Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research (JAEHR)

Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research (JAEHR)

Basic info

  • Publisher: Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Toxicology, Engineering, Environmental, Environmental Protection, Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Health, Environmental Sciences, Occupational Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License:
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2013
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier:
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This journal has '186' articles

Daily visual display terminal use and musculoskeletal disorders among Iranian bank tellers

Daily visual display terminal use and musculoskeletal disorders among Iranian bank tellers

Authors:
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Abstract

Visual display terminals (VDTs) as one of the most important and useful equipment are used in offices and workplaces that may be created some health hazards, including work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the prevalence of WMSDs among Iranian bank tellers and (ii) to examine the demographic and work-related characteristics associated with that prevalence rate. In this cross-sectional study, 382 bank tellers who regularly working at VDTs stations were interviewed. The demographic, work characteristics and MSDs data were collected using specific questionnaire and standardized Nordic self-reporting Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Hence, data analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS for Windows 20.0. As a result, 70.2% of participants reported the musculoskeletal problems within 12 past months in at least one of the body regions. The most prevalence was reported in the neck (37.4%) and low back (36.6%) regions, and the elbows (8.3%), and thighs (12.3%) were regions that reported with the least prevalence rate. Mean duration of daily VDT (DVDT) work in 268 subjects with musculoskeletal symptoms was 6.2 h (SD = ±2.2) and in other 114 subjects without symptoms, it was 5.5 h (SD = ±2.3). There was a positive significant relationship between DVDT work hours with reported musculoskeletal problems (P = 0.005). In conclusion, WMSDs in bank tellers happened in high rate (70.2%) and the most complain reported in neck and low back regions. The most consistently identified risk factor was a duration of DVDT use and inadequate break times.

Keywords: Daily Visual Display Terminal; Musculoskeletal disorders; Occupational health; Bank Tellers
Kinetic studies on bioadsorption of arsenate from aqueous solutions using chitosan

Kinetic studies on bioadsorption of arsenate from aqueous solutions using chitosan

Authors:
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Abstract

Arsenic, one of the most toxic and dangerous elements in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases. In this pilot study, we investigated removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions using chitosan under the influences of initial arsenic ion concentrations, pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosages of chitosan. In order to assess the sorption mechanism and the potential rate of controlling steps, the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic models and the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used. The obtained results showed that the removal of As (V) by chitosan was found to be pH dependent, with optimum sorption occurring at pH = 4. The kinetics of arsenate adsorption on chitosan is well described by the pseudo-second order model. Furthermore, As (V) sorption isotherm was developed at optimal conditions and sorption equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model.

Keywords: Adsorption; As (V); Chitosan; Kinetic Models
Estimation of gas emission released from a municipal solid waste landfill site through a modeling approach: A case study, Sanandaj, Iran

Estimation of gas emission released from a municipal solid waste landfill site through a modeling approach: A case study, Sanandaj, Iran

Authors:
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Abstract

Sanitary landfill is the common strategy for municipal solid waste management in developing countries. Anaerobic decomposition of disposed wastes in landfill under favorable conditions will lead to the landfill gas (LFG) emissions, considering as emerging air pollutants. The emission of greenhouse gases, including methane, resulting from municipal solid waste disposal and treatment processes are considered as the major source of anthropogenic global emissions. Assessment and prediction of the emission rate are important for planning, proper application of methane as an energy source and determining the contribution of various greenhouse gas emissions to global warming. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of gas emissions from Sanandaj sanitary landfill. The data about the quantity and quality of the landfill and waste production were collected based on existing standard methods. Using LandGEM software the landfill emissions were estimated with considering the 50% content of methane, the methane production rate constant of 0.045/year and gas production potential constant of 200 m3/ton. The results of this study showed that the maximum mass of emitted gas is at the next year after the site closure (2021). It was estimated that total mass of LFG, methane, carbon dioxide and non-methane organic compounds were 23,150, 6184, 16,970, and 266 tons/year, respectively. Effective management in controlling LFGs not only results in air pollution reduction, green energy application for sustainable development, but also can use the financial benefits of the clean development mechanism to Kyoto protocol achievement for developing countries.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Landfill Gases; Methane; LandGEM
Assessment of ultrasound irradiation on inactivation of gram negative
and positive bacteria isolated from hospital in aqueous solution

Assessment of ultrasound irradiation on inactivation of gram negative and positive bacteria isolated from hospital in aqueous solution

Authors:
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Abstract

Microbial contamination of water poses a major threat to public health. With the emergence of microorganisms resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, there is increased request for promotion of disinfection methods. Since ultrasound wave (US) exhibits antibacterial activities on bacteria, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of low frequency (37 kHz) ultrasound on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as a model for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Sonolysis experiment was carried out in a laboratory-scale batch sonoreactor equipped with plate type transducer at 400 W of acoustic power in the presence and absence of ampicillin as an antibiotic on the both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. All of the bacteria were affected by the ultrasound and an increase in percent kill for both bacteria occurred with increasing duration of exposure and intensity of ultrasound. It was found that gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to the ultrasonic treatment rather than gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the combination of US with an antibiotic (ampicillin) enhanced killing of both bacteria over the use of US alone. The rate of bactericide effect of US wave was increased in samples containing ampicillin. This process was influenced by the chemical and microbiological characteristics of aqueous media. Therefore, with further research about its practicality for treatment of wastewater, it may become a possible substitute process for wastewater disinfection.

Keywords: Ultrasonic Irradiation, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Aureus, Antibiotic, Ultrasonic Frequency
Effluent quality of ammonia unit in Razi petrochemical complex

Effluent quality of ammonia unit in Razi petrochemical complex

Authors: Nadali Alavi, Payam Amir-Heidari, Roza Azadi, Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi
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Abstract

Establishment of great industrial centers and ports along the Khur-Musa Estuary in Mahshahr Port (Khuzestan, Iran) have been discharged a high volume of industrial and non-industrial pollutants to this estuary. The most important pollutants in Khur-Musa include industrial wastes and effluents including ammonia and urea units. This research aimed to survey the qualitative parameters of effluent of ammonia unit No. 3 in Razi petrochemical complex, and comparing these parameters to the allowable effluent discharge standards in Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate the performance of this unit, and providing proper solutions to solve the existing problems. Thus, at first, the process of production and sources of pollutants in the effluent were recognized and sampling points were determined. The data were collected by examinations on parameters chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrite ion (NO2), nitrate ion (NO3), pH, and (ammonia ion) NH4, during a consecutive six-month period. The results of the measurements were recorded monthly, weekly, and daily. The results showed that the COD and the concentration of ammonia and nitrate ions in the effluent of studied unit were considerably higher than allowable values stated in the national standards of Iran. Comparison between stated parameters in the six-month period of sampling indicated a more desirable trend for the value of studied parameters in the last month of the study (September). In order to upgrading effluent treatment system, an effective action plan could be provided to optimize the current status of effluent from ammonia unit in Razi petrochemical complex.

Keywords: Ammonia Unit, Petrochemical Complex, Effluent, Qualitative Parameters
Investigation of potato peel-based bio-sorbent efficiency in reactive dye removal: Artificial neural network modeling and genetic  algorithms optimization

Investigation of potato peel-based bio-sorbent efficiency in reactive dye removal: Artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithms optimization

Authors:
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Abstract

Over the last few years, a number of investigations have been conducted to explore the low cost sorbents for the decontamination of toxic materials. Undoubtedly, agricultural waste mass is presently one of the most challenging topics, which has been gaining attention during the past several decades. Wastes are very cheap and easily available material in production of sorbent. Therefore, the Reactive Red 198 (RR198) removal efficiency from aqueous solutions by potato peel powder based sorbent (PP) was examined in this study. The Taguchi method was used in combination with full factorial methods to design the experiments. Based on the design of experiment outputs, 18 experimental sets were designed and the experiments were done in accordance with the experimental design. The sorption handmade batch reactor consists of a 200 ml beaker, 100 RPM magnetic stirrer, and a sampling port. Then, the experimental data were collected under desired conditions. In each sample sorbent was separated using a centrifuge (3000 rpm and 5 minutes). Then, dye concentrations were determined based on Beer’s law and calibration plots using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The wavelength resolution and the bandwidth were, respectively, 1 and 0.4 nm. The length of the optical path in glass cell was 1 cm. The maximum absorption wavelength was determined in each run to compensate the matrix effects. The results revealed that PP is effective for the sorption of RR198 from aqueous solutions. The maximum sorption of PP from RR198 solution was determined as 93 mg/g. Artificial neural network (ANN) model of dye removal efficiency (DR%) was developed based on the experimental data sets. The ANN model was strongly validated using statistical tests. The R2 and RMSE of the test set were 0.98 and 4.3, respectively. The results demonstrate that PP can be successfully used as sorbent for RR198 removal from aqueous solutions. The results revealed that experimental parameters strongly influence the DR% and different experimental conditions cause different DR% (from 0 to 93).

Keywords: Sorption, Potato Waste Powder, Design of Experiment, Artificial Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, Dye Removal
Heavy metal contamination in soil and some medicinal plant species in Ahangaran lead-zinc mine, Iran

Heavy metal contamination in soil and some medicinal plant species in Ahangaran lead-zinc mine, Iran

Authors:
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Abstract

hangaran lead-zinc mining area located in the west part of Iran is a mountainous region. In this study, medical plants and soils from 3 different sites in this area were collected in spring 2012. Soil and medical plants were analyzed for heavy metals [lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu)] concentrations using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectrometer (Varian 710-Es) and the physical properties of soils [(pH) and electrical conductivity (EC)] were measured. Soil and medical plants of the mineralized zone and surrounding areas have higher heavy metal contamination (P < 0.05) as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of metals due to mining. This high heavy metal contamination may pose potential threats to local medical plants and soil of Ahangaran region. Furthermore, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in soil surrounding the mine were higher than the US environmental protection agency (USEPA) standard, and the concentration of Pb in medical plant species surrounding the mine was higher than the world health organization (WHO) standard for edible plants (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Mine, Medical Plant, Heavy Metals, Contamination
Mobility of zinc and copper in contaminated clay soil influenced by
Actinidia deliciosa and incubation times

Mobility of zinc and copper in contaminated clay soil influenced by Actinidia deliciosa and incubation times

Authors:
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Abstract

s a low cost byproduct, Actinidia deliciosa shell can be made into sorbent materials which are used in heavy metals immobilization. It has been investigated as a replacement for currently expensive methods of heavy metal immobilization from soil. In this study, soil samples were contaminated with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at the rate of 600 ppm in separate dishes. The 5% Actinidia deliciosa shell was added into the samples. The samples were incubated for 3 hours, and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days at 28° C with constant moisture. After incubation, metals in contaminated soil with Actinidia deliciosa shell and control soils were fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The results of this study indicated that addition of Actinidia deliciosa shell led to increased organic matter fraction and stabilized Cu and Zn in contaminated soil. In the control soils, the dominating chemical form for Zn and Cu were Fe-Mn oxides and residual, respectively. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of Actinidia deliciosa decreased the easily accessible fraction of Zn through the transformation into less accessible fractions. The experiment was performed in three replicates and two treatments.

Keywords: Actinidia Delicious, Stabilization, Incubation, Sequential Extraction
Effect of Azolla filiculoides on removal of reactive red 198 in aqueous solution

Effect of Azolla filiculoides on removal of reactive red 198 in aqueous solution

Authors: Mohammad-Ali Zazouli, Davoud Balarak, Yusef Mahdavi
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Abstract

The textile dyes are considered as major environmental problems. The dyes can be removed by various methods. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the adsorption rate of Reactive Red 198 (RR198) from aqueous solution by activated Azolla filiculoides. This was an empirical-lab study. The Azolla was used as an adsorbent to remove Reactive Red 198 dye. The effect of various parameters was investigated on adsorbent performance and the adsorption isotherms were determined. The dye concentration was measured by spectrophotometer (DR4000) in λmax = 518 nm. The results indicated that A. filiculoides biosorbent had a large specific surface area (36 m2/g). Using the Langmuir equation, the biosorption capacity (qm) for RR198 was 12.2 mg/g. The results showed that the removal ratio of RR198 reached to 97.3% from wastewater containing 10 mg/l RR198. The biomass could be used as a potential biosorbent for the removal of RR198 from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: Biosorption, Azolla Filiculoides, Reactive Red 198 Dye
Site selection for wastewater treatment plant using integrated fuzzy logic and multicriteria decision model: A case study in Kahak, Iran

Site selection for wastewater treatment plant using integrated fuzzy logic and multicriteria decision model: A case study in Kahak, Iran

Authors:
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Abstract

One of the environmental issues in urban planning is finding a suitable site for constructing infrastructures such as water and wastewater treatment plants. There are numerous factors to be considered for this purpose, which make decision-making a complex task. We used an integrated fuzzy logic and multicriteria decision model to select a suitable site for establishing wastewater treatment plant in Kahak, Iran. We used super decision software and a geographic information system (GIS) for scoring the parameters. The western part of Kahak was found to be a suitable place for constructing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Our findings indicated that decision makers and policy makers would be able to achieve better results concerning the most suitable location for wastewater treatment plant easily through combining these two models.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Multicriteria Decision Making, Wastewater Treatment Plant, Site Location
Healthcare waste management and practices: A case study in 
Kodagu District, Karnataka, India

Healthcare waste management and practices: A case study in Kodagu District, Karnataka, India

Authors: Harikaranahalli Puttaiah-Shivaraju, Behzad Shahmoradi
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Abstract

Inappropriate handling and disposal practices of healthcare waste (HCW) at healthcare centers are significantly increasing health and environmental hazards. This paper summarizes the existing situation of HCW handling and management practices at healthcare facilities in Kodagu district (India). This study was conducted for a period of six months using well-designed checklists along with field observations and personal interviews with healthcare workers. Various HCW management issues like quantitative generation, category-wise handling, source level segregation, existing treatment, and disposal methods were studied. Moreover, drawbacks and practices in segregation, collection, transportation, storage, and final disposal methods of HCW in healthcare centers were investigated. The present study showed that lack of knowledge, guilty attitude, negligence of healthcare workers, and poor infrastructure were the major reasons for failure in the HCW handling and management system in the district. In addition to HCW management and infrastructures, associated health and environmental impacts were also discussed. Based on the existing situation and HCW management practices, suggestions and recommendations were made that may ensure the potential HCW handling and management practices and environmental risks minimization.

Keywords: Healthcare Waste, Health Hazard, Kodagu District, Environmental Risk, Hospital, Waste Handling Persons, Disposal
The effect of incubation time and silk worm cocoon on mobility of zinc and copper in contaminated clay soil

The effect of incubation time and silk worm cocoon on mobility of zinc and copper in contaminated clay soil

Authors: Bahareh Lorestani, Hajar Merrikhpour, Faezeh Daneshvari, Nasrin Kohahchi
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Abstract

Of the problematic agents in the ecosystem, heavy metals have special importance because they are unabsorbable and have physiologic effects on living beings at low concentrations. This study has investigated the effect of silk worm cocoon on reducing mobility of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) for the first time. To this end, 5% cocoon adsorbent was added to the studied soil, which had been contaminated with Cu and Zn in separate containers at concentration of 600 mg/l. The experiment was performed in three repeats and two treatments (with and without adsorbent). Samples were incubated at 28°C at constant humidity for 3 hours, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Then both treatments were extracted using sequential extraction method and the concentration of Zn and Cu was processed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that there were changes in mobility of the Zn and Cu added to soil; adding silk worm cocoon to soil increased organic phase of Zn and Cu as compared to the soil without adsorbent. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. All comparisons of the means were performed at statistical level of 5% using Student’s independent t-test. Student’s independent t-test showed that the highest significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the organic fraction of the Cu-Zn contaminated soil with cocoon, as compared with the Cu-Zn contaminated soil without cocoon.

Keywords: Soil, Zinc - Copper, Decreased mobility, Silk worm cocoon, Incubation
Concentration levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and 
vegetables grown in peri-urban areas of Sanandaj, Iran

Concentration levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and vegetables grown in peri-urban areas of Sanandaj, Iran

Authors: Afshin Maleki, Fardin Gharibi, Mahmood Alimohammadi, Hiua Daraei, Yahya Zandsalimi
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Abstract

Concentration and daily intake (DI) of heavy metals [lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu)] were investigated in four common edible vegetables including coriander, dill, radish root and radish leaf grown at peri-urban sites in Sanandaj, Iran. A total of 120 composite samples of vegetables were taken from ten vegetable farms during six months from May to October 2012. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to estimate the levels of heavy metals. The results showed that Pb and Cr concentrations exceeded the safety limits given by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) or the World Health Organization (WHO) for human consumption with the exception of copper and cadmium that were lower than the permissible leveling in all of the samples. Furthermore, the results showed that there was a significant variation in the levels of these metals among the examined vegetables (P < 0.001). DI values for Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd could be 0.1, 1.5, 0.94 and 0.004 mg per day, respectively. As respect, DI values for Pb and Cd were also below the international guideline bases. Although Pb level was higher than the permissible standard, it seems that daily intake of these vegetables may not have detrimental health hazards to consumers.

Keywords: Vegetables, Heavy Metals, Daily Intake
Application of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of water treatment plant influent characteristics

Application of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of water treatment plant influent characteristics

Authors: Mehri Solaimany-Aminabad, Afshin Maleki, Mahdi Hadi
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Abstract

Application of a reliable forecasting model for any water treatment plant (WTP) is essential in order to provide a tool for predicting influent water quality and to form a basis for controlling the operation of the process. This would minimize the operation and analysis costs, and assess the stability of WTP performances. This paper focuses on applying an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with a feed-forward back-propagation non-linear autoregressive neural network to predict the influent water quality of Sanandaj WTP. Influent water quality data gathered over a 2-year period were used to building the prediction model. The study signifies that the ANN can predict the influent water quality parameters with a correlation coefficient (R) between the observed and predicted output variables reaching up to 0.93. The prediction models developed in this work for Alkalinity, pH, calcium, carbon dioxide, temperature, total hardness, turbidity, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity have an acceptable generalization capability and accuracy with coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.86 for alkalinity to 0.54 for electrical conductivity. The predicting ANN model provides an effective analyzing and diagnosing tool to understand and simulate the non-linear behavior of the influent water characteristics. The developed predicting models can be used by WTP operators and decision makers.

Keywords: Neural Network, Time Series, Influent Water Characteristics, Forecasting
Assessment of Birjand flood plain water quality by physico-chemical parameters analysis in Iran

Assessment of Birjand flood plain water quality by physico-chemical parameters analysis in Iran

Authors: Borhan Mansouri, Seyedeh Parvin Moussavi, Kamal Salehi, Javad Salehi, Hamid Kardan-Moghaddam, Mehri Mahmoodi, Behrooz Etebari
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Abstract

We assessed the physico-chemical status of twelve surface water samples from the Birjand flood plain (east of Iran) during fall 2010. The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+ ), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), sulphtate (SO42-), bicarbonate (HCO3–), carbonate (CO32– ), nitrite (NO2–), nitrate (NO3–), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of surface water were determined. The results showed that there were a statistical significant positive correlation between the pH and DO. pH and temperature indicated negative association with most of the parameters. Furthermore, EC showed highly significant positive association with TDS, TH, Ca2+, Na+, and Cl-. Results showed that the quality of surface water was not suitable for drinking, with references to the concentrations of EC, TDS, TH, Na+, HCO3-, and BOD5 which were more than the prescribed limits, in most sites.

Keywords: Water Quality, Hardness, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Birjand Flood Plain

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