Solar Energy and Sustainable Development

Solar Energy and Sustainable Development

Basic info

  • Publisher: Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies
  • Country of publisher: libya
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2020/Mar/13

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences, Energy
  • Publisher's keywords: Solar Energy, Sustainable Development
  • Language of fulltext: english, arabic
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License:
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2013
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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This journal has '33' articles

Review on solar water heating in Libya

Review on solar water heating in Libya

Authors: Mohammad Abdunnabi, Ibrahim Rohuma, Essam Endya, Esmaeel Belal
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Abstract

This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the history and the best practices of solar water heaters in Libya. Although, Libya is blessed with high solar potential, there is no wide-spread implementation of this technology due to many reasons such as: the cheap price of both electricity and electric water heaters, lack of clear and systematic policy, and lack of environmental awareness. The Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies (CSERS) has given attention to this technology since its establishment in 1978, and the solar water heating system field test project is one of the research projects in the Center. The paper has shown that there was no attention paid to this technology and even to renewable energy in general in the previous years. However, preliminary information clearly shows the importance of continuing research in this field. Numerous valuable information on solar water heating systems from literature were dedicated and made available for researchers and decision makers. The studies conducted in this field for Libya are arranged in this review on the bases of the topic studied: performance evaluation, optimization, on-site measurements and policies and strategies. One of the most important results retrieved from these studies show that the daily quantity of hot water withdrawn per capita at 45 °C is estimated around 60 liters. The estimated annual amount of energy consumed for water heating per person is 510 kWh. For average Libyan family of six persons, the annual amount of energy consumed per dwelling is estimated about 3060 kWh. The review also presented the history of solar water heaters implementation, manufacturing and testing facilities for quality control in Libya. The study calls upon the Libyan decision makers to take their responsibility and put an urgent action plan to help the wide-spread implementation of solar water heaters in the residential, services and industrial sectors. Such a plan will surely alleviate the ever increasing demand for electricity, save fossil fuel reserves and mitigate GHG emissions.

Keywords: solar water heaters, field study, policy, strategic plans, SWH testing facility
Review on Solar Thermal Desalination in Libya

Review on Solar Thermal Desalination in Libya

Authors: Mohammad Abdunnabi, Basim belgasim, Abdulganhi Ramadan
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Abstract

Libya is suffering from freshwater shortage as most of its land is semi-arid to arid with very low precipitation rates and too limited fresh water sources. Libya is in one of the driest regions of the world with an annual rainfall ranging from just 10 mm to 500 mm, and only 5% of its land receives more than 100 mm annually. This review summarizes the most important published studies related to solar thermal desalination research in Libya. Brief description of the most thermal desalination technologies is also presented. The study has shown that only few in-completed pilot projects were carried-out for desalination using renewable energy. The research activities in the field of using renewable energy especially solar thermal energy to desalinate water are limited and do not give a comprehensive idea on the potential of different thermally driven solar desalination technologies. However, most of the recent pilot studies refer to using CSP desalination in providing most of the future water demand in Libya by 2035. A lot of efforts need to be done to carry-on a genuine research to put strategic plan to tackle the deficit water issue in Libya through using desalination driven by conventional and renewable energies.

Keywords: Desalination, Solar Energy, Fresh water, Renewable energy, Solar Thermal
Review on Solar Thermal Electricity in Libya

Review on Solar Thermal Electricity in Libya

Authors: Basim Belgasim, and Yasser Aldali
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Abstract

Libya is facing an increasing deficit in electrical energy supply which needs great efforts to find new and renewable alternative sources of power. Solar thermal electricity is one of the most promising and emerging renewable energy technologies to substitute the conventional fossil fuel systems. A review of the research literature of solar thermal electricity in Libya is presented in this article. The state of the art of these technologies including design, operation principles and global market is demonstrated. Detailed reviews of research activities that have been conducted by Libyan researchers or institutions are presented. It has been found that Libya as a country needs a strategic plan and more research efforts in order to adopt these new technologies and put them in production mode.

Keywords: Solar thermal electricity, Parabolic troughs, Dish concentrators
Review on Solar Ponds in Libya

Review on Solar Ponds in Libya

Authors: Abdulghani M. Ramadan and Khairy R. Agha
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Abstract

Solar and renewable energies applications got a great interest and attention in the last few decades. Problems related to CO2 emissions, air pollution, Ozone layer depletion, global warming and environment issues raise the necessity for getting a clean and safe energy. For this purpose, the Center for Solar Energy Studies (CSERS) in Libya conducted a huge research work in different applications for solar and renewable energies. One of these important activities is the Solar Gradient Solar Pond technology. It is an effective solar energy collection and storage system which presents a relatively simple and economic method of providing low grade energy with the advantage of annual storage cycle. This paper presents a general review on researches and studies on solar ponds that were conducted by CSERS research team. Tajoura’s Experimental Solar Pond (TESP) is designed as an experimental facility enabling the investigation of various aspects of pond performance. It is constructed by the Center for Solar Energy Studies, in joint cooperation with a Swiss company, with a surface area of about 830 m2, and a depth of 2.5 m, coupled with an evaporative pond of 105 m2 area and 1.5 m deep, equipped with all necessary equipments and measuring control system. The paper also shows the experience of operating MSF desalination unit coupled with TESP solar pond. Finally, other factors affecting the solar pond’s thermal stability were also discussed.

Keywords: Solar Pond, Evaporation Pond, Salt Diffusion, Thermal Storage
Review on Solar Space Heating - Cooling in Libyan Residential Buildings

Review on Solar Space Heating - Cooling in Libyan Residential Buildings

Authors: Ibrahim. H. Tawil, Mukhtar Abeid, Ezuldeen B. Abraheem, Samah K.Alghoul and Elhadi I.Dekam
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Abstract

This review paper focuses on documenting and studying published papers and works in the field of solar heating and cooling air space in residential buildings. The goal of this survey and documentation is to find out the most important flashing results and conclusions specifically in fields of using solar energy for space heating, cooling and ventilation of local residential buildings in Libya. This covers using active and passive solar systems in, achieving thermal human comfort in such buildings leading to reduce electrical energy consumption. This paper also concentrates on applying energy efficiency measures in buildings; planning, design, and construction stages with the use of the principles of energy conservation in buildings. There are several studies comparing traditional with modern house designs in several local cities including both famous old cities of “Ghadames” and “Gharyan”. Several conclusions and recommendations are summarized within the text of this paper.

Keywords: Solar applications, residential buildings, space heating and cooling, passive and active systems, energy efficiency practices.
Thermodynamic Study of Operation Properties Effect on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM)

Thermodynamic Study of Operation Properties Effect on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM)

Authors: Ibrahim H. Tawil, Farag M. Bsebsu, Hassan Abdulkader
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Abstract

The thermodynamic analysis of PEM fuel cell energy production depends on the entropy and enthalpy of reaction with the changing of the operating temperatures that ranges between 50 and 100ºC, the electrical work done will be equal to the Gibbs free energy released. This paper presents a mathematical model of PEM fuel cells, based on physical-chemical procedures of the phenomena occurring inside the fuel cell, and it was theoretically studied the performance at different operation variables and conditions. The C++ program is designed to calculate all thermo-chemical parameters, i.e. enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy, work and efficiency for any type of fuel cells. The results are plotted as a function of fuel cell operating temperature. The results shows that the highest value of Gibbs energy is at the lowest operating temperature, and decreases gradually with increasing the temperature, the output voltage is determined by cell’s reversible voltage that arises from potential difference produced by chemical reaction and several voltage losses that occur inside a cell. In addition the results showed that the efficiency of this type of the fuel cells is much higher than the ideal Carnot’s efficiency, it changes between 82% to 85% depends on temperature operation. The heat output (required heat) from the fuel cell increases with increasing the operating temperature, this heat is used for many thermal applications such as buildings space heating.

Keywords: Operating temperature; Enthalpy of reaction; Gibbs free energy
Energy Saving Potential of Dynamic Lighting Control in Street Lighting Systems in Libya

Energy Saving Potential of Dynamic Lighting Control in Street Lighting Systems in Libya

Authors: Salah M. Alabani
(1 downloads)
Abstract

This paper studies the manner of energy consumption in Libyan street lighting systems and general road section. It also suggests proposal system with two cases of operation for an attempt to apply the energy saving program by adopting an optimum method in order to decrease the demand of energy in this section and to reduce the use of uneconomic equipment. The proposal system in this paper introduces the Light Emitting Diode (LED) street lighting technology to be used instead of traditional luminaries High Pressure Sodium (HPS). The proposed system is divided into two cases. The first case discusses the replacement of traditional luminaries (HPS) with energy saving luminaries (LED), while second case explains how integrating control node (dynamic dimmer) into LED in order to dim output lighting in streets will save more energy. This study reaches a result that a significant amount of energy of %47 (about 1092.23 GWh/year) of total energy consumed in street lighting sector could be saved if first case is applied. Moreover, it suggests that more energy of %58 (about 1380.02 GWh/year) of total energy consumed in the same sector cloud be saved if the second case is adopted.

Keywords: street lighting; LED luminaries; dynamic dimmer; energy; street lighting
Prediction and Assessment of Direct and Diffuse Radiation Fractions for Hourly, Daily and Monthly Average Global Radiation at Different Latitude Locations in Libya

Prediction and Assessment of Direct and Diffuse Radiation Fractions for Hourly, Daily and Monthly Average Global Radiation at Different Latitude Locations in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide
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Abstract

As in today´s world, the dramatic increase in world’s population, the rapid depleting of conventional fuels (Fossil Fuels) as well as the environmental impact have left us no choice but to discover alternative energy sources. In fact, this would ensure a better and safer life on this earth and this will only be accomplished by using the best option of nonconventional and non-exhaustible sources of energy, which is the solar energy. The current study is aimed at evaluating the availability and potentiality of direct and diffuse solar radiations in three different locations in Libya within different latitudes. Three different locations with different values of measured daily solar radiation are opted for comparison purposes. This daily solar radiation data are used to create an hourly database of solar radiation. The mathematical framework for the prediction and assessment has been chosen to be the Microsoft Excel. The resultant monthly, daily and hourly diffuse fraction relative to their clearance indexes have been in very good agreement with existing research. Moreover, one of the main findings of this attempt is that this study has claimed and justified the usefulness of direct radiation in operating the concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, attributed to its overall magnitude of approximately 75% of the global radiation, particularly at the summer season.

Keywords: global radiation, diffuse radiation, direct radiation, diffuse fraction, clearness index
The Influence of the Atmospheric Stability Conditions on the Available Wind Energy for Three Libyan Coastal Cities

The Influence of the Atmospheric Stability Conditions on the Available Wind Energy for Three Libyan Coastal Cities

Authors: A.A. Abdalla, W.B. El-Osta, and E. I. Dekam
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Abstract

The lowest portion of the atmosphere is vital to lives, infrastructure, and activities. It means air quality, air motion and momentum, solar and wind energy, and weather safety measures. Wind speed observations at three different heights for three Libyan coastal sites; Magron, Musrata and Darnah, were documented and analysed. Wind speed profiles were estimated employing the two common methods: logarithmic wind and power law profiles. The seasonal and annual patterns, and atmospheric stability classifications were obtained. The daily wind shear variation and wind velocity profiles were determined at different atmospheric stability conditions, neutral, stable and unstable. The results confirm that the highest wind shear occurs during stable conditions at night and for longer in winter days, and the lowest during unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions near midday specially in summer days. Non-dimensional wind speed profiles were obtained and their behaviour was identified and compared. The available wind energy history was evaluated considering the effect of atmospheric stability conditions on the estimated extracted energy for each site

Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, thermal and static stratifications, turbulence, mixing, diffusion, convection, wind speed profiles, atmospheric stability parameters, available wind energy
New Designed Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater with Small Sized Parabolic Trough Collectors

New Designed Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater with Small Sized Parabolic Trough Collectors

Authors: Jehad M.Saed, Mohammad J.R. Abdunnabi, Akram A. Essnid, Ahmed M. A. Buishi
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Abstract

In this paper, the performance of thermosyphon solar water heater of small-sized parabolic-trough collectors has been experimentally investigated under Libyan climate. The solar collectors were fabricated from the locally available materials. The thermosyphon system consists of two parabolic troughs with 3.16 m2 aperture area and a storage tank of 170 liters. It is erected in the main outdoor testing area at the Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies for thermal performance evaluation. Twenty days of experiments were considered for the analysis of the new system performance. The experimental results showed that the maximum outlet temperature of withdrawn hot water at the end of the day was 73.4 °C for a daily solar insolation of 27.67 MJ/m2 and diffuse ratio less than 18% (clear sky). Whereas, the minimum hot water withdrawn temperature was 37 °C with daily solar insolation of 12.82 MJ/m2 and diffuse ratio over 61%. The system performance decreases as the diffuse ratio increases due to the nature of concentrating technology. The input/output characteristics equation of the system is obtained and the performance is compared with similar systems of the same size and different collection technologies. The compassion showed a competitive performance compared to other technologies.

Keywords: Thermosyphon SWHs, Parabolic trough collectors, experimental work, collector manufacturing
Numerical Simulation of the Integrated Solar/Hybrid Desalination System

Numerical Simulation of the Integrated Solar/Hybrid Desalination System

Authors: Y. Aldali, K. Morad, Nabil A.S. Elminshawy, F. Ahwide
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Abstract

A mathematical model is developed to predict the performance of the integrated solar/hybrid desalination system. The novel hybrid desalination system in this study consists of multi-stage thermal vapor compression (TVC) system and spiral wound air-gap membrane desalination (AGMD) units. The hot brine rejected from each evaporator stage of TVC system is used as the hot feed to the AGM unit. The parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) field with direct steam generation was considered as solar system. At solar time, the solar field generates a portion of motive steam required to operate the TVC system while the remaining part is generated by the boiler. The results of this study show that the rate of distilled water from TVC system is 3415 L/h (20.56 L/h.m2) and from the AGMD units is 150 L/h (6.944 L/h.m2) and the annual saving of natural gas (NG) consumption by using PTCs field is 24 tons. The economic study has indicated that the benefit/cost ratio from of the use of PTCs field to generate a portion of motive steam is 2.1 and the production cost of 1 m3 of distilled water from AGMD units is 0.9 $ in comparison with 0.45-2.51 $ from different types of water desalination systems.

Keywords: Integrated solar-hybrid desalination system, parabolic trough collectors, thermal vapor compression, air-gap membrane, benefit/cost ratio.
Investigation of Solar Chimney System and the Effect of Thermal Storage Capacity on the System Performance Part I: Experimental Investigation

Investigation of Solar Chimney System and the Effect of Thermal Storage Capacity on the System Performance Part I: Experimental Investigation

Authors: Rabia AL. Galia, Bashir H. Arebi, and Essaied M. Shuia
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Abstract

The performance and the thermal behavior of the solar chimney were investigated experimentally. The experimental data were collected from small pilot solar chimney which was designed and constructed at Sabratha Faculty of Engineering-Libya. Solar chimneys need solar radiation in order to work, thus, to have more stable condition, solar energy should be stored during the day and released back during the night. In order to investigate the temperature field during daylight and hours of darkness, the data were collected for a period of 24 hours for several days of months, May and June 2014. The investigation also include the effect of thermal storage on the temperature field. The solar chimney system contains two main components; the solar collector and the solar chimney. The solar collector roof has a circular area of 126 m2. A PVC pipe 0.2 m in diameter and 9 m in height was used as a chimney. Water containers were put as thermal blocks to study the effect of thermal storage on the performance of solar chimney. The measurements included the intensity of solar radiation inside/outside the collector, temperature and velocity of heated air at the entrance of the chimney, temperature and speed of wind outside the collector, temperature of the ground inside the collector and temperature measurements of air at particular points at different levels throughout the collector. Solar irradiance was found to affect the chimney temperature and subsequently chimney air velocity. The temperature difference between the hot air at chimney entrance and the ambient reached about 45 °C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the chimney. The hot air velocity in the chimney can reach 3.6 m/s (≈ 0.118 kg/sec). Wind speed was found to have a small influence on the performance of the solar chimney. The results indicate that the solar chimney system can operate in northwestern Libya. If this type of system is used on a large scale it can trap solar radiation and store a sufficient amount of heat through the use of additional heat storage such as water, which raises the air temperature in the collector after sunset to a sufficient value capable of generating air flow for a long time to run turbines to produce electricity during the day and after sunset especially during the summer time.

Keywords: Solar chimney; buoyancy effect; thermal storage; renewable energy.
Theoretical Study for a Solar Powered Desalination Unit using Humidification –Dehumidification Technique

Theoretical Study for a Solar Powered Desalination Unit using Humidification –Dehumidification Technique

Authors: Abdulghani M. Ramadan, Mabrouk Algamil
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Abstract

A solar powered desalination unit which is working on a humidification –dehumidification technique (HDH) is one of the most important techniques used in seawater desalination in remote and rural areas. It is easy to design, operate and maintain. In this paper, a theoretical study based on a design methodology for a solar assisted desalination unit working on a HDH principle under the prevailing conditions of Tajoura-Libya is carried out. The main target is to study the effect of different design and operating parameters that influence the performance of the unit and its productivity under different design scenarios; (spring, summer, autumn and winter). Results show that the productivity of the unit is increased with a corresponding increase in the inlet air mass flow rate to the solar air heater, inlet water mass flow rate to the humidifier and cooling water mass flow rate to the dehumidifier. A significant increase in the productivity of the unit is achieved when the initial water temperature and the initial mass of water inside the storage tank were increased. Moreover, Gained Output Ratio, GOR, values vary between (0.27 and 0.79) for winter and spring designs and (1.94 and 2.75) for autumn and summer designs respectively. In general, the productivity of the unit is estimated to be within a range from a minimum of (2 ~ 4) kg/m2.day, in winter to a maximum of (10 ~ 12) kg/m2.day, in summer, which makes it very convenient for using in rural and remote areas.

Keywords: desalination, humidification, dehumidification, GOR, solar air heater, fresh water, HDH
Simulation Of Indirect Solar Crop Dryers Augmented With Pebble-Bed Thermal Storages

Simulation Of Indirect Solar Crop Dryers Augmented With Pebble-Bed Thermal Storages

Authors: E.M. Elbenghazi, K. R. Agha, and E. I. Dekam
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Abstract

This paper presents a model of indirect solar dryer augmented with pebble bed thermal storage. The thermal storage system was considered to be placed inside the drying chamber above the 47°-tilted air solar collector and below the crop bed, where an average September-daily insolation profile was given for the 32°N location. A presented mathematical model took into consideration the pressure and natural buoyancy forces, employed the basic governing equations, atmospheric-air psychometric-chart relations, and published correlation relationships. A “QBASIC” computer program was written based on the trial and error method for calculation of different parameters. Dimensions of the dryer system, position and characteristics of the crop and storage beds, strongly affected the behavior of the dryer system, for both rice and tomato products. Referring to the considered indirect solar dryer design type, on the average two and five days were required for rice and tomatoes long-term drying, respectively. This seems to be visible in rice products, however, it is far from applicability for tomatoes mass-drying process in agricultural fields, due to its high initial moisture content.

Keywords: Air collector applications, Indirect solar dryers, Rice and tomatoes preservation, Natural hot air flow, Natural buoyancy forces
Effect of Solid Content and pH on Biogas Production From Organic Fraction Municipal Solid Waste

Effect of Solid Content and pH on Biogas Production From Organic Fraction Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Mukhtar M. Ashur, Iman M. Bengharbia , and Salh M. Aldulaimi
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Abstract

The increasing demand on energy and the constraints on environmental aspects motivate the research on municipal solid waste to be an environmentally friendly source of renewable energy. Therefor using the organic fraction of municipal solid household waste in an aerobic digester to produce biogas and a digestate which can be used safely as fertilizer. In this study three reactors of two liter volume are used to investigate the effect of total solid content (10%, 15%, 20%) and pH on the produced amount of biogas. The results revealed that lower percentage of solid content yields the highest amount of biogas and the pH below 6.0 will inhibit the biogas production. The percentage of methane from the 10% reactor was 50.2 % of the gas production.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion (AD), biogas production, organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW).

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