Вісник Київського національного університету імені Тараса Шевченка. Історія

Вісник Київського національного університету імені Тараса Шевченка. Історія

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  • Publisher: VPC Kyivskyi Universytet
  • Country of publisher: ukraine
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/15

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This journal has '64' articles

THE PRINCIPLES AND VALUES OF INDIAN CIVILIZATION: SINCE ANCIENT TIME TO CURRENT STAY

THE PRINCIPLES AND VALUES OF INDIAN CIVILIZATION: SINCE ANCIENT TIME TO CURRENT STAY

Authors: O. Bordilovska
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Abstract

One of the world’s oldest civilizations India is an unique one, with uninterrupted tradition for centuries. It has given birth to four religions – Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism, which are known mainly due to the principles of peaceful coexistence and non-violence. Geography, history, ethnic and linguistic variety and social structure, together with religious principles shaped this amazing civilizational pluralism, which required tolerance. Exactly these values will shape the conduct of the Republic of India after independence, both in internal and external affairs. Author deals with this continuity of civilizational values and also examines the challenges to this extremely traditional civilization in contemporary Indian development.

Keywords: Indian civilization, traditional values, tolerance, unity in diversity, Gandhian way, ahimsa, vasudhaiv kutumbakam
THE HEYDAY OF THE DEMETER CULT DURING THE REIGN OF THE SPARTOKIDS DYNASTY ON BOSPORUS

THE HEYDAY OF THE DEMETER CULT DURING THE REIGN OF THE SPARTOKIDS DYNASTY ON BOSPORUS

Authors: G. Vakhrameieva
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the general characteristics of Demeter cult in the Bosporus, thread V – beginning III century BC. The author gives account of the main Bosporus sanctuaries of Demeter. During the excavation of cities and necropolis, a lot of terracotta of Demeter and Kore-Persephone was found. Apart from sacral complexes and coroplast products, epigraphic sources, graffiti, paintings and images of an ear on the coins evidence honouring the goddess of fertility in the Bosporus. The priority of ancient rules and traditions in the cult of Demeter was maintained in the course of this period.

Keywords: Demeter, Kore-Persephone, the Bosporus, the Eleusinian cult, sanctuary, terracotta
THE ARMS OF ANCIENT IRANIANS BY THE TEXTS OF YOUNG AVESTA: DISTANT WEAPON

THE ARMS OF ANCIENT IRANIANS BY THE TEXTS OF YOUNG AVESTA: DISTANT WEAPON

Authors: A. Vertiienko
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Abstract

In paper is provided the analysis of the Young Avestan lexis connected with the terminology of the distant weapon of Ancient Iranians – bow and arrows. The wide range of its differentiation is revealed. The new semantic interpretations and additions are offered to several terms: sruuī.staii- (designation of a horny shaft of an arrow); tiγråŋhō, aŋhū- (designation of bow tips); aštaiiō (the position of four cubit length of bow pull); arəzaži- (metaphor of an arrow); ϑanuuarətan- (metaphor of a bow-string).

Keywords: Young Avesta, terminology, weapon, bow, arrows, arrowheads
REPRESENTATION OF THE OLD AGE IN THE TOWNS OF THE POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH IN THE LATE MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN TIMES

REPRESENTATION OF THE OLD AGE IN THE TOWNS OF THE POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH IN THE LATE MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN TIMES

Authors: T. Hoshko
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Abstract

From ancient times, philosophical treatises divided human life into separate periods. The most extreme of them were childhood and old age. If the first of these stages is relatively well represented both in legal literature and documentary sources, the second one is paid much less attention. There was no clear dating of the beginning of old age. The attitude towards older people was ambivalent, which was dictated by both Christian views and the practice of life. These views were widespread in the towns of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th and 17th centuries. The town law to some extent protected older people, but in most cases, they did not act as subjects of law. The important groups of sources for the history of old age are the codes of law and burghers’ testaments.

Keywords: Middle Ages, early modern period, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, stages of human life, old age, town, town law
SECULAR STATE AS AN ASSET OF THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY TRADITIONS OF POLEMICS AND SCIENTIFIC DISCUSSIONS

SECULAR STATE AS AN ASSET OF THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY TRADITIONS OF POLEMICS AND SCIENTIFIC DISCUSSIONS

Authors: A. Kushinska
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the transformation of the religious character of the state into a secular type and factors of such evolution. The author's vision of secular state and the role of the university tradition of polemics and scientific discussions in its formation are presented.

Keywords: secular state, university tradition, polemics, scientific discussion, reformation, humanists, anti-clericalism
FEATURES OF CHANGES OF AKHENATEN'S TITULARY

FEATURES OF CHANGES OF AKHENATEN'S TITULARY

Authors: O. Zapletniuk
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Abstract

The article examines the royal titulary of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), the Egyptian Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, from the 1st to the 12th years of his reign and its reflection of the religious preference of the young king and his role in the new solar cult of Aten. The author illustrates the transformation of the king's official titles during the all stages of his religious reform and points out to the meaning of the new titulary's epithets of Amenhotep IV and queen Nefertiti. The author analyses the reasons of king's rejection of many popular traditional titles of Egyptian pharaoh. Much attention is given to the interpretation and explanation of the meanings of some king's titles, that demonstrated the political and religious course of Amenhotep IV. The author comes to the conclusion that Amenhotep IV carried out the first steps of his future reform during the first two years of his reign. Despite the fact that at the beginning of the reign the king's titulary continued to include traditional titles, Pharaoh used the epithets: "Unique for Ra", "Living in Truth", which emphasized his exceptional role in the cult of the solar disk. Amenhotep IV also rejected the titles that were related to the expansion of the borders of the Egyptian state. Then Amenhotep IV changed his own name in favor of the god Aten, and it was an official announcement of the king's support of the new solar cult of Aten in opposition to the traditional cult of Amun. The transformation of the pharaoh's title usually reflected political and religious reality at every stage of the development of the Egyptian state. The new Amenhotep IV's titulary was aimed to demonstrate the reduction of the role of the king as a historical player in the favor of the king as a historical god.

Keywords: Egypt, Akhenaten, religious reform, king's titulary, the solar cult
FEATURES OF THE OTTOMAN WAQF ON NORTH BLACK SEA REGION IN THE XVITH CENTURY

FEATURES OF THE OTTOMAN WAQF ON NORTH BLACK SEA REGION IN THE XVITH CENTURY

Authors: A. Makarevych
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Abstract

In the present article the features of the functioning of the Ottoman Waqf in the territory of the North Black Sea region are investigated. It is indicated on the specifics of the city development by the Ottomans, which reflected the achievements of the Islamic-Ottoman civilization. It was determined that one of the important phenomena that had been brought by the Ottomans to this territory was Waqf. The main economic, social and cultural reasons for the occurrence of vaqf in the specified region are indicated. The influence of the waqf on the life of the northern Black Sea coast is analyzed. The main centers of evolution of waqf on the basis of written sources and results of archaeological excavations are considered. Particular attention is paid to the problem, that waqf became an element of the "soft" policy of Islamization and colonization of this territory.

Keywords: Ottoman Empire, waqf, North Black Sea region
THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF OLBIA PONTICA OF 2nd CENTURY BC IN THE LIGHT OF THE RESTORED CHRONOLOGY

THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF OLBIA PONTICA OF 2nd CENTURY BC IN THE LIGHT OF THE RESTORED CHRONOLOGY

Authors: N. Nikolaiev
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Abstract

Restoration of the chronology of Olbia Pontica IV-I centuries B.C. allowed to significantly refine the dating of a large group of inscriptions. It opens the prospect of revision of socio-political history, in particular, 2nd c. B.C. with a single chronological position. The decree in honor of Nicerat, the son of Papias, dates back to the early Roman times. The decree in honor of Stefan, the son of Alexandros belongs to the times of Mithridates VI Eupator. In the first quarter of 2nd c. B.C. a group of private dedications on granite has been issued. In the second quarter of the century is known inscription of builder walls of Posideos, the son Dionysios, which is interpreted as a measure to strengthen the city's defense from the Skilur. Four dedications of Posideos, the son of Posideos from the Naples of Scythians and one of Olbia dated to the turn of the 3rd-2nd centuries B.C. Accordingly, Posideos was not an advisor of Scilure. Traditional reading of coins legends ΒΣΕ, ΒΑΕΙΡΗ of the end of 3rd – first half of 2nd centuries B.C. as the names of the barbarian kings are only a variant of the interpretation.

Keywords: Olbia, political history, 2nd century BC, inscriptions, coins, dating, prosopography
THE CREATION OF THE TRANSCAUCASIAN SOVIET FEDERATION AS AN INTEGRAL PART
OF SOLVING THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS IN 1921–1922-th.

THE CREATION OF THE TRANSCAUCASIAN SOVIET FEDERATION AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF SOLVING THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS IN 1921–1922-th.

Authors: I. Niftaliev
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Abstract

Following the proclamation of Soviet power in Georgia in late February 1921, Moscow took the initiative to establish the Federation of the three Transcaucasian republics. By itself, this idea was not new. The first attempt to create such a Federation was made in the spring of 1918. The first failed experiment in may 1918 in the southern Caucasus, there are three independent public education: Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. After the Sovietization of the South Caucasus by early 1921 the Bolsheviks took a course on the integration of the three republics into one federated state. This policy was met with mixed reactions among some leaders of the Soviet republics of Georgia and Azerbaijan, who considered the move premature and restricts the sovereign rights of the republics.

Keywords: party, Federation, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, oil, trade
HISTORICAL STUDIES OF VOLODYMYR HRYHOROVYCH LIASKORONSKYI (20.04.1858 – 21.05.1920)

HISTORICAL STUDIES OF VOLODYMYR HRYHOROVYCH LIASKORONSKYI (20.04.1858 – 21.05.1920)

Authors: I. Oryshchenko
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the coverage of the life path and the scientific and professional activities of the scientist-medieval Vladimir Lyaskoronsky (1858-1920). On the basis of archival materials, the main milestones of the biography of the scientist, his teaching work are determined. The scientific works of V. Lyaskoronsky «Ethnography for Adam Bremen» and «Philippe August and its relation to the cities» are analyzed. The views of the medieval on the essence of the medieval city, its evolution, and the main features that characterized the wide movement of the urban population for gaining the right to self-government were established. The socio-economic and political foundations that influenced the support of the French King Philippe August communes and gave them a special status were identified. The connection between the development of cities and the obtaining of privileges with the process of the establishment of royal power in France, the expansion of the domain, the struggle with influential feudal lords (Plantagenets, graphs of Flanders), strengthening the military power of France in the late XII - early XIII century. The relationship between Philip Augustus and the clergy and ways of resolving conflicts between the city's population and representatives of the church are considered.

Keywords: University of Kyiv, Volodymyr Liaskoronskyi, medieval studies, Middle Ages, France, city
NUMISMATIC RELICS OF TRADING AND MILITARY RELATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN LANDS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA WITH THE STATE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN PRUSSIA

NUMISMATIC RELICS OF TRADING AND MILITARY RELATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN LANDS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA WITH THE STATE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN PRUSSIA

Authors: V. Orlyk
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Abstract

The relations of the Ukrainian medieval lands with the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia left the relics in the documentary sources of the second half of the XIII century – beginning of the XVI century. However, the relations of the Ukrainian medieval lands with the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia should have been left not only in written sources. Similar relations, even if they were occasional, left a sufficient number of numismatic sources in the cultural layers of the settlements. In this case, we have the Teutonic coins, lost by their owners.

Keywords: Teutonic Order, coins, numismatic sources, the Ukrainian medieval lands, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
DIPLOMATIC RELATIONSHIPS WITH LONDON AND PARIS DURING OF ANGLO-FRENCH WAR (60TH XI CENTURY)

DIPLOMATIC RELATIONSHIPS WITH LONDON AND PARIS DURING OF ANGLO-FRENCH WAR (60TH XI CENTURY)

Authors: A. Prokhorova
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Abstract

The article is dedicated to the diplomatic relationships between the British Kingdom and the Huguenots during the Anglo-French War of 1562-1564 and their influence on the foreign policy of England and France. The author analyzes the main directions of the diplomatic relations of the Elizabethan politicians with the French Protestants, finds out the factors and circumstances of the defeat of the Huguenots in the Battle of Dre and change the course of diplomatic relations between the countries. Also, author observes the course and results of the war of 1562-1564, and concludes that the defeat for England in this military conflict in the future had positive effects. For Elizabeth I became clear that it makes no sense to rely on the further assistance of Protestant forces from other states to the English case. The country could deviate from the policies that it was carrying out, and to re-evaluate its foreign-policy priorities, which contributed to a further new course of the country.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, Cateau-Cambresis treatment, Anglo-French relations, Battle of Dreux, the Anglo-French War of 1562-1564
«NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION» IN BIBLICAL DESCRIPTION: ATTEMPT OF GEOGRAPHICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION

«NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION» IN BIBLICAL DESCRIPTION: ATTEMPT OF GEOGRAPHICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION

Authors: V. Rubel
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Abstract

The stories of paradise garden, first men living in it, their fall and exile from Eden are fixed in the Bible and considered a sphere of religious and mythological, but not a historical component of the Holy Scripture. Textual analysis of the second chapter of «The Book of Genesis» gives grounds to consider Eden a real geographical object, which limits correspond to the territories of today’s Tabriz Valley. Description of paradise garden, where Adam, created by God, was not aware of death and was richly fed, not making any additional efforts, is a peculiar human memory of an era of early pre-Neolithic being. «The exile from Eden» – is an era in history, when «unproblematic» life of primitive men was finished because of lack of the natural resourses, quantity of which was deficient for survival. It made people to occupy territories beyond the original range of their existence. The second result of «the exile from paradise» was a curse of Adam, as since then he had to get food «by the sweat of his brow». Modern scientific terminology calls it «Neolithic revolution», i.e. transition from the foraging to the agriculture, when human had to master the art of tilling for growing food. Inverse chronological calculation method of generations of biblical patriarchs allows to date this historical fracture by the first half – the middle of III millennium BC. The third result of «the exile from paradise» was declared loss of human’s immortality. The emergence of reproductive economy, when a person began to plow the ground, dig channels, build dams, pasture livestock and in such way «get the daily bread», intensified the development of protoscientific knowledge, which resulted in human’s awareness of finality of his personal physical existence. The Bible redefines this fact as the loss of «eternity» by human.

Keywords: The Book of Genesis, Eden, Neolithic revolution, Biblical geography, Biblical chronology.
THE PROSOPOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF MITHRIDATES VI EUPATOR’S INNER CIRCLE (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE MONUMENT OF MITHRIDATES, DELOS)

THE PROSOPOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF MITHRIDATES VI EUPATOR’S INNER CIRCLE (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE MONUMENT OF MITHRIDATES, DELOS)

Authors: A. Soroka
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of Pontic king Mithridates VI Eupator’s closest associates in the period of preparation for confrontation with Rome and is based on materials of the Monument of Mithridates in the sanctuary of the Samothracian Gods which was constructed in 101-102 B.C. on the island of Delos. The sculptural portraits of 12 persons and a king’s sculpture are represented at the Monument of Mithridates. However, we are able to make precise investigation of only 8 portraits and inscriptions because of destruction the other ones. At the article it is depicted the reasons of the Monument’s construction, which had based in dissemination of Pontic kingdom’s political and cultural influence in the Aegean Sea and establishment of allied connections and commemoration of the king’s power. An internal characteristics of the Monument and the history of its investigation by French School at Athens and by the modern scientists are determined. The article represents information upon narrative ancient sources, archaeological and epigraphical sources. The content of inscriptions and importance of 8 persons (childhood friends and soldiers Gaius, Dorilaus Philetaerus, Diophantus, the kings Ariarathes VII, Antiochus VIII and Mithridates ІІ, fiduciaries Asklepiodorus and Papius), whose portraits were set up in the Monument of Mithridates, in private life, domestic policy and military campaign of Mithridates VI against Roman Republic are analysed. The methodological base includes approaches of comparison, analysis, synthesis and principles of historicism, sequence, complexity.

Keywords: Mithridates VI Eupator, the Monument of Mithradates, Pontic kingdom, Roman Republic, Delos
THE AFTERWORLD IMAGE OF THE CLASSIC MAYA ON THE EPIGRAPHS FROM THE ‘TEMPLE OF THE INSCRIPTIONS’ IN PALENQUE, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

THE AFTERWORLD IMAGE OF THE CLASSIC MAYA ON THE EPIGRAPHS FROM THE ‘TEMPLE OF THE INSCRIPTIONS’ IN PALENQUE, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

Authors: V. Talakh
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Abstract

The article deals with the interpretation problems of the figures and the translation of the epigraphs from the Classic Maya language, that had been found in the Temple of the Inscriptions – the funerary monument for K'inich Janaab' Pakal, the ruler of Palenque in VII century. The author made a translation of the inscriptions from Maya language into Ukrainian. The indicated images and inscriptions convey the idea of the eternal posthumous life of the ruler with the gods and ancestors. This interpretation is in contradiction with typical representations of the classical Maya on the degeneration of the dead, since the inscriptions in the Temple of the Inscriptions are unique and similar are not found on other monuments. The author supposed, that during the reign of K'inich Janaab' Pakal there had been a religious reform, which was reflected in the change of representations of the afterlife being by the Maya people in Classic period.

Keywords: classic Maya, Palenque, K'inich Janaab' Pakal I, Pacal the Great, Temple of the Inscriptions, afterlife being

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