Journal of Health Science and Medical Research (JHSMR)

Journal of Health Science and Medical Research (JHSMR)

Basic info

  • Publisher: JHSMR
  • Country of publisher: thailand
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2020/Jan/31

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Health science, Medical science
  • Publisher's keywords: Health Science and Medical Research
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 5 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC-ND
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2002
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: Other

This journal has '46' articles

Factors Associated with Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength in Women with Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Assessed by the Brink Scale

Factors Associated with Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength in Women with Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Assessed by the Brink Scale

Authors: Sirirat Sarit-apirak, Jittima Manonai, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: (1) to examine the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function using the Brink scale and (2) to investigate the correlation between potential factors and PFM function. Material and Methods: From January 2011 and December 2014, women with at least one pelvic floor symptom attending the urogynecology clinic were included in a medical record review. Demographic and pelvic floor symptoms were assessed. The Brink scoring system was used to assess the PFM function. The association between factors and Brink scale scores was measured using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. Results: Five hundred and seventy-nine women with a mean age of 64.40±10.11 years were included in the analysis. Forty-seven women (8.1%) were unable to contract their pelvic floor muscle at all, while 55 (9.5%) could both powerfully and properly. The mean Brink scale score was 7.82±2.56. Elderly women had a significantly lower score than younger women (mean scores of 7.56±2.60 and 8.08±2.50, respectively) with the mean score in nulliparous and parous women being 8.66±2.63 and 7.76±2.55, respectively (p-value=0.046). A negatively weak correlation was found among those with higher total scores and advancing age (correlation (r)=-0.106), advanced anterior (r=-0.095) and apical compartment (r=-0.105) prolapse (p-value<0.05). Conclusion: Almost all the women with pelvic floor dysfunction had compromised pelvic floor function. Important factors affecting PFM strength are age, parity, and history of hysterectomy. Increasing age, higher stage of anterior and apical compartment prolapse were negatively correlated with PFM function.

Keywords: Brink scale; pelvic floor dysfunction; pelvic floor muscle strength; pelvic organ prolapse
Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients in the Primary Care Unit

Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients in the Primary Care Unit

Authors: Thareerat Ananchaisarp, Suthida Pringraksa, Jirot Suaiyala, Natnicha Thet-asen, Sirikorn Promvikorn, Suthat Angsawat, Sirapat Pattrapinun, Supanut Pun...
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the level of quality of life and related factors in type 2 diabetic patients who were followed up at the Primary Care Unit of a university hospital in southern Thailand. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in type 2 diabetes patients who were continuously followed up at the primary care unit. Quality of life was the primary outcome assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief-Thai questionnaire and related factors were analyzed using the multivariate generalized linear model. Results: This study included 158 patients who fit our eligibility criteria. The median age was 66 years old and median duration of diabetes was 10 years. Most had comorbidities and a quarter had diabetic complications. The results show 64.6% of the study sample had a good level of quality of life and no one had a bad level of quality of life. The results of multivariate generalized linear model show that no factors were associated with overall quality of life. Obesity was statistically significantly associated with a lower quality of life in the physical health dimension [odd ratio (OR)=0.35 (0.14, 0.89), p-value=0.027] and diabetic complications were associated with a lower quality of life in the psychological dimension [OR=0.27 (0.08, 0.85), p-value=0.025]. Conclusion: Most diabetic patients had a good quality of life. There were no factors associated with overall quality of life, but obesity and diabetic complications were statistically significantly associated with some dimensions of quality of life. Healthcare providers should assess aspects of quality of life in patients with chronic diseases.

Keywords: diabetes; primary care; quality of life
Health Utility Scores of Hearing-Impaired Thais

Health Utility Scores of Hearing-Impaired Thais

Authors: Pittayapon Pitathawatchai, Wirawan Wannaro, Patchanok Pongprawat, Thara Tunthanathip, Luiz Lourencone
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: To assess the health utility scores of Thais with hearing loss, which can be used as a reference value for assessing health-related quality of life and economic evaluations in any interventions among hearing-impaired persons in Thailand. Material and Methods: All hearing-impaired persons who visited Songklanagarind Hospital between January and June 2019 were recruited for the study. The demographic and clinical data of the participants including gender, age, and type and degree of hearing loss were collected. A health-related quality of life interview was conducted using the EuroQoL five-dimensional questionnaire, Thai version. Independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to assess which factors were associated independently with the health utility scores. Results: One hundred and eleven participants, 46 males and 65 females, ranging in age from 22 to 92 years, were recruited for the study. The average health utility scores were 0.81 and 0.86 for subjects not using and using hearing aids, respectively, similar to the results from other nations. The average health utility score of subjects with underlying diseases (0.79) was lower than the average health utility score of subjects without underlying diseases (0.87) with statistical significance (p-value=0.038). Additionally, the pure tone average in the better ear was the only variable significantly associated with the health utility scores (regression coefficient: -0.004, p-value=0.002). Conclusion: The average health utility scores among hearing-impaired Thais were 0.81 and 0.86 for subjects not using and using hearing aids, respectively.

Keywords: EQ-5D; hearing loss; Thai; utility scores
Ergonomic Recommendation of Suitable Toilet Seat Height for Older Thai People

Ergonomic Recommendation of Suitable Toilet Seat Height for Older Thai People

Authors: Pornthip Tharbthong, Samerjit Homrossukon, Pagamas Piriyaprasarth
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to determine the main factors affecting older people as they rise from a toilet seat and to identify the suitable toilet seat height for this population. Material and Methods: Data from 342 older people both male and female aged 60 years and older were used to design a mock-up toilet with a specified seat width according to the 95th percentile of hip breadth. The data of lower leg length were used to design toilet seat height levels in the second phase in another 30 older participants at 100.0%, 110.0% and 120.0% of an individual’s lower leg length (LLL). Rectus femoris and gluteus maximus muscle activity, time taken while rising, pressure under the thighs and satisfaction of the older participants were compared across three toilet seat height levels; using the repeated analysis measurements of variance. These three potential factors were then analyzed together with the prioritized factor indicated by the specialists using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Results: Rectus femoris muscle activity, time taken while rising, and satisfaction of the older participants in rising from toilet seat heights 100.0, 110.0 and 120.0% LLL were significantly different (p-value<0.05). Conclusion: It was found that the suitable toilet seat height level for older people for industrial ergonomic purposes was at 110.0% LLL, which was also equivalent to the 95th percentile of male and female LLL.

Keywords: ergonomics; older people; satisfaction; toilet seat height
Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Patients’ Knowledge of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Patients’ Knowledge of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Authors: Milica Paut Kusturica, Mina Maričić, Ana Tomas Petrović, Tihomir Dugandžija, Veljko Crnobrnja, Olga Horvat
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: Considering that adherence level affects diabetes treatment success and maintenance of glycemic control greatly, the aim of this study was to examine diabetes patients’ adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) and knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosing regimen, and side effects. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes in order to assess their knowledge of OHAs using anonymous questionnaires. Results: Most patients had used OHAs between 2 and 5 years (61.0%), where 78.0% were treated with metformin, and the remaining 22.0% were prescribed sulfonylurea derivatives. Besides drugs used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, 58.0% of patients took another 1-3 drugs daily for the treatment of other conditions. Although 75.0% achieved a score of 5-6 out of the maximum score of 8, only 2.0% of respondents listed at least 2 side effects of the OHA they used, and none of them could explain its mechanism of action. Most of the information about OHAs was given to patients by endocrinologists (53.0%). Conclusion: More than half of participants considered their knowledge of OHAs insufficient. Results clearly indicate that the respondents were not sufficiently familiar with the mechanism of action and possible side effects of such medications. Information about OHAs given in written form as well as via community pharmacists would contribute to educating type 2 diabetes patients significantly.

Keywords: oral hypoglycemic agents; patients’ knowledge; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Caring for Thai Traumatic Brain Injury Survivors in a Transitional Period: What Are the Barriers?

Caring for Thai Traumatic Brain Injury Survivors in a Transitional Period: What Are the Barriers?

Authors: Duangsuda Siripituphum, Praneed Songwathana, Natenapha Khupantavee, Ishan Williams
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: We aimed to explore the situations and experiences of Thai traumatic brain injury (TBI) caregivers and nurses who care for TBI patients during their transition from hospital to home. Material and Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted in a tertiary hospital, in Songkhla province, Thailand. Five TBI family caregivers and nine nurses, who cared for TBI patients from admission to discharge, were selected for in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Reviews of existing documents related to caring for someone during a transition period; such as: the caregiver’s booklet manual, nurse’s guideline, discharge education, and the service plan were also analyzed. Content analysis was used to explore caring for someone during a TBI situation, within the Thai context. Results: The findings revealed six main barriers in the current care system for TBI caregivers and nurses. These included: (1) inadequate discharge teaching information, (2) less time in caregiver’s supervision and support, (3) lack of a comprehensive discharge plan, (4) lack of coordination and communication in follow-up care, (5) less confidence in providing care without support at home, and (6) poor availability of resources and time for consultation. Conclusion: Caregivers require more information and supportive care in order to enhance their adaptation in taking care of TBI patients in the long term. Developing a tele-nursing based caregiver transitional support program among TBI caregivers is suggested.

Keywords: caregiver; traumatic brain injury; transitional support program
A Comparison of Intra-Observer and Inter-Observer Reliability of Plain Radiographs, Standard Computed Tomography Scans and Mobile Computed Tomography Scans in the Assessment of Distal Radius Fractures: A Cadaveric Study

A Comparison of Intra-Observer and Inter-Observer Reliability of Plain Radiographs, Standard Computed Tomography Scans and Mobile Computed Tomography Scans in the Assessment of Distal Radius Fractures: A Cadaveric Study

Authors: Sitthiphong Suwannaphisit, Saowapar Yoykaew, Chitchaya Suwanraksa, Varah Yuenyongviwat, Porames Suwanno, Sittichoke Anuntaseree
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: Diagnosis of a distal end radius fracture relies on various imaging studies. However, the relative usefulness of these studies is still a matter of some controversy. The aim of this study was to compare the intra-observer and inter-observer reliability of plain radiographs, standard computed tomography (CT) scans and mobile CT scans in the assessment of distal radius fractures as categorized by the Fernandez classification method. The secondary objective was to compare the dosages of radiation between the different imaging modalities. Material and Methods: Sixteen fresh cadaveric wrist bones were used in this experimental study. The desired fractures were created in the bones to mimic Fernandez types I-V fractures and plain radiographs were taken in 4 views. Standard CT and mobile CT scans were also taken with the fractured bones in the same four positions. Interobserver reliability was assessed using Kappa statistics to determine the diagnostic consistency among the nine observers. Inter-observer agreement was assessed based on the Fernandez classification system diagnoses. Results: Overall, the inter-observer agreement was substantial for the Fernandez classifications (Kappa range 0.636 0.727) in all types of imaging. For intra-observer agreement, the analysis found higher agreement for both standard CT scans and mobile CT scans. The standard CT images imparted a higher average dose of radiation than both the mobile CT scans and the plain radiographs. Conclusion: The mobile CT scan can provide an alternative imaging method for precise diagnosis of distal end radius fractures, with the additional benefits of mobility and lower radiation exposure. KEYWORDS

Keywords: computed tomography; distal radius fractures; Fernandez classification; imaging
The First Awake Craniotomy for Eloquent Glioblastoma in Southern Thailand

The First Awake Craniotomy for Eloquent Glioblastoma in Southern Thailand

Authors: Anukoon Kaewborisutsakul, Sakchai Sae-Heng, Chanatthee Kitsiripant, Pannawit Benjhawaleemas
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Awake craniotomy (AC) with direct cortical stimulation is becoming the gold standard for functional brain mapping. It is used to identify the safe brain area before pathologic resection. This method indicates the pathology near or at the eloquent cortex, such as gliomas or metastasis. AC can optimize the patient’s quality of life and oncologic outcome. This task requires the active cooperation of a patient care team familiar with advanced neuroscience and challenging to learn. We report the first time this operation which performed in our institute with technical details, in terms of anesthesia, and surgical aspects.

Keywords: awake craniotomy; brain tumor; glioblastoma
Multiple Cranial Neuropathies Caused by Lymphoma-Associated Central Nervous System Involvement in an Immunodeficiency Virus Patient

Multiple Cranial Neuropathies Caused by Lymphoma-Associated Central Nervous System Involvement in an Immunodeficiency Virus Patient

Authors: Sumonthip Leelawai, Pat Korathanakhun
Year: 2020, Volume: 38, Number: 1
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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Although, lymphoma is a rare cause of central nervous system involvement, it can present as an initial HIV symptom. We report the case of a 35-year-old HIV patient who developed multiple cranial neuropathies. He was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with meningeal metastasis.

Keywords: cranial neuropathies; HIV; lymphoma
Anxiety at First and Subsequent Pregnancies and Its Associated Factors: A Historical Cohort Study From Northeastern Thailand

Anxiety at First and Subsequent Pregnancies and Its Associated Factors: A Historical Cohort Study From Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Rukmanee Butchon, Tippawan Liabsuetrakul, Theparat Bumpenboon, Yot Teerawattananon
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalences of anxiety at first and subsequent pregnancies and explore its associated factors. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among multiparous women aged <34 years admitted to the postpartum ward in a regional hospital in northeastern Thailand during April-September 2014. Information on levels of anxiety, social support, financial stressors, self-esteem and socio-demographic characteristics was collected. Anxiety at the first pregnancy and the most recent pregnancy were assessed. Factors associated with the anxiety were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Results: Of the 447 women enrolled in the study, 24.0% had experienced high-level anxiety when becoming aware of being pregnant for the first pregnancy which was associated with the pregnancy being unplanned, high financial stressors and low social support. Sixty percent of the women felt that the degree of anxiety in their current pregnancy was lower. Decreased anxiety was more likely to be found in women who changed employment status from unemployed to employed, those with increased social support, and those with decreased financial stressors, and less likely in women with increased financial stressors. Conclusion: One-fourth of the women reported anxiety at their first pregnancy which decreased in subsequent pregnancies. Social support and financial stressors during pregnancy should be explored and strategies on how to improve these conditions at antenatal care services should be studied.

Keywords: antenatal anxiety; social support; financial stressor; unplanned pregnancy
Outpatient and Caregiver Understanding of Auxiliary Instructions on Medication Labels at Ongkharak Hospital, Nakhon Nayok

Outpatient and Caregiver Understanding of Auxiliary Instructions on Medication Labels at Ongkharak Hospital, Nakhon Nayok

Authors: Suparada Khaiman, Sudarat Buahom, Supakorn Mekasuwannadit, Suwimon Yeephu, Tulaya Potaros
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: To investigate the understanding of common auxiliary instructions among outpatients and caregivers at Ongkharak Hospital, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March to April 2017 at Ongkharak Hospital. The convenience sampling subjects were directly interviewed in order to assess their understanding of auxiliary instructions on five medication labels: Ibuprofen, Amoxicillin, Cetirizine, Ferrous fumarate and Insulin. Results: Three hundred and eighty-five subjects participated in this study (212 patients and 173 caregivers). Most were female (66.0%) with an average age of 48.95±17.02 years, secondary school graduates (44.7%), and employees (29.6%). Concerning their experience, most of them (>90.0%) had seen and read the auxiliary instructions. All of the instructions were explicit. Pharmacists explained the instructions to them. Most of them received the auxiliary instructions of Ibuprofen, Amoxicillin and Cetirizine. Concerning their understanding of auxiliary instructions, they correctly understood the indication of Ibuprofen (62.3%), Cetirizine (58.4%), Ferrous fumarate (19.2%) and Amoxicillin (12.5%). They could comprehend how to administer Insulin (78.2%), Ibuprofen (74.8%) and Amoxicillin (61.3%). A few of them truly interpreted the side effects of Cetirizine (9.4%), Ferrous fumarate (8.8%) and Insulin storage (4.9%). Conclusion: Some of the auxiliary instructions used at Ongkharak Hospital should be revised in order to be more concise and pertinent. Moreover, pharmacists should explain auxiliary labels every time to enhance outpatient and caregiver understanding of medication uses.

Keywords: auxiliary instruction; Ibuprofen; medication label; Ongkharak Hospital; understanding
Serum Sodium Levels Predict the Recurrence of Febrile Seizure within 24 Hours

Serum Sodium Levels Predict the Recurrence of Febrile Seizure within 24 Hours

Authors: Jatuporn Duangpetsang
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: Febrile seizure is a common disorder in children that occurs in 2.5% of children 6-60 months of age. The study was conducted to ascertain the role of serum sodium as a predictor of seizure recurrence within the same febrile illness. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in children with febrile seizures who were admitted to Kaengkhro Hospital between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2017. The data collected from medical records included age, gender, serum sodium level, body temperature, duration of fever, and family history of febrile seizures. Results: Two hundred ten children were diagnosed with febrile seizures; 190 had a single febrile seizure and 20 had recurrent febrile seizures. Mean±standard deviation ages of children with a single febrile seizure and recurrent febrile seizures were 22.95 ± 0.95 and 22.34 ± 0.89 months, respectively. Serum sodium levels in children with recurrent seizures within 24 hours (130.80 mmol/L) were significantly lower than in children with a single febrile seizure (132.37 mmol/L, p-value=0.02). A family history of febrile seizures was significant for predicting recurrent seizures within 24 hours (p−value= 0.006). Conclusion: Serum sodium levels predict the recurrence of febrile seizure within 24 hours.

Keywords: febrile seizures; recurrence febrile seizures; serum sodium levels; simple febrile seizure
Comparison of Perceived Quality of Life Between Children with Lupus Nephritis and Their Parents

Comparison of Perceived Quality of Life Between Children with Lupus Nephritis and Their Parents

Authors: Lasmauli Situmorang, Ahmad Suryawan, Ninik Asmaningsih Soemyarso
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the score of quality of life between parents and children with lupus nephritis. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2017 in children with lupus nephritis aged 5-18 years old treated at the Department of Child Health Dr. Soetomo Surabaya Hospital. Quality of life was assessed from parents and children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core questionnaires. Statistical analysis of Wilcoxon signed rank test and pair t-test were used with p-value<0.05 being significant. Results: A total of 30 children were included during the study period. Sixteen children were female with a mean age of 11.5 (standard deviation 2.7) years. The differences in score between parents and children were as follows: physical functioning (82.8 vs 87.5) p-value=0.140, emotional functioning (65.0 vs 72.5) p-value=0.173, social functioning (80.0 vs 95.0) p-value=0.016 and school functioning (67.5 vs 70.0) p-value=0.116. There were no differences according to onset of diagnosis and the only differences found were in social functioning based on the induction treatment phase. Children with complications showed significant differences in physical, emotional and social functioning (p-value=0.041, p-value=0.023, p-value=0.038 respectively). Conclusion: Parents and children with lupus nephritis showed different scores of quality of life in social functioning, and it is important to consider the daily life activities of children.

Keywords: children; lupus nephritis; PedsQL; quality of life
Outcome of Transient Hypogastric Artery Balloon Occlusion with Cesarean Hysterectomy in Abnormal Adherent Placenta: Case Series

Outcome of Transient Hypogastric Artery Balloon Occlusion with Cesarean Hysterectomy in Abnormal Adherent Placenta: Case Series

Authors: Keerati Hongsakul, Jitwadee Suwanlee, Sorracha Rookkapan, Kittipitch Bannangkoon, Ninlapa Pruksanusak, Yuthasak Suphasynth, Shafie Abdullah, Chandran...
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of pregnant women with abnormal placentation who underwent transient hypogastric artery balloon occlusion with cesarean hysterectomy. Material and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study of patients with abnormal adherent placenta who underwent transient hypogastric artery balloon occlusion with cesarean hysterectomy between January 2014 and December 2016. Data were recorded and analyzed. Results: Fourteen pregnant women with abnormal placentation were included in our series. Most patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy at less than 37 weeks of gestational age. The sonograms of 7 cases overestimated the severity of placenta adherence compared with the pathological diagnosis. The median estimated blood loss was 4,350 milliliters (mL). The median estimated blood loss in placenta accrete, increta and percreta were 3,000 mL, 5,337 mL and 5,150 mL, respectively. One case had a procedure-related complication: perforation of the small branch of the anterior division of the right hypogastric artery from the guidewire. Conclusion: Intraoperative transient balloon occlusion of the hypogastric arteries was an effective method and safe treatment for controlling the massive intraoperative bleeding of cesarean hysterectomy. This technique can be an alternative option in combination with surgery in cases of abnormal placental adherence.

Keywords: adherent placenta; cesarean hysterectomy; hypogastric artery; transient balloon occlusion
A Comparison Study of the Auditory P300 Results of Elderly Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

A Comparison Study of the Auditory P300 Results of Elderly Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Authors: Noppamont Mongkalanantakul, Krisna Lertsukprasert, Montip Tiensuwan
Year: 2019, Volume: 37, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the auditory P300 results of elderly patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before and after hearing aid use. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July, 2016 to April, 2017 at the Hearing Aid Clinic of Ramathibodi Hospital. Twenty-six elderly patients aged ≥60 with bilateral symmetrical SNHL who were referred for unilateral hearing aid fitting by otolaryngologist were included. The auditory P300 was recorded before and 2 months after hearing aid fitting. Results: The P300 waveforms, with a mean latency of 374.48 milliseconds and mean amplitude of 6.68 microvolts (µV), could be recorded in only 21 participants. At 2 months after hearing aid use, the mean P3 latency was 376.83 ms and mean amplitude was 8.77 µV. There was a statistically significant difference in amplitude of P300 2 months after hearing aid fitting (p-value=0.004). Conclusion: The auditory P300 results indicate an improvement in cognitive ability with higher amplitude. Thus, the P300 may be used to evaluate improvements in cognitive function after using a hearing aid. It can also be used as a guideline for explaining the benefits of hearing aid use to patients who initially rejected a hearing aid.

Keywords: auditory P300 response; cognitive ability; elderly; hearing aid; sensorineural hearing loss

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