on the ground of economies of scale and quality of production.

Keywords: Milling ratio, Economics, Paddy
Yield characteristics of goat’s meat in the semi-arid zone of north-western Nigeria

Yield characteristics of goat’s meat in the semi-arid zone of north-western Nigeria

Authors: M. Jibir| Department of Animal Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto., W.A. Hassan| Department of Animal Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University,...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

A study was conducted to characterize autochthonous goats of the semi-arid zone of North-western Nigeria for their meat potential. Thirty two intact male goats representing eight replicates of two breeds (Sokoto Red and Sahel) and two ages (young and mature) were investigated for carcass and meat yield characteristics. Breed had no significant effect on carcass weight, carcass yield, fleshing index, loin eye area and total edible portion (P>0.05). Sahel goats were however heavier and had higher empty body weight (EBW) than Sokoto Red goats, which were superior in body mass index (BMI) (P<0.05). Slaughter weight, EBW, BMI, carcass weight, fleshing index and loin eye area were significantly higher in mature goats, while young goats had a higher proportion of total edible portion. Dressing percent and total saleable portion were not affected by breed or age. It was found that age had a greater influence on yield characteristics of meat goats of the Semi-arid zone of North-western Nigeria than breed. Availability of scientific information on meat characteristics of indigenous goat breeds will facilitate development efforts to improve the quality of life in developing countries.

Keywords: Sokoto Red goat, Sahel goat, Carcass yield, Fleshing index
Histomorphological studies of the prenatal development of oesophagus of one humped camel (camelus dromedarius)

Histomorphological studies of the prenatal development of oesophagus of one humped camel (camelus dromedarius)

Authors: A. Bello*| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria., B.I. Onyeanusi| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu B...
( 42 downloads)
Abstract

A Histomorphological study was conducted on the oesophagus of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. At the first trimester, only three layers were identified, ie; Tunica mucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica adventitia. At the second trimester, the orientation of fibres changed, resembling that of the adult with all the four layers prominent i.e. Tunica mucosa, Tunica sub-mucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica adventitia. At the third trimester, the Oesophageal gland appeared prominently in the tunica sub-mucosa resembling that of the adult camel. The Tunica mucosa epithelium was simple squamous epithelium at first trimester and began to change at second trimester to stratified squamous epithelium. At third trimester, the epithelium was keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with the oesophageal (sub-mucosal) glands appearing to be prominent and abundant. The tunica muscularis showed clearly a single layer at second trimester while at third trimester; both inner circular and outer longitudinal layers appeared. The tunica adventitia was typical. Blood vessels and nerve fibres became very visible at the tunica sub-mucosa and muscularis in third trimester fetuses. Based on the above findings, it showed that development of the camels’ oesophagus (based on embryonic stages) was morphological in succession. Presence of keretinised stratified squamous epithelium throughout the length of the oesophagus showed adaptive features of the animal to its environment and mode of feeding. Base on histological differentiation, camels’ oesophagus had little/few similarities with true ruminants embryologically.

Keywords: Camel, Histomorphological, Oesophagus, Prenatal development
Ethnobotanical study of some medicinal plants of union council Bangoin, Tehsil Rawalakot, AJ&K

Ethnobotanical study of some medicinal plants of union council Bangoin, Tehsil Rawalakot, AJ&K

Authors: S.A. Shaukat*| Govt. Boys High School Bangoin, Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan., S.Z. Ali Shah| University College of Agriculture Rawalakot,...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was carried out in five villages of the Union Council Bangion Tehsil Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. In the present study 26 plant species from 19 families were being used by the local peoples of the area. The maximum number of species was belonging to family Lamiaceae. These medicinal plants are used to treat various diseases. Local name of the plant, flowering period, habitat, status, par used and diseases treated were recorded.

Keywords: Bangoin, Ethnobotanical, Rawalakot, Medicinal Plants, Diseases
Influence of phosphorus fertilization on gladiolus corm and flower production

Influence of phosphorus fertilization on gladiolus corm and flower production

Authors: S.A. Shaukat*| Govt. Boys High School Bangoin, Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan., S.Z. Ali Shah| Associate Professor University College of Agr...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

The influence of different levels of phosphorus on corm and flower productivity of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) was studied at Faculty of Agriculture Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir during the year 2010. Corms of similar size and weight were collected from Awan Nursery and Seed Store, Rawalpindi. Sowing was done on 25th April, 2010 with five different phosphorus levels viz. 40, 70, 100, 130, 160 kg ha-1. The experiment was laid out as RCBD (randomized complete block design). Maximum number of leaves (8.68), maximum plant height (156.0), minimum number of days to spike emergence (68.10), minimum number of days to flowering (72.74), maximum spike length (78.73), maximum number of cormels per plant (102.70), maximum weight of corm (67.33) and cormel (3.43), maximum size of corm (7.43) and cormel (2.06) was recorded for P5. Minimum number of days to sprouting (12.00) was recorded in P4. Maximum number of plants per corms, florets, spikes and corms per plant were recorded in P4 andP5.

Keywords: Gladiolus, Flowering, Corm, Phosphorus, Influence
Problem analysis of rice production in wurno irrigation scheme using participatory approaches

Problem analysis of rice production in wurno irrigation scheme using participatory approaches

Authors: B.Z. Abubakar| Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto., A.B. Aliyu*| Department of Agricultur...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

Considering the importance of rice in ensuring food security in the nation, there is a need to investigate the problems militating against its production. Participatory methods were employed in this research. Discussion was held with 20 farmers randomly selected to draw problems inventory militating against rice production in the study area. Matrix scoring and pair-wise ranking indicated quelea bird invasion as the most pressing problem affecting rice production. Poor irrigation management and non- government intervention based on problem tree analysis are the causes of the problems. Local participation in planning operating and maintaining the irrigation facilities and waterworks should be encouraged. Adequate inputs especially fertilizer in form of subsidy or loan should be provided for increased production.

Keywords: Participation, Rice production, Pair-wise ranking, Problem tree

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