INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES

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  • Publisher: International Journal of Current Research in Medical Sciences
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/16

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  • Language of fulltext: english

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  • Year open access content began: 2015
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This journal has '371' articles

Pre-clinical toxicological profiling of Siddha formulation
Sambirani Poo Kuligai by Acute and Sub-acute toxicity studies
in accordance with OECD Guidelines

Pre-clinical toxicological profiling of Siddha formulation Sambirani Poo Kuligai by Acute and Sub-acute toxicity studies in accordance with OECD Guidelines

Authors: M Vijibala
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Abstract

In recent times use of traditional medicines has been conventionally increased globally. Short-term and long-term toxicity studies with rodents are generally conducted for 14 or 28 days. Results of these studies can help to predict appropriate doses of the test substance for future sub – chronic or chronic toxicity studies .It can be used to determine NOELs (No observable effect level) for some toxicology endpoints. According to the recent regulatory guidelines preclinical toxicity evaluation of the siddha formulations is mandatory to ascertain the possibility of adverse event in humans upon short and long term usage of the drugs. The main objective of the toxicity study is to establish the safety margin of the drugs at preclinical level as the siddha preparations being prescribed widely to the larger category of people since several years it’s become regulatory essential for the researcher to justify the safety in humans and animals as well. Siddha system of medicine is a traditional practice that concerns the cultural interpretation of health, disease, and illness. In siddha the practice of ethnomedicine is a complex multidisciplinary system constituting the usage of herbs that has been the source of healing for people since several centuries. Sambirani poo kuligai (SPK) is poly herbal preparation which comprises of Styrax benzoin, Felbovinum purifactum, Syzygium aromaticum and Piper betel .The main aim of the present investigation is to establish the safety profile of the test drug SPK by acute and sub-acute oral toxicities in accordance with OECD guidelines. In the acute study, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 14 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of the test drug SPK were administered for 28 days followed by this biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Results of the present investigation showed that there was no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single and repeated administration of the test drug SPK in experimental animals. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels in rats treated with SPK at both the dose levels. The results of the present investigation has provided an evidence based data’s that clearly justified that the siddha drug Sambirani poo kuligai has wide margin of safety and it didn’t alters any of the physiology, behavioral and other functional parameters of the treated animals.

Keywords: Preclinical toxicity, OECD guidelines,Siddha system, Sambirani poo kuligai, Biochemical, Hematological parameters.
Awareness and Perception of Hypertension in Oman

Awareness and Perception of Hypertension in Oman

Authors: Sanam Anwar, Ghadeer J Moslhey Hajir H Rashid, Bushra Aleem
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Abstract

Introduction: The WHO report in 2010 on country profiles estimated that non-communicable diseases account for nearly 83% of the total deaths in Oman. According to preliminary data from the World Health Survey in 2008, the community prevalence of hypertension in the country was estimated to be 40%. Three quarters of this hypertensive population were found to be unaware of their status. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of hypertension in Oman. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Oman with a pretested questionnaire on sociodemographic variables and knowledge and perception of people related to hypertension in Oman. Results: More than 80% of the people were aware that hypertension is a burden in Oman and it is an increasing health problem which is preventable. Compared to the knowledge of symptoms and complications, people were more aware of the prevention strategies. Almost 97% were of the opinion that regular physical activity, weight reduction and decreased fat intake were good prevention strategies. Overall knowledge was higher in males, young age group, with secondary or higher education and those with family history of hypertension. Conclusion: The knowledge of symptoms, risk factors, complications and preventive strategies of hypertension needs to be promoted in females, middle age group, those with less education and with no family members suffering from hypertension.

Keywords: Knowledge, hypertension, age, gender, education
Diagnostic utility of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker &
the expression of Galectin-3 in Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic
lesions of thyroid.

Diagnostic utility of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker & the expression of Galectin-3 in Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic lesions of thyroid.

Authors: Dr. Anamika Sharma, Dr. Jaspreet Singh, Dr. K.S.Chahal, Dr. Surinder Paul, Dr. N. S. Neki
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Abstract

Thyroid neoplasms constitute the most commonly occurring endocrine tumors worldwide. Owing to the wide spectrum of clinical behaviour & varied therapeutic responsiveness, early diagnosis of thyroid tumors and appropriate management will prolong the survival rate of patients. However, distinguishing various thyroid lesions by hematoxylin and eosin sections alone is really challenging to a pathologist. The use of ancillary techniques like IHC is imperative for a definite diagnosis. The present study has used Galectin-3 for differentiating the neoplastic thyroid lesions from the non-neoplastic ones. Neoplastic thyroid lesions showed predominantly a strongly positive diffuse staining intensity with Galectin while non neoplastic thyroid lesions exhibited predominantly weak staining. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of galectin -3 in distinguishing both neoplastic and non neoplastic thyroid lesions came to be 91.6% and 58.3% respectively. Positive predictive value and Negative predictive value was 68.7% and 77.7% respectively. Ki-67 labeling was found to be significantly higher in Neoplastic thyroid carcinomas than in non neoplastic tumors. Senstivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value as 80.76%, 76.16%, 67.7%, and 70.16% respectively. Conclusion: Gal-3 proves to be good candidate marker of malignancy especially in differential expression in neoplastic thyroid carcinomas when compared with non neoplastic thyroid lesions. Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining though can differentiate between neoplastic and non neoplastic thyroid lesions, it is not significantly helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid lesions.

Keywords: PTC, Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Galectin-3, Ki-67, IHC
Role of Procalcitonin as diagnostic marker in neonatal sepsis and its correlation with clinical, biochemical and
haematological profile

Role of Procalcitonin as diagnostic marker in neonatal sepsis and its correlation with clinical, biochemical and haematological profile

Authors: Utkarshni, Jaspreet Singh, Surinder Paul Kanwardeep Singh, Dr. N. S. Neki
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Abstract

Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal period particularly in the developing countries. Early diagnosis and treatment of sepsis is essential since a delay in treatment can lead to neonatal death. Different investigative techniques are assessed for usefulness, either singly or in combination, for the early detection of neonatal sepsis. The results of blood culture may be negative despite presence of bacterial infection. Therefore, early diagnosis is difficult, despite advanced bacteriological techniques. Inflammatory markers can also be used for early diagnosis such as C-reactive protein but it does not reliably differentiate between systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. Therefore, there is a need to identify a biomarker by which an infected neonate can be identified rapidly before the onset of life threatening symptoms and for the promt institution of anti-microbial therapy, which improves outcomes. Assessment of Procalcitonin (PCT) in the serum may help in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of sepsis as it is a reliable and specific biomarker.

Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, SIRS, CRP, PCT
Association between trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis
in Iranian patients: A systematic Review and meta-analysis

Association between trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis in Iranian patients: A systematic Review and meta-analysis

Authors: Khosro Jamebozorgi
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Abstract

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuro-inflammatory disease of central nervous system (CNS) which is characterized by variable evolution and different clinical manifestations. Although pain is one of the most common problems of MS patients, the presence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in a patient's life-span is rare. Considering that trigeminal neuralgia is one of the symptoms of the onset of MS, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trigeminal neuralgia in Iranian MS patients. Methods: The methods used for this systematic review were based on the "Cochrane Systematic Study Booklet" and "Appropriate Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Study (PRISMA)" tool. Observational studies conducted on general population have been added and studies conducted on specific population have been removed. Results are summarized as reported in the research. The minimum sample size was 25 patients in each study. To find references, the international Databases (MEDLINE PubMed interface), Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and domestic databases (SIDs and Magiran) and journals were searched; unlimited searching, in terms of both setting and language, was done until June 30, 2018. Results: In the initial search on various databases, a total of 461 articles were reviewed, 432 of which turned out to be repetitive during screening process of title and abstract. 19 articles were removed due to unrelated title; out of the remaining 10 articles, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria.Based on the results of random effects model, the Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia in Iranian multiple sclerosis patients in 2273 patients was %05.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9, 6.7, I2 = 88%). Conclusion: The prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis turned out to be 5.8% in the present study. This issue highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the causes of facial atypical pain, including triple-nerve pain, especially in patients under 40 years of age. Adequate knowledge and timely diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia, as the first symptom of MS disease, can help physicians diagnose the disease timely; in case of positive diagnosis, the physicians can start treatments rapidly, avoiding the use of inappropriate and unnecessary therapies.

Keywords: Neuralgia, Trigeminal nerve, trigeminal neuralgia, Facial pain, MS, Multiple sclerosis
Knowledge and attitude toward risk factors of cardiovascular
disease in Iranian population: A systematic review

Knowledge and attitude toward risk factors of cardiovascular disease in Iranian population: A systematic review

Authors: Mahboube Sheikh , Behrouz Soltani Far Pouya Ostadrahimi
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Abstract

Introduction: According to the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in developing countries as well as high treatment expenses for patients and health-care systems, CVDs prevention in such societies has a great importance. One of the most effective strategies is improvement of knowledge and attitude towards the CVDs risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude toward risk factors of cardiovascular disease in Iranian population. Methods: The methods used for this systematic review were based on the "Cochrane Systematic Study Booklet" and "Appropriate Items for Systematic and Meta-Analysis Study (PRISMA)" tool. Observational studies conducted on general population have been added and studies conducted on specific population have been removed. Results are summarized as reported in the research. The minimum sample size was 25 patients in each study. To find references, the international Databases (MEDLINE PubMed interface), Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and domestic databases (SIDs and Magiran) and journals were searched; unlimited searching, in terms of both setting and language, was done until June 30, 2018. Results: In the initial search on various databases, a total of 630 articles were reviewed, 602 of which turned out to be repetitive during screening process of title and abstract. 16 articles were removed due to unrelated title; out of the remaining 12 articles, 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. The final research was conducted on 5167 participants. The positive attitudes about risk factors for coronary artery disease was moderate. Most participants in the present study had a low to moderate knowledge about risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Based on the results of this research that show lack of proper and sufficient knowledge in a part of Iranian subjects, it is recommended to conduct a national research to determine the attitude better, as well as establish educational centers in the country to inform people about ways to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, Iran
Preconception care: perception and practice among women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, FMC,
Owerri, Imo state

Preconception care: perception and practice among women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, FMC, Owerri, Imo state

Authors: Ibebuike, J.E., Nwokike, G.I., OgokeO.J. and Nzeruo, V.O.
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Abstract

This studyassessed the of preconception care: perception and practice among mothers attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre Owerri Imo State. Three research questions guided the study. The population of the study consisted of all the mothers who attends antenatal clinic at FMC. The study design was descriptive using a simple random sampling in selecting 146 respondents. A questionnaire was used for data collection with Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.89. 135 questionnaires was retrieved, data collected were analysed using mean and percentage to answer the research questions. The results revealed that majority 57% of the respondents possessed knowledge of preconception care. On the perception of preconception care it revealed that the mothers had low perception towards preconception care also on the practice of preconception care, on average, 41.6% (less than half) of the respondents practice preconception care. Recommendation was made that there should be forum to educate women on the practice of preconception care because preconception care is aimed at improving health status, reducing behavior, individual and environmental factors that contribute to poor maternal and child health outcomes, in both the short and long term.

Keywords: Preconception Care, Perception, Practice, women attending antenatal Clinic
Ultrasonogrpahic examination of peripheral nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Ultrasonogrpahic examination of peripheral nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Authors: Ramesh Chander, Navtej Singh VK Rampal, N.S. Neki
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Abstract

Aim: Ultrasonographic examination of peripheral nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients (DPN) and comparison of findings with healthy controls. Methods: 50 patients clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 50 healthy non-diabetic subjects taken as controls were analysed. The cross sectional area (CSA)of the median nerve, ulnar nerve, common peroneal nerve and posterior tibial nerve was measured at predetermined sites. The mean CSA was calculated and compared among both groups. Results: There was a significant increase in CSA of median nerve (11.00±1.64 mm2, 10.26±1.67 mm2 and 9.98±1.67 mm2 at 5 cms proximal to wrist crease, at mid forearm and at elbow joint respectively vs 7.34±1.23 mm2, 6.80±0.80 mm2 and 11.00±1.64 mm2), ulnar nerve (8.30±1.34 mm2 and 9.20±1.17 mm2 at wrist joint and behind medial epicondyle respectively vs 6.90±0.86 mm2and 7.38±0.96 mm2), common peroneal nerve (9.16±1.76 mm2 vs 7.02±1.18 mm2at neck of fibula) and posterior tibial nerve (9.08±1.71 mm2 vs 6.86±0.99 mm2 at 3cms proximal to medial malleolus) in DPN patients as compared with healthy controls. The difference was statistically significant at p value of 0.001. Conclusion: This study of confirms that the CSA of the peripheral nerves is larger in patients with DPN compared with healthy controls and that ultrasonography is a promising point-of-care screening tool for DPN.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Peripheral nerves, Diabetic peripheral neuropathy, CSA
Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in diagnostic evaluation of Spinal Trauma

Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in diagnostic evaluation of Spinal Trauma

Authors: Gurinder Bir Singh, Shubhangi Saroa, Arvinder Singh, Ramesh Chander, Dr. N. S. Neki
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Abstract

A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken in the department of Radiodiagnosis, GMC Amritsar over a period of two years, to assess the use of MRI as a diagnostic tool in evaluation of spinal trauma. It aimed at studying characteristic imaging findings, to establish a differential diagnosis of various traumatic lesions and to evaluate role of MRI in patients of spinal trauma. All patients with history of spinal trauma were subjected to MRI examination. Out of these 50 patients were chosen randomly, for analysis. Findings were tabulated and inferences drawn. The peak age range for spinal trauma was 19 to 40 years with male to female ratio of 4.5:1. Most common chief complaint was pain in the spinal region. Major cause for spinal trauma were vehicular accidents and fall form height. Level of injury was maximally seen in cervical spine (36%) followed by thoraco-lumbar region (32%). Vertebral body injury (40%) was maximally seen in thoracolumbar junction (60% cases). Reduction of disc space was present in 6(12%) cases and disc edemain 4(8%) cases. 8(16%) cases showed posterior longitudinal ligament disruption and 8(6%) cases revealed disruption of both anterior as well as posterior longitudinal ligament. Cord edema/contusion was present in 11(22%) cases. The study concluded that MRI is of great value in evaluating the acutely injured spine, and contributes to assessment of vertebral injury, ligamentous disruption, associated disc protrusion as well as the exact site of maximal canal stenosis and nature of the cord injury. MRI imaging leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis, expeditious management, and avoidance of unnecessary procedures, thus, improving posttraumatic quality of life.

Keywords: MRI, Spine, Trauma
A study of serum uric acid in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients

A study of serum uric acid in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients

Authors: Shivani Jindal, Harsh Bala Gupta, Ramesh Chander Jaswant Singh , Dr. N. S. Neki.
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Abstract

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common form of chronic liver disease and serum uric acid is observed to be significantly elevated in NAFLD patients. Increased uric acid is associated with the metabolic syndrome, conditions linked to oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now considered a hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance. However association between uric acid and NAFLD is known very little only. Aim: This study is aimed at the correlation between high serum uric acid levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Material and methods: This was an observational cross sectional study conducted in patients admitted to the General Medicine wards and medical OPD with clinical features suggestive of NAFLD. All patients with evidence of NAFLD in clinical features and imaging were taken up for the study based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and their serum uric acid was done. Patients details regarding various risk factors and clinical features were recorded on a well thought out and carefully prepared proforma. The data was analyzed and the results were compared with other available similar studies. Results: The average age of patients in this study was 53.84 years. Of the 50 patients studied, 48 % were males and 52 % were females. Most of the patients were above 40 years of age. Hyperuricemia was found to be one of the most important risk factor. NAFLD patients with hyperuricaemia have considerable risk of progression of their fatty liver disease severity. Patients with fatty liver and its association with increased serum uric acid was analyzed. These results were compared with various other studies. The results were comparable between these studies. Conclusion: Uric acid is an old molecule with many new applications and it has also been studied in various metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. In this study it has been found that increased serum uric acid has a significant correlation with NAFLD, obesity, hypertension, increased body mass index (BMI), triglyceride and increased cholesterol levels in blood.

Keywords: Serum uric acid, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Assessment of Percutaneous Pinning Fixed by Joshi's Clamp In Distal End Radius Fractures

Assessment of Percutaneous Pinning Fixed by Joshi's Clamp In Distal End Radius Fractures

Authors: Abdelrahman A’ Elbshbeshy, Gamal Salah ELdin ELmorsy Ayman A Ahmed
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Abstract

Background: Distal radius fractures are among the most common bone fractures all over the world. Close reduction and fixation by per cutaneous pinning Fixed by Joshi's Clamp is a less invasive method comparing with other open surgeries. This study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of this treatment in distal radius fractures. The outcome in distal radius fracture management is dependent on many factors and can be influenced by accurate restoration of the anatomy, minimal disruption of the surrounding tissues, and early active wrist rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the early outcomes of distal end radius fractures managed by Percutaneous Pinning Fixed by Joshi's Clamp in adult age group. Methods: In this prospective study, 20 patients with distal radius fractures underwent percutaneous pinning during a 2months period in Sayed Galal university Hospital and Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt Follow-up for 6 months. The clinical outcomes will be calculated according to Cooney’s modification of the Green and O’Brien scheme. Results: showed that nine cases got Good score (45.0%), nine cases were fair score (45.0% ), two cases were poor (10.0% ) Green and O’Brien Score. Conclusion and recommendations: Joshi clamp associated with percutaneous synthesis described add good stability to fracture of the distal radius.

Keywords: fixation, percutaneous pinning, Joshi's Clamp, Orthopedic
Study on the association between Hyperuricemia and Albuminuria in patients of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Study on the association between Hyperuricemia and Albuminuria in patients of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Deepali Kaushal, N.S Neki, Sat Pal Aloona, Rohit Bhardwaj Bhoj Raj Sharma, K.Shankar, Manpreet Singh
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Abstract

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high rate of complications related to cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Type 2diabetes patients with increased urinary albumin excretion suffer increased morbidity and mortality as compared to normoalbumiuric patients. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. On the other hand, we also know that albuminuria is the main marker of diabetic nephropathy independent of hypertension. Aim: This hospital-based observational (cross-sectional) study aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum uric acid level & urinary albumin creatinine Ratio (ACR) in patients of T2DM. Material and methods: The study group comprised of 100 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus of age between 40 to 80 years. Age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI),serum uric acid, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum creatinine were recorded for each patient. Patients were diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus on the basis of American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Results: Albuminuria was found to be significantly associated with hyperuricemia. Serum uric acid as found to be a significant factor which could predict only 40.2% (R2 = 0.4028) variation in albumin creatinine ratio. Conclusion: This study showed that the serum uric acid concentration was significantly and with greater probability associated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: hyperuricemia, Albuminuria, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, creatinine ratio.
Slime production and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens

Slime production and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Ananta Singla Avtar Singh Bhullar, Dr. N. S. Neki
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Abstract

Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) have become a common cause of nosocomial infections, particularly bloodstream infections and infections related to the indwelling foreign devices like prosthesis. These organisms when attached to the surfaces of foreign bodies may produce an extracellular slime allowing for the persistence of coagulase negative staphylococci on the catheters. Slime production plays an important role in the pathogenesis and drug resistance of CONS infections. Objective This study was therefore undertaken to know the incidence of CONS in human infections, role of slime production in its pathogenicity and to study antibiogram of the isolates. Materials and Methods 100 strains of CONS isolated from different clinical specimens were taken, identified on the basis of cultural characteristics and were classified into biotypes. Further slime test was done to study production of slime to determine its role in the pathogenicity of CONS. All the isolated strains of CONS were subjected to drug sensitivity by disc diffusion method. Results Maximum age incidence of 35% was in the age group of 21-30 years and minimum incidence of 5% was in the age group of 51-60 years. Out of 100 cases,46 were males and 54 were females with a male: female ratio of approximately 1:1.17. Out of 71 Staph. epidermidis , in 20 cases slime test was positive. Out of 29 cases of Staph. saprophyticus, 2 cases gave slime test positive and in 27 cases, slime test was negative. Slime producing strains of CONS were more resistant to antibiotics like gentamicin and kanamycin in comparison to non slime producing strains. Conclusion Multiple drug resistance has been shown by the slime producing strains of CONS as compared to non slime producing strains thus proving slime production as a marker of pathogenicity in CONS.

Keywords: Slime production, Coagulase- negative staphylococci, nosocomial infections
Bioethical Awareness in Indian Medical Scenario

Bioethical Awareness in Indian Medical Scenario

Authors: Dr Kushal Aggarwal, Dr Seerat Sandhu Dr. Sahiba Kukreja
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Abstract

Objective: To Study Bioethical awareness among graduates and post-graduates at Sri Guru Ram Das University of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. Methodology: The study was carried out in the campus of Sri Guru Ram Das University of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. It was a questionnaire based survey. Results: The Majority of students had better understanding of Bioethical issues as 86.6% students were familiar with the term ‘Bioethics’. The fact that students at this level of education were eager to know more about bioethics was concluded on the basis that 80% of students had the opinion that bioethics should be regularly taught in the class. There was a general agreement among the respondents that the Government policies and the bioethical issues were not satisfactory and needed more thought and discussions. The survey indicated that cloning, organ donation, abortion and stem cell technology as the most important bioethical issues. Conclusion: Colleges, Universities should include bioethics in their curriculums and more and more awareness needs to be created among the general public through conferences and discussions.

Keywords: Bioethics, Organ donation, Cloning, Stem cell Technology, Abortion.
Review on Human Microbiome and their implication in
Type 1 Diabetes

Review on Human Microbiome and their implication in Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: V. Poorna Pushkala
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by progressive pancreatic beta-cell loss resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. It not only involves genetic predisposition, but the environmental factors and human microbiome also plays a major role in inducing T1D. Some viruses are diabetogenic in animals and the pathogenesis of various viruses like Enteroviruses, rubella viruses, cytomegaloviruses and Epstein-Barr viruses in the pathogenesis of human IDDM (Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) has been studied widely. It is very much true that human microbiome correlates highly with diabetes and several studies prove this correlation. A study conducted in 2012 showed that Human Enterovirus (HEV) infections rank high as an environmental risk factor for triggering T1D through observational studies in humans and experimental studies in mice. It has also been reported that HEV exposure prior to development of autoimmune insulitis, can help in preventing T1D onset. Another study proves that Enterovirus infections can serve as a major trigger for T1D in the young, as it involves the induction of islet-cell antibodies. These results have been proved by numerous epidemiological surveys and also using PCR methods and HLA-typing. Moreover, besides Enterovirus infections, several other viruses have also been proved to be associated with diabetes like Coxsackie virus and Echo virus. The pathogenesis of viral infection in inducing T1D is reported to be either directly by altering beta cell function thereby leading to the activation of apoptotic pathways or indirectly by the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, proves a study. Bacteriology of the cases of cellulitis and cutaneous abscess shows that gram-negative pathogens were not more common among diabetics than non-diabetics; however they were more likely than non-diabetics to be exposed to broad gram-negative therapy. In conclusion, genetics, diet and Diabetes always go hand in hand according to the common world. The main aim of the present review is to provide detailed description on pathogenesis and current scenario on human microbiome and their role in T1D.

Keywords: Type-1 Diabetes, IDDM, Human Enterovirus, Proinflammatory cytokines, Microbiome, PCR method, HLA-typing.

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