GMJ Medicine

GMJ Medicine

Basic info

  • Publisher: GMJ Medical Press, LLC
  • Country of publisher: germany
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Dec/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Clinical Medicine, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Structural Biology, Neurosciences, Genetics and Epigenetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, Molecular Medicine, Microbiology, Dentistry, Nursing and Allied Health Sciences, Pharmacy, Pathology, Anatomy, Pharmacology, Physiology, Toxicology, Surgery, Neurobiology, Neurophysiology
  • Language of fulltext: english

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2017
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in:
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '15' articles

Welcome to GMJ Medicine; The Official Medical Journal of the International Center for Intelligent Research (GMJ Medical Press, LLC, Germany)

Welcome to GMJ Medicine; The Official Medical Journal of the International Center for Intelligent Research (GMJ Medical Press, LLC, Germany)

Authors: Nanuli Doreulee
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Abstract

GMJ Medicine is a continuous open access, online, peer reviewed journal owned and published by GMJ Medical Press, LLC in Germany from September, 2017. GMJ Medicine dedicated to publish good quality of research work in all areas of basic and clinical medicine. We will be published manuscript with new and interesting topics in the journal. Another of our goals is to increase scientific productivity in the fields of medical and health sciences. All research articles submitted to GMJ Medicine should be original in nature, never previously published in any journal or presented in a conference or undergoing such process across the globe. All the submissions will be peer-reviewed by the panel of experts associated with particular field. Submitted papers should meet the internationally accepted criteria and manuscripts should follow the style of the journal for the purpose of both reviewing and editing. The ethical policy of GMJ Medicine is based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and complies with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) codes of conduct. The following guidelines should be read in line with the journal’s guide for authors. The statements confirm that confidentiality and fairness should be considered in all the GMJ Medicine procedures and interactions. Readers, authors, reviewers and editors should follow these ethical policies once working with GMJ Medicine. We are delighted to welcome all authors to the first issue of "GMJ Medicine". The publication frequency of GMJ Medicine is continuous. All articles will be published immediately after acceptance under one VOLUME annually.

Keywords: GMJ Medicine, Continuous open access, Peer reviewed, GMJ Medical Press, Germany
The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lung Capacity in Active, Previous, and Passive student smokers

The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lung Capacity in Active, Previous, and Passive student smokers

Authors: Danil Hammoudi, Adekunle Sanyaolu, Dina Adofo, Ivan Antoine
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Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoke predisposes a person to a lot of preventable diseases; this study aimed at comparing Lung Function in active, previous and non-smokers in students using the ratio of Forced Vital Capacity, to Forced Expiratory Volume measurement in one second called the Tiffeneau-Pinelli Index. Methods: A cross-section of 77 students from the St. James School of Medicine, Anguilla campus in the Caribbean who are active smokers, previous smokers or non-smokers were randomly sampled with consent using questionnaire based study and measurement of FEV/FVC ratio was done. Result: The results showed that the mean FEV/FVC ratio for Smokers was lower than that for non-smokers and Ex-smokers in both test 1 and 2. The FEV/FVC ratio by sex was higher in females for both test 1 and 2. There were significant differences among the races with Caucasians having the lowest mean value of 86.04 and 85.88 for test 1 and 2 respectively. Higher ratio of more than 0.7 for smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers was recorded for mean FEV/FVC ratio. Conclusion: The FEV/FVC ratio was lower in smokers compared to non-smokers and Ex-smokers though not statistically significant.

Keywords: FEV/FVC, Ex-smokers, Smokers, Non-smokers, Test
Oral Administration of Menthol Alleviate Adverse Effects of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Blood Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Status in Wister Rats.

Oral Administration of Menthol Alleviate Adverse Effects of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Blood Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Status in Wister Rats.

Authors: Behzad Mesbahzadeh, Mahshid Garmsiri, Faranak Jalalvand, Layla Shojaie, Muhammad Azam Kakar
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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been related to dyslipidemia and suppression of antioxidant status. Howeverl, novel agents such as menthol can be an efficient strategy for alleviation of PCOS. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of menthol in blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant status in Wistar rats induced with PCOS. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats were used in this study and the animals divided into five groups including; 1) Control group (Control) or healthy rats, 2) PCOS group (PCOS) that did not receive any menthol, 3, 4 & 5) Animals that received 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg of body weight (PCOS-2, PCOS-4 and PCOS-6). To induce the PCOS, 5 mg estradiol valerate was administrated. At the end of the trial session, blood samples were taken to evaluate plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and total oxidation status (TOS). Results: Induction of PCOS increased glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, FRAP, AOPP and TOS, and decrease HDL-C. The use of menthol especially in higher levels improved the mentioned parameters. PCOS also increased body weight and oral treatment of menthol helped to maintain the body weight. Conclusion: It is concluded that menthol improved antioxidant status in rats with PCOS. Thus, use of menthol is recommended for treatment of PCOS.

Keywords: Glucose, Lipid profile, Oxidation, PCOS, Rat
Carvacrol Alleivated Negative Effects of Diabetes on Inflammation and Oxidation by Modulation in Gene Expression of Inflammatory and Antioxidant System in Diabetic Rat Model

Carvacrol Alleivated Negative Effects of Diabetes on Inflammation and Oxidation by Modulation in Gene Expression of Inflammatory and Antioxidant System in Diabetic Rat Model

Authors: Seyed Ashkan Tabibzadeh Dezfuli, Mohanna Ehsani, Omid Lakzaei Azar
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Abstract

Background: Diabetes has been known as a prevalence disorder and the use of common drugs has been faced many issues with multiple limitations. This study aimed to evaluate the use of carvacrol, as a novel agent, for treatment of diabetes. Methods: A single dose of streptozotocin (55mg/kg body weight) was used to induce the diabetes in rats. The animals were grouped into five groups including 1) Control healthy animals, 2) Diabetic controls, 3, 4 & 5) Diabetic animals given carvacrol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg body weight/day) in neutral sterile olive oil solution oral gavage, respectively. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in liver were assessed. Results: Administration of streptozotocin increased levels of MDA, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and also decreased activities of catalase, SOD and GPX (P<0.05). Oral administration of carvacrol, especially 15 mg/kg body weight/day, could decrease levels of MDA, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and also increase activities of catalase, SOD and GPX in comparison to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Carvacrol could decrease or alleviate the negative effects of carvacrol on inflammation and antioxidant status that could be attributed to antioxidant properties. It could be recommended to apply carvacrol in commercial prescription in combination with other agents or as a single agent for treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Diabetes, Pro-inflammatory cytokines
Modulation of 6-gingerolin Antidepressant-like Effects: An Investigation of Serotonergic System in Mice Model

Modulation of 6-gingerolin Antidepressant-like Effects: An Investigation of Serotonergic System in Mice Model

Authors: Saman Sedighi, Bahram Nasiri, Reza Alipoor, Nasrollah Moradi-kor
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Abstract

Background: It has been reported that ginger is involved in serotonergic system. It seems that ginger effect could be attributed to its active compound or gingerol. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gingerol on antidepressant-like effects by investigation of serotonergic system in mice model. Methods: Following pilot study and selection of doses, mice were divided into 4 groups. Receptor antagonists were injected, gingerol was administrated and a trial suspension test was conducted. Results: Administration of gingerol could induce antidepressant-like effect (P<0.001), without induction of changes in spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with pCPA (preventor of serotonin synthesis), WAY100135 (receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5HT2A receptor antagonist), and cyproheptadine (5HT2 receptor antagonist) prevented the antidepressant-like effect induced by the gingerol (P<0.05). Conclusion: It could be stated that gingerol is involved in antidepressant-like effects through serotonergic system in mice model. It could be recommended to use the gingerol in commercial preparations for prescription as an antidepressant agent.

Keywords: Antidepressant-like, Gingerol, Mouse model, Serotonin pathway
Efficiency of Probiotic in Immobilized Rats Through Involvement of the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Systems

Efficiency of Probiotic in Immobilized Rats Through Involvement of the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Systems

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari, Sajjad Aboudzadeh, Sadegh Vaziri, Mehrdad Mirzaei Roozbahani
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Abstract

Background: Immobilization is known as type of stress that influences antioxidant status and inflammation factors. On the other hand, probiotics could significantly improve antioxidant status and inflammatory response. This study was thus conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotics in immobilized rats through involvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory systems. Methods: A total number of 72 Albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, including1) Normal control group without stress (Control), 2) Immobilized rats without additive (Immobilized), 3) Immobilized rats given with 104 CFU probiotic.day-1(Probiotic). Inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, corticostrone and serum antioxidants were evaluated in days 7 and 14. Results: Results showed that immobilization could significantly increase the serum concentrations of TNF-α, TGF-β corticostrone, MDA and NO and also decrease SOD, GPx and IL-10 in days 7 and 14, as immobilized rats were compared with control rats (P<0.05). However, administration of probiotic could significantly improve the above mentioned parameters (P<0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that the use of probiotics could alleviate adverse effects of stress. It could be advised to use of probiotics in form of dairy and other supplements to overcome on stress.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, Immobilization stress, Inflammatory responses
The Protective Role of Menthone Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rat Model

The Protective Role of Menthone Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rat Model

Authors: Mohamad Reza Nazer, Mohammad Darvishi, Arefeh Qolampour
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Abstract

Background: The use of novel agents has been considered for management of different diseases. Gastric ulcer is a common disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of menthone, as a novel agent, on gastric ulcers in Indomethacin-induced model rat. Methods: Animals were divided into 3 groups: 1) Control group that received only distilled water, 2) Animals were treated with 40 mg/kg bw omeprazole (Omeprazole) and 3) Animals were treated with 40 mg/kg bw menthone (Menthone). A single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to per animal. Gastric secretions and antioxidant parameters were evaluated in the end of trial. Results: It was observed that an increased ulcer index, gastric volume, malondialdehyde level and decreased super oxide dismutase and pepsin activity in control group in comparison to other groups (P<0.05). The use of menthone and Omeprazole could alleviate the effects of indomethacin. Conclusion: Menthone may not have positive effects similar to Omeprazole, but it could attenuate effects of indomethacin. We recommend using of menthone, as an efficient agent, for treatment of gastric ulcer.

Keywords: Gastric secretions, Menthone, Ulcer index, Rat model
Relation Between Novel Markers with Sperm Quality in Obese Rats

Relation Between Novel Markers with Sperm Quality in Obese Rats

Authors: Abdolreza Kheirollahi, Shadi Hatami, Ali Olfati
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Abstract

Background: Obesity and inflammation stemmed from obesity basically affects fertility and male reproductive system by its negative effect on erectile dysfunction and semen variables. Novel factors could be used to determine the fertility and infertility. This study was conducted to evaluate the relation between novel markers with sperm quality in obese rats. Methods: Animals were grouped into 2 groups including normal group received normal rat pellet diet for 12 weeks of intervention, while other group received a high fat diet. The serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-3, TNF-α, sialic acid, CRP, haptoglobin and fibrinogen were measured. Sperm motility was assessed. Resuts: Results showed that progressive motility and non-progressive motility and immotile were respectively lower and higher in obese rats in comparison to control groups (P<0.05). It was observed positive correlation between inflammatory factors and immobility and negative correlation between progressive motility with inflammation (P<0.05). Conclusion: Pro-inflammatory factors had significant correlation with sperm quality and could be used as markers for infertility.

Keywords: Fibrinogen, Inflammatory factors, Obese rats, Sialic acid
An Overview on Novel Antioxidant and Anti-cancer Properties of Lycopene: A Comprehensive Review

An Overview on Novel Antioxidant and Anti-cancer Properties of Lycopene: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Manjeet Gupta , Mujeebullah Panizai, Muhammad Farooq Tareen, Sylvia Ortega-Martinez , Nanuli Doreulee
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Abstract

Lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, is the reason for redness in tomatoes and some other vegetables. Lycopene has also been known as one fat-soluble red pigment that is produced by plants and some microorganisms. Nowadays, the effects of lycopene on healthiness have recently been significantly interested. Antioxidant properties of lycopene have been received attention as an anticancer. Different studies have investigated the effects of lycopene in relation to different cancers types. Lycopene significantly shows powerful anticancer activity against prostate cancer, even in progressed and aggressive condition. This review article aims to introduce the lycopene and possible mechanisms for the treatment of cancer.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Cancers, Lycopene
Original Article: Anthropometric Study of the Facial Index in the Population of Medical Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Original Article: Anthropometric Study of the Facial Index in the Population of Medical Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Authors: Masoumeh Dodangheh, Tahmineh Mokhtari , Sina Mojaverrostami, Mostfa Nemati, Sam Zarbakhsh , Ali Arabkheradmand , Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
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Abstract

Background: Facial anthropometry is useful in individual identifcation and reconsructive surgery. In the present sudy, we aimed to determine the facial characterisic of the Iranian population through anthropometric sudy. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional sudy, 200 (100 male and 100 female) volunteer medical sudents (aged 20-25 years) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. The facial variables including Total Facial Height (TFH), Upper Facial Height (UFH) and Facial Width (FW) were measured and accordingly the Total Facial Index (TFI) and Upper Facial Index (UFI) were calculated. The data were analyzed using Statisical Software (SPSS). Results: The mean age of subjects was 22.97±1.12. the mean TFH, UFH, FW, TFI and UFI was 11.155 cm, 7.05 cm, 11.68 cm, 95.75, and 60.55, respectively. The mos common types of face were hyperleptoprosopic (54%) and hyperleptene (54%) based on TFI and UFI, respectively. There were signifcant differences in the facial characterisic including TFH (P<0.0001), UFH (P<0.0001), FW (P=0.02), TFI (P<0.0001), and UFI (P<0.0001) of males and female subjects. Conclusion: According to the results, the mos frequent face type was hyperleptoprosopic based on TFI and hyperleptene based on UFI in Iranian population, which showed the differences in the various populations. Additionally, the values of facial characterisics were higher in males than females. So, sexual dimorphism was recorded according to the facial measurements of Iranian population which can be considered in the reconsructive surgeries.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Face, Facial Index, Iranian population
Nano-Phytosome of Quercetin Could Protect Liver from Plasmodium Berghei in Mouse Model

Nano-Phytosome of Quercetin Could Protect Liver from Plasmodium Berghei in Mouse Model

Authors: Marzieh Davoodi, Fayyaz Ahmed, Mujeebullah Panizai, Zia Obeidavi
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Abstract

Background and purpose: Malaria is one of most important diseases especially in tropical regions. Flavonoids are known to have beneficial properties that could be profitable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nano-phytosomes of Quercetin (NQ) on liver damages of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Methods: A total of sixty male BALB/c mice were intra-peritoneally infected by administration of 106 P.berghei-infected RBCs. Animals were acclimatized for 7 days and divided into 5 groups including 1) Mice received 0.9% isotonic saline and considered as negative control (NC) and infected mice treated with saline or positive control (PC), 3) treated with 2 mg/kg body weight of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HF) for 4 days (HF), 4) treated with 10 mg/kg body weight of NQ for 4 days (NQ) and 5) treated with 10 mg/kg body weight of NQ and 2 mg/kg body weight of HF for 4 days (NQ+HF). Histo-pathological parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also evaluated. Results: Administration of P. berghei could increase scores for histopathological parameters and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.0001). Administration of HF and NQ could alleviate adverse effects of P. berghei on histo-pathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusion: A combination of NQ and HF could show the best response. It means that NQ can be used as adjuvant therapy for treatment of infection induced by Plasmodium berghei.

Keywords: Malaria, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, Quercetin, Liver damages
Phytochemicals as Safe Agents for Prevention of Cancer: Recent Advances in Cancer Therapy

Phytochemicals as Safe Agents for Prevention of Cancer: Recent Advances in Cancer Therapy

Authors: Kamran Akhtar, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Aliza Kurmashvili
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Abstract

Cancer has been known as one of the genetic disorder and also as second cause for death in developed countries and/or even in developing countries. It has been estimated to be 26 million new cases of cancer and 17 million cancer death yearly. Some phytochemicals have been known to have anticancer activity and on the other hand modern medicine lacks effective drugs against certain types of cancers. Flavonoids are placed in the nucleus of mesophyll cells and inside centers of reactive oxygen species group. Alkaloids are known class of ring compounds nitrogen having organic compounds which have a broad range of anticancer properties. In this review article, we have described some phytochemicals and also possible mechanisms for prevention of cancer.

Keywords: Alkaloids, Anticancer, Phytochemical
Dietary Supplementing with Resveratrol Improves Antioxidant Status in Hypercholestrolemic Rats

Dietary Supplementing with Resveratrol Improves Antioxidant Status in Hypercholestrolemic Rats

Authors: Sedighe Yousefi, Faezeh Nemati Karimooy, Toktam Miyanbandi, Fatemeh Esmaeilpour
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Abstract

Background and purpose: Natural agents have been used for protection against damages. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementing of resveratrol on antioxidant status improvement in hypercholestrolemic rats with Plasmodium berghei. Methods: Rats were divided into 6 groups including rats fed with basal diet (Control group), basal diet containing resveratrol 2.5 mg/kg (2.5 RES), basal diet containing 5.0 mg/kg of resveratrol (5.0 RES), basal diet containing 1% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (Control HC), basal diet containing 2.5 mg/kg of resveratrol and 1% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (2.5 RES-HC), basal diet containing resveratrol 5.0 mg/kg and 1% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (5.0 RES-HC). The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and expression levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), paraoxonase-1 and sulfiredoxin-1 were assessed. Results: The plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and malondialdehyde were significantly higher and level of HDL was significantly lower in hypercholesterolemic rats, but dietary supplementation with resveratrol significantly improved them (P<0.05). Hypercholesterolemic rats showed a decrease in GPx and GR and an increase in paraoxonase-1 and sulfiredoxin-1 compared to the healthy control (P<0.05), but applying resveratrol improved the adverse effects of hypercholesterolemia on mentioned parameters (P<0.05). Conclusion: Resveratrol can be used for treatment of patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, Blood parameters, Resveratrol, Wistar rats
Beneficial Effects of Curcuminon on Rats with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Evaluation of the Gene Expression of GLUT4, Erα and Insulin Resistance

Beneficial Effects of Curcuminon on Rats with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Evaluation of the Gene Expression of GLUT4, Erα and Insulin Resistance

Authors: Mohamad Kazem Shahmoradi, Majid Askaripour, Soodeh Rajabi, Giga Dzigandzli
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Abstract

Background and purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the women and animals. Some common hormonal therapies are used to treat the PCOS condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of curcumin on rats with PCOS by evaluation of the gene expression of the GLUT4 and Erα and insulin resistance. Methods: Following induction of PCOS, sixty Sprague–Dawley female rats were divided into four groups including: (1) Control group (2) Control PCOS (3 & 4) those treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of curcumin respectively. Body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin serum (FIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and gene expression of GLUT4 and Erα were evaluated. Results: Induction of PCOS increased body weight, FBG, FIS, HOMA-IR and decreased gene expression of GLUT4 and Erα (P<0.05), but oral administration of curcumin could alleviate adverse effects of PCOS on the mentioned parameters (P<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that curcumin alleviates adverse effects of PCOS. It can be recommended to use the curcumin for the treatment of patients with PCOS.

Keywords: Curcumin, PCOS, Erα, Fasting insulin, GLUT4, Rat
Carvacrol and Voluntary Exercise Improved Molecular Profile in Hippocampus of Male Rats Nourished with High-Fat Diet

Carvacrol and Voluntary Exercise Improved Molecular Profile in Hippocampus of Male Rats Nourished with High-Fat Diet

Authors: Anna Baratashvili, Elena Javakhishvili, Emma Tarkhnishvili, Isabel Kvantidze
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Abstract

Background and purpose: High-fat diet (HFD) is one risk factor in some disorders and increases oxidative stress. The use of carvacrol and voluntary exercise can be profitable. This study was thus conducted to evaluate the single and combined effects between carvacrol and voluntary exercise on gene expression in hippocampus of male rats fed with high-fat diet. Methods: A total number of 60 adult Wistar male rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) Healthy control, 2) HFD group, 3) VE group that received HFD plus voluntary exercise, 4) Carvacrol group received HFD plus Carvacrol and 5) VE+ Carvacrol group that received HFD plus Carvacrol and voluntary exercise. Gene expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (Trk-B), synapsin I and Cyclic AMP-Response Element Binding protein (CREB) were investigated. Results: HFD significantly decreased expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB, but inclusion of carvacrol and the use of voluntary exercise could significantly increased gene expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB (P<0.05). The best responses were observed in animals fed with carvacrol in along to voluntary exercise (P<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that carvacrol and voluntary exercise can improve gene expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB in rats fed with HFD. It is thus recommended to use of the Carvacrol and voluntary exercise in peoples that consume HFD.

Keywords: BDNF, Carvacrol, Exercise, High-fat diet, Rat

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