Eksakta: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu MIPA

Eksakta: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu MIPA

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  • Publisher: Universitas Islam Indonesia
  • Country of publisher: indonesia
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/15

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  • LCC Subject Category: Chemistry, Applied, Chemistry, Applied
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  • Language of fulltext: english

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  • Waiver policy for charges? No

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  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2010
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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This journal has '52' articles

Saccharin Extraction And Analysis Of Drug And Food Samples By Derivative Ultraviolet (UV) Spectrophotometry

Saccharin Extraction And Analysis Of Drug And Food Samples By Derivative Ultraviolet (UV) Spectrophotometry

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Saccharin extraction and analysis of drug and food samples was investegated by spectrophotometry ultraviolet (uv) derivative method were studied. The saccharin extraction was carried out using solvent of ethanol/chloroform (2:8 v/v). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the proposed method were 0.50 ppm and 1.82 ppm for the second order and 0.47 ppm and 1.58 ppm for the fourth, while for the zero order were 2,75 ppm and 8,55 ppm. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 20-100 ppm (R2= 0.996 for the second order and R2=0.997 for the fourth). The percent recovery of saccharin was in the range 95.20-104.40% for the second order and 97.20-102.40% for the fourth. The range of saccharin concentration (w/w) in drugs, candies and toothpaste for the fourth derivative were 1.39±0.02 mg/kg until 7.15±0.05 mg/kg, 0.21±0.01 mg/kg until 2.09±0.01 mg/kg, and 0.15±0.03 mg/kg until 0.63±0.04 mg/kg, respectively.

Keywords: analysis; derivative UV spectrophotometry; extraction; saccharin
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN WEST KALIMANTAN PROVINCE USING DATA PANEL DATA REGRESSION

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN WEST KALIMANTAN PROVINCE USING DATA PANEL DATA REGRESSION

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Development in the country is growing including in the West Borneo Province. However in 2015, the achievement of human development at the National level is quite low, while the District and City varied considerably. Human Development Index is one of the parameter for human development that are affected by many factors. In this paper, analysis for identify the factors for human development index in West Kalimantan Province by using Regression Analysis was conducted. Regression was based on time series data from 2012 until 2015. It is found that Fixed Effect Model is the best regression model with the R2 of 0.99853%. The influencing variables are Life Expectancy (AHH), Adjusted Per Capita (Expenditure), School Average (RLS), School Expectation (HLS), and Gross Regional Domestic Product at Constant Price (GRDP).

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Model Analysis of Motorcycle Suspension System Using the Fourth Order of Runge-Kutta Method

Model Analysis of Motorcycle Suspension System Using the Fourth Order of Runge-Kutta Method

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Abstract

The suspension system is part of motorcycle that serves to absorb vibration and shocks of the road surface so as to improve the safety and comfort while driving. Motorcycle typically use double shockbreaker system which analogous to a two-spring system arranged in parallel. The aim of this researh is to analyze the model of the model of double shockbreaker motorcycle suspension system that working without outside force using passive suspension system. The data used are from damper tester experiment, then model analyzed using analytical method and the fourth order of numerical Runge-Kutta method. This research use shockbreaker observation datas that is the measurment data of spring constant and damping constant by performing damper tester using 4 different loads. The process model analysis using Matlab R2013a. Input variables are spring constant, damping constant, and the mass of the load. Methods of analysis using analytical method and the fourth order of Runge-Kutta method. While the resulting outputs are 2 spring constants, change the length of the spring, damping ratio, the optimal damping of the suspension, and the spring deflection chart against time. This model motorcycle suspension system uses solution of differential equations for the under damped suspension condition, that is the suspension system will be insulated a few moments before reaching the equilibrium position. Therefore, the resulting damping rate of the motorcycle is not optimal yet. This study found the optimal damping for each model of the suspension system. The level of accuracy of the fourth order of runge-kutta method for model analysis of the suspension system is quite high with error <0.1 and the timing of analysis is faster than the analytic method. Future research may use other methods or other input variables for more accurate analysis results.

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Green Catalysts Activities of CaO Nanoparticles from Pinctada maxima Shell on Alcoholysis Reaction

Green Catalysts Activities of CaO Nanoparticles from Pinctada maxima Shell on Alcoholysis Reaction

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Pinctada maxima shells from West Nusa Tenggara has natural minerals called calcite that can be decomposed into CaO compounds as a green catalyst that heterogeneous, base and environmentally friendly. CaO compounds in the nanometer scale is one option as an alternative substitute or replacement of the use of homogeneous catalysts. The purpose of this study was to test the catalytic activity of CaO compound from the pearl shells (P. maxima) based on particle size. The catalytic activity test has been measured against the percentage of yield of methyl ester produced by alcoholysis reaction. Characterization of nano-CaO compounds has been done using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), scanning electron microscope energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), while methyl esters has been analyzed using the ASTM method. CaO catalyst on the nanometer-scale have more effective catalytic activity than micrometer scale with the yield percentage of methyl ester obtained are 81,61% and 30,71%, respectively. The results of methyl ester characterization by ASTM method has shown that methyl ester has specification that are close to diesel oil, so it can be used as an alternative or substitution on diesel engine.

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Rapid Analysis of Adulterated Dexamethasone in Joint-Pain Killer Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using Infrared Spectroscopy

Rapid Analysis of Adulterated Dexamethasone in Joint-Pain Killer Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using Infrared Spectroscopy

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Abstract

A rapid, non-destructive and reagent-free infrared spectroscopy combined with Partial Least Square (PLS) has been developed for the dexamethasone quantification in joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine (THM). The main aim of this study is to select the best wavenumbers that are capable of providing the high coefficient of determination (R2), low values of Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC), Root Mean Square Error of Cross Validation (RMSECV) and predictive residual error sum of squares (PRESS). Finally, wavenumbers 3646, 3642, 2461, 2453, 2432, 2406, 2229, 2209, 2197, 2097, 2092, 2064, 2059, 2047, 2026, 2009, 1969, and 1513 cm-1 were selected for the prediction of dexamethasone in the joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine. The correlation between the actual values of dexamethasone determined in joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine using infrared spectroscopy combined with PLS revealed the R2 values of 0.9988. The RMSEC values obtained 0,009455. The PRESS and RMSECV value obtained as the results of cross-validation model selection for dexamethasone in joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine were 0,0022721.00 and 0,02902, respectively. The high value of R2 and low value of RMSEC, RMSECV and PRESS indicated that this method had high accuracy and precision in a validated condition for the dexamethasone quantification in the joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine. These results indicated that infrared spectroscopy combined with PLS can be an alternative method for the dexamethasone determination in joint-pain killer traditional herbal medicine.his part contains English version of the abstract. The abstract presents background, method of the research/ literary study and discussion. The abstract consist of maximum 300 words. All sentence must represent the core of research presented in good structure of sentences.

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Forecasting The Exchange Rate (IDR) of US Dollar (USD) Using Locally Stationary Wavelet

Forecasting The Exchange Rate (IDR) of US Dollar (USD) Using Locally Stationary Wavelet

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Abstract

Currency exchange rate of a country to the other countries is fluctuative. The movement of the exchange rate affects the country’s economy. The exchange rate can change any time according to the market mechanism, therefore currency exchange predictions is required to determine future economic policy. Based on the impact of exchange rate in economy fluctuations, an accurate model is needed to determine the exchange rate movements. In this case, the model is Locally Stationary Wavelet (LSW). This model combines stocastic process class based on wavelet non decimated. LSW model can catch most of the information in time series data. Based on the application of LSW mtehod on the data of the rupiah against the US dollar for the period April 2016 - March 2017, it can be concluded that model provides forecasting results approaching actual data therefore it can be used for forecasting exchange rates. The value of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 0,1201293%.

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Protoporphyrin IX Extraction from Quail Eggshell (Cortunix cortunix) and Its Complexity with Zn(II)

Protoporphyrin IX Extraction from Quail Eggshell (Cortunix cortunix) and Its Complexity with Zn(II)

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to find the optimal condition for Zn(II) complexation with protoporphyrin IX which is a natural coloring pigment on quail eggshell. The concentration of protoporphyrin IX extract is 0.01% (w / w) of the dried extract. The results of the complex are analyzed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The design used was central composite design with 3 factor variables X1 = pH (2; 4; 6), X2 = ratios (1: 3,1: 4,1: 5) and X3 = time (30 ', 60', 90 '). The modeling used is linear and shows that the pH, ratio, and time factor have an influence on the complexation. This model gives the absorbance equation Y = 2.12506 - 0.049856X1 - 020316X2 - 0,00409857X3 and gives treatment in the most optimum complexation of pH 2; ratio of 1: 3; and time for 30 minutes with the absorbance of 1,293 and the desirability value of 0.825.

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Comparison the Error Rate of Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Vector Autoregressive (VAR) (Case study: Forecast of Export Quantities in DIY)

Comparison the Error Rate of Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Vector Autoregressive (VAR) (Case study: Forecast of Export Quantities in DIY)

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Abstract

Forecasting is estimating the size or number of something in the future. Regression model that enters current independent variable value, and lagged value is called distributed-lag model, if it enters one or more lagged value, it is called autoregressive. Koyck method is used for dynamic model which the lagged length is unknown, for the known lagged length it is used the Almon method. Vector Autoregressive (VAR) is a method that explains every variable in the model depend on the lag movement from the variable itself and all the others variable. This research aimed to explain the application of Autoregressive distributed-lag model and Vector Autoregressive (VAR) method for the forecasting for export amount in DIY. It takes export amount in DIY and inflation data, kurs, and Indonesias foreign exchange reserve. Forecasting formation: defining Koyck and Almon distributed-lag dynamic model, then the best model is chosen and distribution-lag dynamic forecasting is performed. After that it is performed stationary test, co-integration test, optimal lag examination, granger causality test, parameter estimation, VAR model stability, and performs forecasting with VAR method. The forecasting result shows MAPE value from ARDL method obtained is 0.475812%, while MAPE value from VAR method is 0.464473%. Thus it can be concluded that Vector Autoregressive (VAR) method is more effective to be used in case study of export amount in DIY forecasting.

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An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

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Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Kaptopril Tablets Using Threaded Amylum Tubes and HPMC as Fillers and Binders of the Direct Method

Formulation and Evaluation of Kaptopril Tablets Using Threaded Amylum Tubes and HPMC as Fillers and Binders of the Direct Method

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Indonesia is a tropical country which has many potential plants as excipients, like starches and tubers. Amylum of taro tuber (Colocasia esculenta) has the potential to be developed into excipient but its use is limited. The purpose of this study was to optimize the formulation and to evaluate the characteristics of captopril tablets by using amylum of taro tuber and HPMC modified as filler and binder on direct compression method. Amylum of taro tuber was obtained by extraction process, then combined with HPMC by partial pregelatination and co-process method. Variation of the starch was divided into five formulation. The main test included friability test, hardness test, dissolution test, and assay. The data analysis was done by theoretical approach between the evaluation result and the literature to observe the result of the modification formulation. It indicated that the combination of equal amount of taro amylum and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pH 102 (50% : 50%) has the best result among others. Friability percentage was 0.17 ± 0.07%, disintegration time was 12.09 ± 0.52 minutes, assay was 97.88 ± 1.71% and dissolution test results was 90.65 ± 4.81%.

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Determination of Phytochemical Compounds (Tannins, Saponins and Flavonoids) as Quercetin In Inggu Leaf Extract (Ruta angustifolia L.)

Determination of Phytochemical Compounds (Tannins, Saponins and Flavonoids) as Quercetin In Inggu Leaf Extract (Ruta angustifolia L.)

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Empirically, Inggu leaves (Ruta angustifolia L.) has potential to be used as raw material of traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substances. The main organ most widely used as a traditional medicine is its leaves. Phytochemical compounds contained in the leaves of inggu include quercetin, tannin and saponins. Quercetin is a class of flavonol compounds (part of flavonoids). Quercetin has the ability to prevent the oxidation process from low density lipoprotein (LDL) by capturing free radicals and inhibiting transition metals, so that quercetin is believed to protect the body from various degerative diseases. While flavonoids are compounds consisting of 15 carbon atoms that act as plant pigments. The function of flavonoids is to protect the cell structure, increase the effectiveness of vitamin C, antiinflammatory and as an antibiotic. While saponin and tannin are a group of active compounds of plants that have a sense of bitter and have antibacterial activity. This study was aim to determine the number of quercetin, tannins and saponins contained in the inggu’s leaves. Preparation of inggu leaf sample was done by maceration extraction technique used 96% ethanol solvent. Analysis of tannin and quercetin levels was determined by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry at 725 nm wavelength (λ).While the analysis of saponin content using TLC Scanner at 301 nm wavelength (λ). The results showed that content of quercetin was 1.67%; saponins 2.13% and tannins 7.04%.

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Effervescent Tablet Formulation Melinjo Seed Extract (Gnetum gnemon L.) Using PEG 6000 As Lubricant and Citric Acid - Tartaric Acids As Acid Sources

Effervescent Tablet Formulation Melinjo Seed Extract (Gnetum gnemon L.) Using PEG 6000 As Lubricant and Citric Acid - Tartaric Acids As Acid Sources

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Melinjo seeds (Gnetum gnemon L.) have antioxidant properties one of which is from phenol compounds. However, there is no pharmaceutical dosage form of melinjo seeds especially effervescent tablet. The purpose of this research was to determine the best variation of citric-tartaric acid and PEG 6000 from effervescent tablet of melinjo seed extract. The effervescent tablet of melinjo seed extract were formulated with variation of citric-tartaric acid 25%:75%, 65%:35%, 50%:50%, 20%:80% and PEG 6000 0%, 2%, 3%, up to 5%. The effervescent tablet were made by melting parts of acids and bases, added with extract and other ingredients. The evaluation included flow and powder tapping, tablet hardness, weight variation, friability, and tablet solubility test. The data were analyzed by comparing approaches based on the requirements of Pharmacopeia Indonesia V andUnited States of Pharmacopeia 36.Variations of equal amount of citric-tartaric acid produced hard effervescent tablets with small friability. The unbalanced acid concentration resulted in higher friability. The greater the concentration of citric acid resulted in the longer solubility of the tablet. The addition of PEG 6000 made the flow time of granules quicker, while higher concentrations would increase the hardness of tablets and accelerate the soluble time. Excessively high concentrations resulted in a high degree of friability. Variation of citric-tartaric acid and PEG 6000 influenced physical properties of granule and effervescent tablet extract of melinjo seeds, such as flowability, hardness, friability, and solubility of the tablet.

Keywords: Gnetum gnemonL., Antioxidant, Effervescent, Citric-tartaric acid, PEG 6000
The Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity of Stem Bark of Jatropha multifida L. Against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA

The Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity of Stem Bark of Jatropha multifida L. Against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA

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Chronical wound often caused by bacteria which has antibiotic resistance characteristic and presence of biofilm formation. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal and antibiofilm activity of stem bark of Jatropha multifida L. against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA (MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus aureus), as alternative antimicrobial agents. Examination of bactericidal activity of the extract was performed by time-kill assay to determine the speed of the extract to eradicate bacteria. The inhibitory activity of extract toward biofilm production was quantified using spectrophotometric method. The extract showed bactericidal activity which can be achieved at 8 hours and 12 hours against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in MBC value of 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. The extract exhibited antibiofilm activity which indicates by its IC50 value of 0.3 mg/mL and 0.76 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. These experiments have shown the potential of the extract of Jatropha multifida L. stem bark as a bioactive substance in a topical agent for chronical skin infection.

Keywords: Jatropha multifida L., time-kill assay, antibiofilm
Estimation of Exponential Smoothing Parameter on Pesticide Characteristic Forecast using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

Estimation of Exponential Smoothing Parameter on Pesticide Characteristic Forecast using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

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Pest in agriculture can raise plant disease and fail to harvest. The pest problem in agriculture can be solved by using pesticide. Pesticide usage must be done proportionally. So, the manufacturer should fix standard pesticide active ingredient in pesticide production. Forecast is a prediction of some future evens. In forecast problem, there are any parameters which should be determined. Parameters can be estimated by exact method or heuristic method. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is inspired from the cooperative behavior of ant colonies, which can find the shortest path from their nest to a food source. In this research, we use heuristic method like ACO to estimate exponential smoothing parameter on pesticide active ingredient forecast and pesticide sample weight forecast. From the simulation, on the first iteration, all ants choose parameter randomly. At the optimization process, we update pheromone until all ants choose the similar parameter so that process converges and variance approaches to zero. The optimal exponential smoothing parameter can be applied in forecasting with minimum sum of squared error (SSE).

Keywords: Parameter estimation; Ant Colony Optimization; Exponential Smoothing
The Effect of CaO Weight from Snail Shell (Pilla Ampullacea) On Its Activity As Heterogeneous Catalyst on Biodiesel Conversion Of Bran Oil

The Effect of CaO Weight from Snail Shell (Pilla Ampullacea) On Its Activity As Heterogeneous Catalyst on Biodiesel Conversion Of Bran Oil

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Research on utilization of snail (Pilla ampullacea) shell as CaO source for biodiesel conversion from rice bran oil has been investigated. CaO was derived by calcining the shell at pada 900oC for 2 h. The powder obtained from the process was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), Fourier-Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and surface basicity test. In order to test the activity of catalyst, effect of catalyst weight on the yield of conversion as studied. Results show that the derived material is composed from dominantly CaO and the material demonstrates activity in rice bran conversion into biodiesel. Compared to NaOH, the CaO catalyst exhibits more effectively active as shown by the higher yield. From varied catalyst weight, it is obtained that at the range of 2.5-10% catalyst weight does not affect significantly to the increasing yield.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Transesterication, CaO, Reflux, Rice bran oil.

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