Latest 73rd report of COVID-19 from national authorities to WHO by April 2, 2020, there are 896450 confirmed cases with 45526 deaths globally. 0 to 14 days is the average range of incubation period. Recent study from China Center for disease control (CDC) showed that most of the patients were asymptomatic in its early days of infection that leads to widespread of virus. Nosocomial transmission is another serious problem the world is facing with this public health crisis. Corona viruses are known to cause respiratory and enteric disease in human and animals. These are round or oval and pleomorphic in shape. Limited information is present till now about COVID-19. It suggests that its infection ranges from previous corona virus encounters. Here in this review we summarize all information present till date and also a brief comparison to SARS and MERS. This is to identify the gaps in knowledge to share resources to recover from COVID-19. It also includes pharmaceutical drugs that showed a negative impact on SARS-CoV- 2 in in-vitro studies that can be used for its treatment till a suitable vaccine candidate is available. The most important task at this hour is to find a vaccine for the infection. Moreover, the research needs to be conducted for finding measures to face this kind of challenges in future.
Keywords: Clinical manifestation, Epidemiology of COVID-19, Outbreak, Prevention, Viral mystery.
The present investigation has been designed to study the effect of sublethal concentrations
(10% and 30%) of heavy metal, arsenic on the serum metabolites, serum enzyme activity and serum
electrolytes of Mystus vittatus after exposure to 30 days. The present study shows that serum
metabolites such as glucose, protein and bilirubin were significantly decreased while free amino
acid, triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly increased; serum enzymes such as acid
phosphatase (ACP), transminases (SGPT & SGOT) were increased significantly while alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), was decreased significantly; serum electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and
calcium were decreased significantly but chloride was increased significantly. Thus, this paper gives
an overview of the manipulation of fish, Mystus vittatus as a biomarker of heavy metals through
alternation in biochemical parameters.
Keywords: Arsenic, Electrolytes, Enzyme activities, Metabolites, Mystus vittatus.
The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis),once
very common birds, have declined markedly in most parts of the India including Doda district of
Jammu and Kashmir. Once these birds were distributed widely in Doda district but over the past few
years, they became not so common in this region. A study has been conducted during April 2016 to
April 2020 to establish the database for their current populationand to assess the possible causes of
their decline in Doda district. The house sparrow is a symbiotic bird species highly adaptable with
human habitation.House construction due to modern trend has resulted in reduced safe nesting for
sparrows and mynas. Green spaces in our cities give way to more concrete construction due to which
the house sparrow and myna loses its foraging ground. There is a dire need of ecological balancing to
save the Sparrows and Mynas from getting extinct.
Keywords: Acridotheres tristis, Conservation, Doda, Passer domesticus.
The present study was aimed to analyze the macrophytes as bioindicators in Bichhiya
River at Rewa. The study was conducted over a period of one year from January 2019 to December
2019 at 3 different sampling stations selected for the purpose in Rewa, a district of Madhya Pradesh,
India. The physico-chemical parameters of water such as temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, hardness
which are most useful for the prediction of distribution of macrophytes were analysed. A sum of 30
species of macrophytes was identified. Presence of macrophytes (1) reflects the nutrients
enrichment and organic loading and (2) indicates the water pollution. Abundance and high density
of Ceratophyllum demersum, Nitella hyalina, Chara vulgaris, Potamogeton pectinata indicated the
enrichment of nutrients and high organic loading.
Keywords: Bichhiya River, Bioindicator, Macrophytes, Rewa, Water Quality_
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is an essential element required for growth and development of plants both under stressed and non-stressed situations. It not only maintains the integrity of cell wall and membrane, but also serves as a second messenger in many developmental and physiological processes thereby inducing Ca2+ influx into cytosol, which decodes into downstream responses like defense against various environmental cues. Therefore, maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is essential for Ca2+ signalling. In this review, the current knowledge about the Ca2+ uptake, transport and signal transduction in different physiological aspects with respect to plant nutrient status will be discussed.
Keywords: Calcium, Kinases, Nutrient signalling, Plant immunity, Second messenger.
Noise pollution (or environmental noise) refers to unwanted or unpleasant sound that
disrupts the activity or balance of human and animal life. It reduces the concentration and negatively
affects the mental activity. The noise is generated by the human through various ways and activities.
Noise must be controlled and prevented by using various effective techniques at the source itself is
today's need. This review basically discuss the various sources of noise pollution, measurement of
noise, dB scale, equipments used in the measurement of noise levels, adverse effects of noise
pollution on health, control of indoor noise, control technologies available for noise pollution and
Indian penal codes to prevent noise pollution are the main points of focus of attention.
Keywords: Behavioral problems, Cardiovascular, Cognitive performance, dB, Psychological stress_
A survey was conducted during December 2019 to March 2020 in the Siraha district of
Nepal to assess farmers' perception on climate change and identifications of local practices to
maintain the yield of rice production. Total 60 samples were purposively selected from the study site.
During interaction and interview, the opinion of 75- 80% formers was that temperature increases,
rainfall duration and its frequency decreases due to the global warming. About 33.33% farmers
experience was an increase in flooding hazard due to increase in rainfall intensity during the rainy
season in Siraha and its vicinity. The majority of respondents perceived increased in weed and pest
(65%) and new weed (30%) and new pest (26.7%) infestation due to climate change. About 18%
respondents had a clear knowledge of climate change. The major source of information was selfexperiences
(80%) and organization (20%). The major climate change adaptation practices adopted
by farmers were the use of drought-resistant varieties (11.67%), flood-resistant varieties (13.33%)
and early maturing crops (15%). Crop insurance is one of the adaptation practices to climate change.
The study showed that 63.33 % of the respondents know about crop insurance policy but none of the
respondents have done crop insurance on different crops. The increase in disease and pest
infestation is major problems of farmers. The focus group discussion and key informant study
showed that the farmers were positive to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. So,
Government and policymakers should focus on climate-resilient adaptation strategies formulation
for rice cultivation through intensive research and extension package. Adoption of different resistant
varieties and technological adoption like zero tillage, application of irrigation, and training related to
adoption techniques should be done.
Keywords: Climate change, Global warming, Perception, Rainfall, Rice production_
A survey was conducted during January 2016 to December 2017 in four sites of Nashik to
study the diversity of the predatory beetles. During the present study, a total of 14 species belonging
to 11 genera and 4 subfamilies were recorded from the area studied. Subfamily Chilorinae is
represented by 2 species belonging to 2 genera, Subfamily Coccinellinae by 8 species belonging 6
genera, Subfamily Scymninae by 2 species belonging to 2 genera and Subfamily Sticholotidinae by 2
species belonging to the same single genus from the different sites of the study area. The Subfamily
Coccinellinae was the most variant and abundant among all the four subfamilies.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Coccinellids, Fauna, Ladybird beetles, Nashik_
Breast oncogenesis is a multistage process that involves epigenetic and genetic changes.
Epigenetics is outlined as reversible changes in gene expression, with no alteration in gene sequence.
DNA methylation, histone modification, and nucleosome transformation are the foremost epigenetic
changes that may get dysregulated in breast cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes
(TSGs) is reversed by varied molecules as well as natural compounds like polyphenols which will act
as a hypermethylation agent. Nowadays, much of the research is going in the direction of natural and
dietary compounds and attempting to search out novel and extra effective medical aid for the breast
cancer patients. In this literature, few vital natural chemical compounds effective against the breast
oncogenesis with their mode of actions are discussed. Such chemicals act as an analytical and
prognostic tool in breast cancer due to their role in epigenetic regulation.
Keywords: DNA methylation, Epigenetics, Gene expression, Oncogenesis, Tumor suppressor gene_
An initial survey was under taken to study the occurrence and diversity of fishes in Rapti
River flowing through Balrampur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The present survey was conducted
from January, 2018 to December, 2018 to find out the fish fauna of Rapti River at Balrampur district. A
total of 27 species of fishes belonging to 19 genera, 14 families and 7 orders were identified as a
preliminary survey and observation. This was the first systematic survey on the fish diversity of this
River. Order Siluriformes was found most dominant represented by 10 species, followed by
Cypriniformes with 7 species; Perciformes and Ophiocephaliformes with 3 species each;
Osteoglossiformes with 2 species while Clupeiformes and Beloniformes with only one species each.
Keywords: Cypriniformes, Fish Diversity, Rapti River, Siluriformes_
The present study is designed to analyze the population of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in and
around the Alwara Lake of district Kaushambi (Uttar Pradesh) India in 8 consecutive years from 2012 to 2019. The sarus
crane is the only resident and non-migratory breeding crane of Indian subcontinent. This bird is now globally threatened due
to the shrinking in the extent and quality of their wetland habitats, reduction in suitable mating sites and increased
anthropogenic activities. In the present study, authors attempted to count the number of sarus crane in 8 consecutive years
from 2012 to 2019 in the same study area. This systematic analysis reflects an increase in the number of sarus crane at
sustainable level in the area studied.
Keywords: Alwara Lake, Conservation, Sarus crane, Threatened, Wetland_
The spawn of Indian major carps makes the Halda River an irreplaceable heritage of Bangladesh. The study was
conducted to observe present status of Indian major carp breeding and collection management procedures of carp spawn and
fry from the Halda River along with marketing process and economic conditions of the fishers and spawn collector. Data
were collected through direct interview. In marketing system of carp eggs, spawn and fry in the Halda River, a number of
intermediaries were involved actively in the marketing system. Four different types of marketing systems were identified in
Halda spawn and fry distribution fry seller to final consumer. Fertilized eggs and spawn were collected and hatched by the
local fisher's and collectors using their indigenous method. Those egg collectors sold to the hatchery owners per kg spawn at
the rate of 50,000-80,000 BdTk. Again hatchery owners sold each and every fry at the rate of 5.0-6.0 BDTk. to the local fish
farmers. Yearly survey information on Halda River's egg, spawn and fry collection showed an ups and downs production rate
during last 07 years. The production status in the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 was 230, 1569, 526, 508,
107, 320 and 338kg respectively and these types of ups and downs indicated poor number of broods, poor breeding ground
and poor ecosystem of the Halda River. Different types of transports were used to carry fertilized eggs and spawn of Halda
River. Investigation was also done to find out the economic condition, average income during breeding season and off
season, educational background and family status of the local people of Halda region involving in fry collecting and
marketing system. The study recommends that ecosystem health and breeding ground of Halda River should be protected for
ensuring availability of pure line fertilized eggs and spawn of Indian major carp.
Keywords: Economic resources, Fertilized egg, Halda River, Marketing, Production, Spawn_
Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Carrot grass) is an annual herb of neotropical origin that now has a serious problem
and pantropical distribution. It was first reported in India in 1950 at Pune (Maharashtra). This weed is very aggressive and
commonly known as Congress grass and carrot grass in India. It has achieved major weed status in India within a relatively
short period of time. P. hysterophorus is grown mostly in cultivated fields, fallow lands, pasture and along the roadsides. To
analyse the distribution of this weed in Chitrakoot district an exhaustive survey was performed in the holly place of Uttar
Pradesh like Rajapur, Pahadi, Karwi and M.G.C.G.V. campus. During survey, the distribution of P. hysterophorus was
measured in the agricultural lands, road side, river side and fallow lands. Moreover, the study also investigated the harmful
effect of Parthenium upon native weeds and flora in the Chitrakoot district. Quadrates method (1mx1m) was used to collect
the data of distribution and population of this weed. In this investigation, total 14 weed species were recorded belonging to 8
different families and 14 genera. The data were recorded by Absolute density (m2), relative density (%), absolute frequency
(%), relative frequency (%) and importance value (%) of Parthenium and other associated weeds. The finding reveals that
Parthenium weed is the most dominant species in comparison to other associated weeds. In conclusion, the Parthenium
weed become a serious problem and replaces the entire native flora in the non-crop area. Due to no proper management and
high growth rate, nowadays it becomes as super weed in the Chitrakoot district. So, the management of Parthenium weed
requires the call attention from the Government Policy makers and proper quarantine inspection to conserve the native flora
and fields crops to get maximum crop yield.
Keywords: Absolute density, Absolute frequency, Relative density, Relative frequency, Value, Zygogramma_
The kiwano belongs to the Cucumber family. The alien looking fruit has similarities with Pomegranate and
Passion fruit in its texture and is a traditional food plant in the African continent. Its increasing popularity in the health arena
is due to the abundance of health benefits it possesses. It improves cognitive function, used as a recovery aid for heart stroke;
kiwano melon slows down the ageing process and even neutralizes the free radicals in the body. The high fiber content in
kiwano makes it an ideal digestive aid. Due to the presence of essential nutrients, minerals and organic compounds in the
fruit, it got recognition by WHO, stating kiwano to be an essential fruit in fighting against illness and malnutrition. The health
benefits of the kiwano are in the nutrients it contains including vitamin C, Fe and K. It also has smaller amounts of P, Mg, Zn,
Ca, Cu, and Na. The seeds contain linoleic and oleic acid. Linoleic acid is an omega fatty acid which is required for human
health while oleic acid is thought to help in lowering the blood pressure. A couple of anti-oxidants recognized in kiwano seeds
are α-tocopherol as well as β-tocopherol. The yellowish-green colored pigments are located at the seeds. Its pulp contains the
carotenoid, beta carotene. The beta carotene strengthens the body's defense mechanisms and sustains eye and skin health. It
may also help to prevent cancer simply by suppressing the growth of free-radicals. This review article is aimed to discuss the
diseases or ailments that are treated with the plant Cucumis metuliferus.
Keywords: Fatty acids, Free radicals, Illness, Malnutrition, Minerals, Tocopherol_
Biodiversity is the 'Full variety of Life on Earth'. It includes diversity within species, between species and of
ecosystem. Biodiversity plays an important role in climate regulation. Biodiversity conservation will lead to strengthening of
ecosystem resilience and will improve the ability of ecosystem to provide important services during increasing climate
pressures. But due to anthropogenic activities the global climate has changed since last few decades.This climate change
adversely affected the biological resources of the country. This review basically discuss the importance of biodiversity, the
consequences faced by the plants, animals, humans and ecosystem owing to the climate change and also control measures or
strategies should be taken for the conservation of biodiversity which can protect the earth from the consequence of climate
Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate change, Conservation, Ecosystem, Human health, livelihood, Species_