African Journal of Biological Sciences

African Journal of Biological Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: African Science Publications
  • Country of publisher: south africa
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Microbiology, Cell Biology, Ecology, Environmental Sciences, Molecular Biology
  • Publisher's keywords: Food Science, Freshwater Biology, Genetics, Immunology, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Physiology, Plant Sciences, Structural Biology
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License:
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2019
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier:
  • Content digitally archived in:
  • Deposit policy registered in:

This journal has '23' articles

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) on lower volta river basin channel, Ghana

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) on lower volta river basin channel, Ghana

Authors: Eniade Abiodun Adeyemi, Odedeyi Dominic Olabode, Bello-Olusoji A Oluayo, Adebayo Olabode Thomas, Agyakwah Seth Koranteng
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii were studied around Lower Volta River, Ghana subject to dirt of information on this prawn species around the study location. The most prominent morphological characteristics already documented for identification of this species was rostrum bearing 13-15 continuous teeth dorsally and 4-5 teeth on its ventral part. These morphological traits formed the principal components for identification in this study. Results showed that morphological traits on second pereiopods such as presence of spines, spinules, teeth borne within the fingers, and dense projections of setae-like features on telson and uropod were observed relevant for identification purposes. Other results revealed that maximum total length recorded in this study (150-155mm) was higher than total length ranges (≤125mm) documented for this species in earlier studies. Consequently, two adult’s classes of prawns were identified (old adult class 81-120mm; and young adults 31-80mm) and older class was observed to be more in catches than the younger prawns. Absolute fecundity revealed that oocytes estimation varied with respect to seasons, ages of prawns and body sizes of specimens examined. In conclusion, this study observed that M. vollenhovenii fishery is operating in a sustainable manner at the time of this study around the study location.

Keywords: Lower Volta River, M. vollenhovenii, Population structures, Absolute fecundity, Morphometric Characters
Comparative differential leucocyte count and morphometrical analyses of black rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and white rats Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769)

Comparative differential leucocyte count and morphometrical analyses of black rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and white rats Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769)

Authors: Aryadhara Das, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This paper aims at a systematic approach to morphologically characterize of five types of white blood cells (WBC), and its nuclei from light microscopic image of blood samples. Hence, cellular and nuclei based geometric features are computed and analyzed statistically with t-test to show their discriminating potentiality among the species. In morphometry study, the length and breadth along with nucleus of leukocytes are compared between and within the species using oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s pairwise comparison tests. In this study, the estimated values of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus with respect to sex were compared. A total of 20 black and white rats (05 each from males and females) were collected. Blood samples were then collected from the caudal vein of anaesthetized rats. In differential leucocyte count, the parameters namely, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.001) and eosinophil and basophil (p < 0.05) reveal significant difference. In morphometrical study, the cell length, breadth along with nucleus of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.01) and eosinophil, basophil (p < 0.05) deviates significantly between and within the species.

Keywords: Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Blood cells, differential leucocyte count, morphometry
Bacteriological quality of kunu-zaki sold on the streets of owerri metropolis, Nigeria

Bacteriological quality of kunu-zaki sold on the streets of owerri metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Anumudu I. C.
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Kunu-zaki is a nourishing non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed in Nigeria. There is no standardized method for its preparation thus production practices differ amongst retailers. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bacteriological quality of kunu drink retailed in major markets of Owerri metropolis, Nigeria. Triplicate samples were obtained from four markets in Owerri and a control sample prepared in the laboratory. Kunu drink was analysed using the standard pour plate procedure. The results obtained showed that total heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliform count and total Salmonella Shigella count ranged from 1.4 x 103 – 4.5 x 104 cfu/ml, 1.2 x 103 – 3.8 x 104 cfu/ml to 0.6 x 103 – 3.1 x 104 respectively. A total of 9 bacteria genera including Staphylococcus specie, E. coli, Enterobacter specie, Proteus specie, Citrobacter specie, Serratia specie, Lactobacillus specie, Salmonella specie and Streptococcus specie were isolated with the highest percentage frequency of occurrence recorded for Staphylococcus sp. (16.66%) indicating possible low hygiene of the kunu zaki producers. The bacteria genera isolated from kunu zaki sold in Owerri and their number constitute main concerns for public health as these can cause a variety of infections or food intoxications. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended kunu zaki to make sure that it is safe for consumption.

Keywords: kunu-zaki, bacteria contamination, coliform, public health
Comparative cytomorphometry of red blood cells of some fishes

Comparative cytomorphometry of red blood cells of some fishes

Authors: Gayatri Acharya, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This study aims to compare the size of the red blood cells of different freshwater fishes to gain knowledge of their activity. In this study, 11 different freshwater fishes of four different order like Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Osteoglossiformes were selected. For analyses of cytomorphometry of blood cells, blood was collected from caudal vein, and blood smear was prepared at the site of collection. In order to obtain size of different blood cell types, 30 cells of each cell type for each fish were photographed and dimensions of cell-like length and breadth were measured using Microscope Eyepiece Digital Camera (CatCam130 – 1.3 Mega Pixel (MP), Code No. CC130, Catalyst Biotech, Maharashtra, India, attached to Hund Wetzlar Microscope GmbH, Wetzlar-Nauborn, Germany) and computer. This study confirms the cytomorphometry of red blood cells differ significantly at p< 0.001 concerning sex and species. The study will help in diagnosis which in turn will accelerate production of fishes.

Keywords: Freshwater, Cytomorphometry, Red blood cells, Fish
Investigating genotoxicity of Eleusine indica by micronuclei assay in albino rats

Investigating genotoxicity of Eleusine indica by micronuclei assay in albino rats

Authors: Hannah Edim Etta, Ekei Victor Ikpeme, Effiom, Helen Offiong
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Genotoxicity of Eleusine indica (Nkim enang: Efik) was investigated in the Wister strain albino rat (Rattus novergicus). Nine (9) male and nine (9) female rats were randomly assigned to three (3) groups, of which two were exposed to the aqueous extract of E.indica – Group A (control-no extract)), Group B (50 mg/kg BW of E. indica) and Group C (100 mg/kg BW of E. indica). This was administered to the rats by oral gavage for 14 days after which the peripheral blood from the tail tips were collected and assayed for the presence of micronuclei, following standard procedures. Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of the herb extract was carried out. Results obtained showed that E. indica did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) increase in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rat peripheral blood at any of the doses administered. The polychromatic: normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE: NCE) ratio was found to be in the range of 0.50 ± 0.11 to 0.55 ± 0.02. Also, the aqueous herb extract is rich in Carbohydrates (76.17%) and Tannins (21.76%). Mean body weights (MBW) of rats showed normal distribution throughout the duration of the investigation. The results of this study demonstrate that E. indica does not confer any genotoxicity in mammals. Further in-depth study on its efficacy is recommended.

Keywords: Bull grass, Medicinal plants, Toxicology, Nucleated cells, Negative genotoxicity
Quantum entanglement in theoretical physics as a new insight into cancer biology

Quantum entanglement in theoretical physics as a new insight into cancer biology

Authors: Sorush Niknamian, Spmayeh Zaminpira, Sprephanie Seneff
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in theoretical physics that happens when pairs or groups of particles are generated in such a way that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance. Instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Based on the theory of cancer as an evolutionary metabolic disease (Evolutionary Metabolic Hypothesis of Cancer or EMHC), the cancerous cells are eukaryotic cells with different metabolic rate from healthy cells due to the damaged or shut down mitochondria in them. Assuming each human eukaryotic cell as a particle and the whole body as a Quantum Entangled System (QES), is a new perspective on the description of cancer disease, and this link between theoretical physics and biological sciences in the field of cancer therapies can be a new insight into the cause, prevention and treatment of cancer. Additionally, this perspective admits the Lamarckian evolution in the understanding of the mentioned disease. We have presented each human eukaryotic cell containing mitochondria as a QES, and the whole body containing healthy and normal cells as a QES as well. The difference between the entropy of the healthy cells and cancer cells has also been mentioned in this research.

Keywords: Quantum Entanglement, Cancer, Mitochondria, Evolution, Quantum Entangled System (QES), EMHC
Variations of biomass and carbon contents in different traits and components of herbaceous species from tropical grassland

Variations of biomass and carbon contents in different traits and components of herbaceous species from tropical grassland

Authors: Preeti Verma, Sagar R, Hariom Verma, Abhishek Rai, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Prem Pratap Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Singh
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Grasslands play a critical role in the global storage of atmospheric carbon (C). Precise estimation of C contents in different plant components is essential to formulate a strategy for mitigating the atmospheric C. Biomass (B) and C of different herbaceous plant components at species, functional group and site levels from tropical grassland locating on the campus of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India were estimated. For this; 117 herbaceous species just-before flowering were harvested. B and C contents for each species and component were measured and statistically analyzed. The measured C (g plant-1) across the components varied from 0.08 to 31.12. On gm-2 basis; it varied between 29 (leaf) and 49 (root). Plant components, species and functional groups in isolation caused significant differences in the measured C. In the present study; the C content of stem was greater than the leaf and root. The perennial, erect, leguminous and native traits had greater C than the others. Therefore, this observation revealed that the perennial, erect, leguminous and native plants could be a better option for reducing the atmospheric CO2 by capturing it and then converting into B through photosynthesis. Further, the fitted regression equation between the root and shoot for B and C could be used for the extrapolation of B and C of the root component based on the shoot component. The conservative field measurement methods may give precise data on B and C but are destructive to grassland, difficult, time-consuming, and costly to cover at large scale. Hence, the present work could be substantial for the estimation of root C based on shoot component.

Keywords: Carbon, Biomass, Plant component, Plant functional traits, Tropical grassland
Explaining the benefits of human genome patent

Explaining the benefits of human genome patent

Authors: Shahima Akter Topu
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Gene patenting has been facing backlash for decades now. Even Michael Crichton, science fiction novelist, as joined the bandwagon speaking against gene patent.1 Such hostility towards patents, the professional interests of academics, researchers and inventors are under the threat of losing their rights over the work they have done. The biotech industry can never be out of discoveries. With constant biological changes, new diseases are appearing and they have to dig deeper. However, not all progress is free. Rewarding the inventors is not at all unfair. This paper will demonstrate that (i) patents are a foundation of the industry. They need to innovate further progress. The reason patent law exists to protect the inventions for a limited period of time. The paper will also demonstrate that (ii) the social myths about gene patent are not really manifested in reality. It will discuss the argument against gene patenting and then will present counter arguments with empirical evidence whether the myths are really true.

Keywords: Patent system, Concerns, criticisms, Genome patenting, DNA testing
Genetic and environmental factors in skin color determination

Genetic and environmental factors in skin color determination

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Rebero Samuel
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The origin of skin color has been significantly a discussion of importance among human biology scientists, anthropologists and others interested in evolution of human skin color. Experience was done to chimpanzee and other primates shared almost the same characters with mankind, and this impressed scientists to know what makes difference in skin color among people. Different researches conducted to know the real cause of dark skin and light skin among people of the same origin. There are no other results found out of permanent variation happened to our ancestors based on geographical location. Environmental factors played a huge role in skin color determination. High UVR has been led to dark skin color and low production of UVR led to lightly skin. By natural selection genes responded to environmental conditions for a human to survive in his own environment. Melanin production came as a response to UVR to protect against consequence of UVR in low latitude regions. Depigmentation happened due migration from low latitude to high latitude regions and led lightly skinned color for our ancestors. Everyone has skin color due to ancestry antique geographical location.

Keywords: Skin color, Environmental factors, Human skin, Melanin, Ancestors
Dormancy and germination in two Australian native species (Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda)

Dormancy and germination in two Australian native species (Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda)

Authors: Paul Theophile Epee Misse
(0 downloads)
Abstract

In the laboratory of plant physiology of the University of Queensland (Gatton Campus), a seed germination experiment was undertaken on seeds of two Australian native plant species – Rhodanthe floribundato and Acacia aneura. Most Acacia, including A. aneura exhibit a physical dormancy due to the waxy coat covering the seed. Comparably, just a few species of Rhodanthe are studied as to their dormancy. However, they are also known to present different forms of dormancy. To understand and describe these dormancy mechanisms, a seed germination experiment was conducted on Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda. This experiment will either add to the existing knowledge regarding these species’ dormancy or corroborate them. It is expected that both species display some form(s) of dormancy.

Keywords: Germination, Rhodanthe floribundato, Acacia aneura, Physical dormancy
Analysis of certain biochemical indices on alloxan induced diabetic rats administered with protein isolated and purified from Vernonia amygdalina

Analysis of certain biochemical indices on alloxan induced diabetic rats administered with protein isolated and purified from Vernonia amygdalina

Authors: Ihimire I.G., Kayode E.A., Osagie V.E.
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This study investigated the effect of protein isolate from leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in diabetic rats. Thirty (30) adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) each based on their body weight. Diabetes was induced with administration of alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight (i.p). Group A served as the control and received 1 mL/kg body weight of 5% ethanol being solvent used, Group B received 1 mL alloxan containing 150 mg/kg only. Group C, D, E and F were respectively alloxanized but treated with 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% of protein isolate obtained from V. amygdalina leaves for 14 days. On the 15th day, the animals were humanely sacrificed and their liver homogenates were prepared. Standard biochemical procedures were adopted for determination of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucose levels. Data were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post-hoc test using Graph Pad, version 6 software. Results showed that CAT activity in alloxan-induced untreated rats (1.17 μmole H2O2) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than observed in control rats (2.10 mole H2O2). Treatment with the respective doses recorded comparable values to those observed in control rats. Similar observation was seen with SOD data. Rats treated with 7% protein isolate recorded the most significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glucose level. The study suggests that the protein isolate possesses anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Keywords: Protein isolates, diabetes, biochemical, hypoglycaemic, alloxanized, liver homogenate
Autophagic processes of normal and malignant metabolic pathways

Autophagic processes of normal and malignant metabolic pathways

Authors: Aurelian Udristioiu, Manole Cojocaru
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell, but autophagic dysfunction is associated with human diseases, such as cancer. In normal cells, the initial signal to form auto-phagosomes is by the class III phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase complex consisting of sequence genes, Beclin1/Atg6 and class III PI3K (Vps34). This process is negatively regulated by binding of Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xL to Beclin1 preventing Beclin1 binding to the PI3K-III complex and thereby reducing autophagy. In cancer, the autophagy can be neutral, tumor-suppressive, or tumor-promoting in different contexts. Genomic analysis of human cancers indicates that the loss or mutation of core autophagy Atg genes, whereas oncogenic events that activate autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis have been identified in malignant diseases. Optimal combination of inductors or inhibitors of autophagy with chemo or radiotherapy in a variety of tumor type, in different phases, can be successful approaches for improve the effect of anticancer therapies.

Keywords: Autophagy, Apoptosis, Bcl-2-protein, Phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase complex, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Tensin-homologous phosphatase (PTEN).
The effect of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida on haematological parameters and intestinal ATPases, lactase activity and histopathology studies in lactose induced diarrhea in Wistar rats

The effect of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida on haematological parameters and intestinal ATPases, lactase activity and histopathology studies in lactose induced diarrhea in Wistar rats

Authors: Ugbeni C.O., Idiakheua D.O.
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Diarrhea remains a major health burden in developing society till date. Efforts aimed at ameliorating this condition is very imminent. In this study, the antidiarrheal effect of aqueous extracts (dried and fresh forms) of M. lucida leaves was evaluated in Wistar rats. 25% lactose enriched diet was used to induce diarrhea. 25 Wistar rats of an average weight of 150g were divided equally into five groups labeled A-E. The diet was admonished for 72 h to rats in groups B-E. Fresh aqueous extract of M. lucida, dried aqueous extract of M. lucida and loperamide were then administered to groups C-E respectively for the next seven days. The animals were then sacrificed and blood collected for lactase, intestinal ATPases, and some haematological parameters were assayed using standard laboratory procedures. Histopathological examination of the small intestine was also examined. Our results showed a significant increase in the intestinal lactase activity of diarrheic rats. However, the dried extract was able to restore parity with the control. We observed a significant increase in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase while a decrease in the activity of Ca2+ATPase in lactose induced diarrheic rats when compared with the control. The extracts of M. lucida further increased significantly the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase when compared with the control and the untreated group. However, no significant effect of the extracts on Ca2+ATPase was observed. On haematological parameters, we observed increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin. Treatment with fresh extract and loperamide was able to reverse this increase. Furthermore results of the differential white blood cell count revealed higher lymphocyte count in the group given dried extract of M. lucida. The extracts were able to ameliorate the aberrations observed in the architecture of the intestinal lumen.

Keywords: Morinda lucida, Aqueous extracts, Lactose, Wistar rats, Diarrhea.
Salt stress induced effects on biochemical parameters in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening

Salt stress induced effects on biochemical parameters in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening

Authors: Meeta Jain, Jayesh Vaishnav
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Treatment of etiolated maize leaf segments with 0-300 mM NaCl during greening decreased the osmotic potential of leaf sap significantly. Na+ content of the leaf tissue increased significantly on supplying different concentrations of salt. Relative water content of the leaf tissue was marginally affected by the supply of NaCl. Total protein and RNA content of the maize leaf segments gradually increased when treated with lower concentrations of NaCl and subsequently decreased at higher concentrations. Decrease in DNA content was noted with increasing salt treatment in a concentration dependent manner. SDS-PAGE analysis of salt treated maize leaf tissue revealed appearance of one protein band (approx. 73 kD) in samples incubated with ≥50 mM NaCl compared to control. Protein identification performed with the Mascot search engine in NCBI database indicated extensive homology of this protein with chloroplast heat shock protein 70 of Cenchrus americanus (Protein score: 295), hypothetical proteins SELMODRAFT_267815 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 125), VITISV_000728 of Vitis vinifera (Protein score: 118) and SELMODRAFT_230659 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 51). The results revealed that the dark grown maize leaf segments exhibit high degree of stress due to NaCl treatment, which affects the biochemical parameters governing the metabolic activities of the leaf tissue. Further, the stress induced proteins are being synthesized in leaf tissue in response to salt stress.

Keywords: Salt stress, Maize leaf, Protein, NaCl.
Study of chorioamnionitis among women with preterm birth at Ruhengeri referral hospital

Study of chorioamnionitis among women with preterm birth at Ruhengeri referral hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Jasmine Umugwaneza, Cedrick Izere, Emmanuel Munyeshyaka, Thierry Habyarimana
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Chorioamnionitis is the association of microorganisms infection in fetal membrane, placental membrane and amniotic fluid. About 2 to 4% of chorioamnionitis occurs in full-term deliveries, but higher than this prevalence in preterm birth. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect the most dominant bacteria of chorioamnionitis and evaluate correlation of the presence of microorganisms infection in placental membrane, fetal membrane and amniotic fluids in women with preterm birth. Methods: It was cross section study where 20 women with preterm premature rupture of membrane, premature rupture of membrane or preterm birth. By caesarean section or without caesarean section with a group of control of 10 women with term delivery. After delivery immediately the samples swab of amniotic fluid, fetal membrane and placenta membrane sample were placed in separate sterile container (swabs Stuart plastic) in the hospital, where it was stored at temperatures ranging between 8oC-20oC. Culture technique, gram staining and biochemical test were used to identify the microorganisms in this study at INES-Ruhengeri Microbiology laboratory. At the Ruhengeri Referral Hospital and analyzed according to INES Microbiology Laboratory standard operating procedures. Results: in 20 women with preterm birth, the most dominant mircoroganism was yeast 28.4% and mould 28.4%, other infections were caused by Escherichia coli, with 9.3%, Klebsiella species with 3.7%, Streptococcus species with 9.3%, Staphylococcus species with 9.3%, Candida albican with 11.7%. Those microorganisms show the association in fetal membrane, placenta membrane and amniotic fluid, of all women suspected to have chorioamnionitis. In 10 samples of control group, for women with term birth, same microorganisms were found like in fetal membrane were (Staphylococcus species 11%, mould 33%, and Yeast 56%), in placenta membrane were (Staphylococcus species 20%, mould 30%, Yeast 50%) and Amniotic fluid were (Staphylococcus species 0%, mould 33%, Yeast 67%). Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis can be in women with preterm birth or with term birth, untreated microorganism infections will cause a big problem of chorioamnionitis in pregnant women this will conduct to preterm morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Chrioamnionitis, Preterm birth, Microorganisms, Amniotic fluids, Placental membrane.

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.