Journal of Regional and City Planning

Journal of Regional and City Planning

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  • Publisher: ITB Publisher
  • Country of publisher: indonesia
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/15

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  • Language of fulltext: english

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  • Year open access content began: 1990
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
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This journal has '35' articles

Enhancing the Stability of the Improved-LEACH Routing Protocol for WSNs

Enhancing the Stability of the Improved-LEACH Routing Protocol for WSNs

Authors: Ammar S. Al-Zubaidi, Ahmad Alauddin Ariffin, Abdulrahman K. Al-Qadhi
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Abstract

Recently, increasing battery lifetime in wireless sensor networks has turned out to be one of the major challenges faced by researchers. The sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks use a battery as their power source, which is hard to replace during deployment. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is one of the most prominent wireless sensor network routing protocols that have been proposed to improve network lifetime by utilizing energy-efficient clustering. However, LEACH has some issues related to cluster-head selection, where the selection is done randomly. This leads to rapid loss of energy in the network. Improved LEACH is a LEACH alternative that has the ability to increase network lifetime by using the nodes’ residual energy and their distance to the base station to select cluster-head nodes. However, Improved LEACH causes reduced stability, where the stability period is the duration before the death of the first node. The network stability period is important for applications that require reliable feedback from the network. Thus, we were motivated to investigate the Improved LEACH algorithm and to try to solve the stability problem. A new protocol is proposed in this paper: Stable Improved Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (SILEACH), which was developed to overcome the flaws of the Improved LEACH protocol. SILEACH balances the load between the nodes by utilizing an optimized method that considers the nodes’ distance to the base station and their residual energy to select the cluster-head nodes and considers the nodes’ distance to the cluster head and the base station to form clusters. The simulation results revealed that SILEACH is significantly more efficient than Improved LEACH in terms of stability period and network lifetime.

Keywords: improved LEACH; network lifetime; node stability; SILEACH; WSN
The Changing Structure of China’s Pearl River Delta Megacity Region

The Changing Structure of China’s Pearl River Delta Megacity Region

Authors: Junru Song, Min Zhao
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Abstract

Based on traditional spatial gravity interaction models, urban quality and the time it takes for people or goods to move between cities are strongly correlated and the extent to which cities are integrated or have the capacity to become integrated into an interconnected urban network changes as travel time between cities changes. This paper analyses China’s Pearl River Delta (PRD) megacity region based on a modified gravity model combined with spatial analysis. It also analyzes economic relations between cities within the PRD megacity region, and compares China’s recent ‘new-style’ urbanization planning in Guangdong Province – the region’s largest and economically most important province – with planning for Guangdong that pre-dated China’s 2014 National New Style Urbanization Plan. The results show that PRD is now a bi-polar megacity region dominated by Guangzhou and Shenzhen and that four out of six cities the province planned to integrate into the core after 2005 have been integrated, but two have not. In order to build a successful global urban region, PRD needs to continue to improve its core, accelerate the integration of city clusters that can realistically be integrated, continue to study the integration potential of cities with less development potential and pay attention to balanced development of peripheral cities.

Keywords: Pearl River Delta, the gravity model, economic spatial connection.
Historic Institutionalism and Urban Morphology in Jakarta: Moving Towards Building Flood Resiliency into the Formal Planning and Development System

Historic Institutionalism and Urban Morphology in Jakarta: Moving Towards Building Flood Resiliency into the Formal Planning and Development System

Authors: David Wallace Mathewson
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Abstract

This paper examines issues around flooding and rapid urban development in Jakarta, specifically the manner in which the former has influenced the spatial growth of the city over time. It takes a historic-institutionalism perspective within the context of changing government responses to flood management, where previous approaches failed to take into consideration existing local ecology, flood patterns and natural drainage systems. Jakarta is slowly moving towards more sustainable and resilient approaches to flood management through pilot programmes aimed at reclaiming or restoring water bodies while creating urban green space to assist with water absorption, despite the local government not having incorporated sustainable flood management systems or mitigation measures into the formal planning system. This paper shows how flooding has influenced spatial development and urban morphology in the city historically, which has led the city administration to the realisation that new approaches are required. The methodology includes document and literature research, GIS as well as satellite based mapping and imagery to determine spatial development patterns and where additional mitigation measures may be required, as well as flooding and drainage documentation. The paper reveals a series of potential strategies for the initial stages of planning policy implementation and a potential framework for developing planning-incorporated measures at a wider scale across Jakarta’s affected areas. This study has wide implications for a number of large developing cities in the Global South that face multiple development challenges in addition to flooding.

Keywords: Historic institutionalism, urban morphology, flood resiliency, urban planning.
A Regional, Strategic Growth-Management Approach to Urban and Peri-Urban Development in South East Queensland, Australia

A Regional, Strategic Growth-Management Approach to Urban and Peri-Urban Development in South East Queensland, Australia

Authors: Bhishna Bajracharya, Peter Hastings
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Abstract

The approach and efficacy of South East Queensland’s (Australia) regional planning strategy to manage urban and peri-urban growth is described and discussed from document analysis. Framed within the urban containment paradigm, the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2017 establishes specific principles and statutory planning controls to direct the spatial distribution of growth while attempting to preserve natural, cultural and productive landscapes and overall liveability. Identification of desired regional growth patterns, coordinated governance, economic and infrastructure development, and plan monitoring are key attributes of a framework that has generally resulted in acceptable regional outcomes. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain for containing urban growth and maintaining regional resilience and sustainability amidst continuing growth pressures. This paper highlights three contemporary issues of interest: greater recognition and delineation of peri-urban areas, integration of regional planning and disaster management, and growth management of peri-urban master planned communities. The need for ongoing, independent plan evaluation is also identified.

Keywords: Urban development, regional planning, peri-urban development, growth management, governance, South East Queensland
Urban Innovation System and the Role of an Open Web-based Platform: The Case of Amsterdam Smart City

Urban Innovation System and the Role of an Open Web-based Platform: The Case of Amsterdam Smart City

Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra, Wim G.M. van der Knaap
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Abstract

This study discusses an urban innovation system and the role of digital technology using the Amsterdam Smart City as a case. Based on semi-structured interviews and document analysis, this study reveals that Amsterdam Smart City can be considered an example of a new type of urban innovation system. There are nine actor categories involved with either a one-sided or a bi-directional relationship between them in this innovation system. The actors dynamically interact with each other in different innovation phases based on their interests and resources. Besides, the use of an open web-based platform to connect actors and to exchange information in the innovation system makes the information distributed fairly and transparently among actors. Additionally, more actors can be reached to join the innovation system. There is also no geographical limitation between actors to collaborate and innovate on a specific idea. Therefore, dynamic interactions between actors that are facilitated by an open web-based platform can be a new way of developing an innovation system in urban areas.

Keywords: Urban innovation system, smart city, digital technology
Urban Renewal and Growth Opportunity Barriers of Microenterprises: Between Working Space Scarceness and Incongruity in Shashemene City, Ethiopia

Urban Renewal and Growth Opportunity Barriers of Microenterprises: Between Working Space Scarceness and Incongruity in Shashemene City, Ethiopia

Authors: Tarekegn Girma Fanta, Tebarek Lika Megento
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Abstract

In Ethiopia lack of working space/business premises is one of the external growth opportunity barriers for microenterprises resulting in inefficient absorption of the large labor pool currently entering into this sector of the economy. It also results in sever competition among businesses for city space, leading to street vending and informal business. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the challenges faced by microenterprises pertinent to shortage of working space. A total of 564 samples (304 and 260 enterprise in old but transformed buildings and newly built buildings in the city, respectively) were selected using simple random sampling. For this particular study an embedded mixed research design (EMRD, one methodology within another one) was applied. The data were collected using a survey questionnaire, GIS and interviewes. The obtained quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and qualitative techniques, description and narration. The findings presented in this paper show the prevalence of working space scarceness and incongruity in Shashemene city. Thus, it can be suggested that the city need to revisit urban land leasehold proclamation performance, urban renewal initiative progress, and old business premises’ transfer procedures, and also integrate local trade unions/chambers of commerce synergy and firms’ growing working space demand.

Keywords: Urban, renewal, microbusiness, working space
Research on the City Network of Guangdong, Hongkong and Macao from the Perspective of Information Flow: Analysis based on Baidu Index

Research on the City Network of Guangdong, Hongkong and Macao from the Perspective of Information Flow: Analysis based on Baidu Index

Authors: Qixuan Wang, Min Zhao
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Abstract

In the context of the rapid development of informatization and globalization, the theoretical methods of urban scholars have shifted from a ‘space of places’ appraoch, which looks at geographical areas, to a ‘space of flows’ approach, which is based on flows of people, goods, capital, and information between cities. The rapid development of the Internet makes the connections between cities more dynamic than ever before. The subject of this study are cities in three provincial administrative units in Southern China: Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao. The development of the Internet provides an opportunity to analyse the relationships between the cities in this region from the viewpoint of information flow. Using the area distribution model in Baidu Index (a website of the Baidu company), this study recorded the web search volume, simulated the information flows, and analysed the network correlation degrees between the cities in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau. The conclusions are: (1) from the perspective of information flow, the city network in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has a clear ‘core-periphery’ structure, which amplifies the difference in urban hierarchy between big and small cities; (2) the cities in the traditional Pearl River Delta core region have a stronger ability to aggregate information flows and geographical proximity reflects information flow; (3) information flows between the cities in Guangdong and Hong Kong and Macao are not smooth, and thus needs to be improved.

Keywords: City network, area of Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau, information flow, Baidu Index
Changing the Mindset to Encourage Innovation in Resolving Problems in the Built Environment: Exploring the Role of Online Gaming Platforms to Deliver Collaborative Learning and Teaching

Changing the Mindset to Encourage Innovation in Resolving Problems in the Built Environment: Exploring the Role of Online Gaming Platforms to Deliver Collaborative Learning and Teaching

Authors: Shahed Khan, Julie Brunner, David Gibson
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Abstract

As educators we seek to set up meaningful graduate attributes to encourage creativity and a drive for innovation among our graduates in order to produce professionals not content with learning how to do more of the same, but who have the courage to push the boundaries of their profession and innovate. Referring to preparatory research on work in progress at Curtin University, we explored the capacity of team teaching using online gaming platform technology. We investigated the feasibility of engaging teams of students in practical applications of theoretical concepts of communicative and collaborative planning and decision-making, along with the dynamics and politics of community consultation in a pluralistic society. We ascertained the potential of developing students’ interpersonal and intercultural skills to develop collaborative partnerships through engagement with fellow students and a wide range of stakeholders/partners, simulating real-life situations using serious gaming platforms. It is contended that through a collaborative and experiential learning-approach to teaching and by employing state-of-the-art online gaming/teaching platforms, we could enable students to deal with real-life issues in simulated and sufficiently supervised conditions to encourage creativity and risk taking. This would encourage students to strive for creativity in solving contextual problems in their search for innovative solutions to complex and wicked problems. It is also contended that state-of-the-art delivery of curricula could free up academics during teaching sessions to concentrate on inspiring students to explore innovative and creative solutions for these problems.

Keywords: Creativity, innovation, collaborative learning and teaching, online gaming platform, wicked problems.
Mitigating Climate Change Related Floods in Urban Poor Areas: Green Infrastructure Approach

Mitigating Climate Change Related Floods in Urban Poor Areas: Green Infrastructure Approach

Authors: Fahmyddin Araaf Tauhid, Hoferdy Zawani
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Abstract

Natural disasters continue to hit urban areas worldwide, undermining community resilience capacity. The combination of increasing precipitation because of climate change, sea level rise, and uncontrolled rapid urbanization bring greater risk of flooding impacts in urban areas. Such flooding has a disproportionate effect on the urban poor, who often live in informal settlements. Meanwhile, the rapid expansion of informal settlements encroaching on floodplains that restrict the storage of flood waters and the expansion of impermeable urban surfaces also contribute to the increasing magnitude and frequency of flooding. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge the urban poor as the most vulnerable community and also as key party in mitigation efforts. Although mitigation measures are currently in place to lessen the impact of climate change related floods in urban poor areas, little attention has been given to the use of green infrastructure as a mitigation strategy. Hence, this study aimed to examine current practices of green infrastructure (GI) in urban poor areas of Kibera (Kenya), Madurai (India) and Old Fadama (Ghana) to mitigate climate related flood impacts. Using the multiple case study method, it was investigated how urban stakeholders address and overcome the critical issues of governance, finance and awareness to secure the success of GI implementation. It was found that GI requires comprehensive understanding of political, social, economic and environmental aspects of the urban poor population to secure the success of initiatives, while cohesive cooperation and full participation of urban stakeholders is the key.

Keywords: Mitigation, climate change, flood, urban poor, green infrastructure
Community Capacity Building in Social Forestry Development: A Review

Community Capacity Building in Social Forestry Development: A Review

Authors: Pujo Pujo, Tubagus Furqon Sofhani, Budhi Gunawan, Tati Suryati Syamsudin
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Abstract

Social forestry has shifted the forestry development paradigm from conventional forest management to community-based forest management. The history of community-based forest management in Java began with the Dutch colonial policy on forest production in 1873 and today it has grown widely, both within and outside forest areas. However, social forestry has not been able to overcome population pressure problems in the form of deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is crucial to recognize and elevate the role of local communities in forest management. Success of social forestry can be achieved by developing cooperation through capacity building of local communities with community-based forest management. To develop community capacity, it is necessary to understand the basic concept of community capacity building in the social forestry system. A review of community capacity in social forestry is useful for developing a conceptual framework of local community capacity in the development of the social forestry system. Community capacity in the social forestry system is developed to realize forest sustainability and community welfare around the forest.

Keywords: Community, capacity building, social forestry
Understanding Vertical Urban Development in Changing the Spatial Movement of Residents Using Agent-based Modelling Approach

Understanding Vertical Urban Development in Changing the Spatial Movement of Residents Using Agent-based Modelling Approach

Authors: Agung Wahyudi
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Abstract

Vertical urban development (VUD) flourishes in various cities that pursue the vision of a compact and sustainable urban development. The implementations of VUD have yielded positive impacts for both the government and the public by reducing the transport cost for residents and increasing accessibility. Despite implementation of VUD offering various advantages in urban planning, the majority of past urban models represent urban growth as an expansive type of development. Hence, the implementation of VUD in urban modelling has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of VUD on the movement of residents by differentiating building height. Using an agent-based modelling approach on a synthetic case study, the simulation results revealed a reduced level of agents’ movement on non-built up land while an increased movement was observed around and within built-up land. The preliminary findings of this research reveal the quantitative impact of VUD on resident movement.

Keywords: Agent-based model, transit-oriented development, vertical development
Is Decentralisation Compatible with the Application of Performance Management? The Impacts of Minimum Service Standards on the Motivation of Local Government to Improve Service Delivery in the Indonesian Decentralised System

Is Decentralisation Compatible with the Application of Performance Management? The Impacts of Minimum Service Standards on the Motivation of Local Government to Improve Service Delivery in the Indonesian Decentralised System

Authors: Mohammad Roudo
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Abstract

The extent to which decentralisation is compatible with effective performance management that is able to influence the motivation of public sector bodies has been a subject of limited attention in the academic literature. This paper contributes to that limited debate by investigating the extent to which minimum service standards (MSS), a performance management tool directed at local government service delivery, influences the motivation of local governments in highly decentralised systems, such as that in Indonesia. The two research questions are: (a) what influence does MSS have on the motivation of local governments to improve their service delivery performance, and (b) to what extent does decentralisation influence the implementation of performance management. The information used to answer these questions is taken from semi-structured interviews with eighty-three respondents from central government, district and city governments, and the non-governmental sector. The results of this study show that MSS, with its characteristic minimum thresholds, can lead to different patterns of motivation in local governments to improve service delivery. However, MSS only motivates better performance amongst those local governments whose current performance falls just below the required standard. It does not appear to motivate those who are well above or well below the standards. This study also showed the limitations of centrally led performance management systems like MSS to improve performance. They are constrained by the decentralised nature of the system, wherein the autonomy of local governments has to be respected. This implies that decentralisation is, to some extent, not compatible with effective performance management and attempts to improve local service delivery, which requires strong enforcement and effective incentives. However, this does not mean that MSS has no impact at all. Although the impact is limited, MSS, to an extent, helps to improve central-local dialogue in service delivery. This could be a good starting point for the improvement of public services in districts and cities in the future.

Keywords: Minimum service standards (MSS), decentralisation, performance management, public services, local government
The Spatial Transformation of Traditional Rural Villages Driven by Private Investment 
in China’s Developed Areas: 
The Case of Daxi Village, Anji County

The Spatial Transformation of Traditional Rural Villages Driven by Private Investment in China’s Developed Areas: The Case of Daxi Village, Anji County

Authors: Simin Yan, Chen Chen
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Abstract

Restricted by political ideology and institutional barriers, the development of rural China has in the past relied heavily on government spending. However, with institutional reform and the development of a market economy, private investment is playing an increasingly important role in rural development, especially in traditional rural villages. Daxi village in Anji County of Zhejiang Province is a typical case. Investment in the Tianhuangping Hydropower Station and the Beautiful Villlages policy supported by the public sector (government and state-owned enterprises) have been important driving forces in attracting private investments in rural tourism and have had a profound impact on the physical, economic and social space of Daxi village. This research used interviews with key subjects, including government officials, non-local investors and returned migrants, and a questionnaire survey among local residents. It was found that with the growth of private investment, location, transportation, natural resources, development policies and superior human resources are the most important factors that drive spatial transformation. Finally, it also offers a discussion on how the Daxi model may shed light on rural development in developing countries with an urban-rural dichotomy.

Keywords: Spatial transformation, private investment, rural development, Daxi village
An Analysis of the Level of Development in Malang Regency Based on a Typology of Development Regions

An Analysis of the Level of Development in Malang Regency Based on a Typology of Development Regions

Authors: Zulfikar Mohamad Yamin Latuconsina, Ernan Rustiadi, Sahara Sahara
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Abstract

A regionalization approach seeks to manage and to achieve development goals in line with regional characteristics. The development system of Malang Regency is conducted through regionalization approach that divided the area into six development regions (DR). Considering that each region has diverse characteristics/typology, describing this typology is the key to map the conditions and problems and to formulate alternative solutions. Thus, the main objective of the research is to analyze the development level of Malang Regency based on a typology of development regions. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) Analyzing the economic diversification in the development regions; (2) Analyzing the hierarchy of development regions; and (3) Analyzing the level of accessibility of the development regions. The research methods include entropy diversity index, scalogram, the level of accessibility (road density index and connectivity index) and cluster analyses. The results show that cluster analysis with proportional and comprehensive variables is able to describe the typology of development regions of Malang Regency, which are divided into three clusters, i.e.: (1) DR I Malang City Ring as the only cluster with a has high development level, (2) DR II Kepanjen, DR IV Tumpang, WP V Turen and Dampit have a medium development level (3) DR III Ngantang and DR VI Sumbermanjing Wetan have a low development level.

Keywords: Regional development, regionalization approach, regional typology, development region.
Spatial Autocorrelation on Public Facility Availability Index with Neighborhoods Weight Difference

Spatial Autocorrelation on Public Facility Availability Index with Neighborhoods Weight Difference

Authors: Khursatul Munibah, Widiatmaka Widiatmaka, Hermanu Widjaja
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Abstract

The level of regional development is marked by high availability of public facilities, such as education, health, economic, social facilities and their accessibility. A higher of index of public facility availability means a region can support human activities well, including the economic sector. Spatial patterns of public facility availability in Cianjur Regency were analized by global and local spatial autocorrelation based on the Moran’s index and the local indicator spatial association (LISA) index, respectively. A spatial weighted matrix (wij) for Moran’I and LISA calculated based on nearest neighbor, neighbor boundary length and neighbor distance. The result showed that differences in the spatial weighted matrix of Moran’s index does not affect the spatial pattern but they do affect the Moran’s I values for nearest neighbor, neighbor boundary length and neighbor distance, at 0.30; 0.22 and 0.33, respectively. Differences in the spatial weighted matrix of LISA index showed that 97% of districts have the same scatter plot and only 3% of districts have different scatter plot. The spatial pattern type of public facility evailability in Cianjur Regency is cluster where the nothern Cianjur cluster is in HH category and the central-southern Cianjur cluster is in the LL category.

Keywords: LISA index, Moran’s index, spatial pattern, spatial weighted matrix

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