EAI Endorsed Transactions on Cognitive Communications

EAI Endorsed Transactions on Cognitive Communications

Basic info

  • Publisher: European Alliance for Innovation
  • Country of publisher: belgium
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Jun/07

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Computer and Information Science, Telecommunications
  • Publisher's keywords: Self-Organizing Networks, Software Defined Radio, Energy-Efficiency Design in Cognitive Communication Systems, Bio-Inspired Communication Systems, Physical (PHY) Layer Design for Cognitive Radios, Spectrum Sensing and Dynamic Spectrum Access
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 7 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2015
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in:
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '58' articles

Welcome Message from Editor-in-Chief

Welcome Message from Editor-in-Chief

Authors: Tao Chen
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

It is our great honour to introduce the inaugural issue of EAI Transactions on Cognitive Communications. It has been more than one decade since the creation of the cognitive radio concept. The research and development of cognitive communications have then been sparked. Now the new era of communications is coming. The year of 2014 will witness the beginning of the 5G era. It is the year where cognitive communications meet real applications. We hope our new released Transactions will contribute to this new development. The first issue of the Transactions includes four well selected papers. All of them are related to spectrum sensing, a key enabling technique in cognitive radio. We believe spectrum sensing techniques will play an important role in future wireless network. In the first paper, Yang et al, proposed a data fusion based sensing framework to detect primary users based on single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SCFDMA). The main contribution of the paper is to encode sensing results by a novel frequency-hopping M-ary modulation scheme back to the fusion centre. The second paper studied the stability of queues in primary and secondary users under random spectrum sensing and random channel access of secondary users. Shafie showed in this paper, by optimizing sensing and channel access time, secondary users can enhance the throughput while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) of primary users. The third paper by Shan et al. looked into the multiple channel wireless microphone user emulation attack problem in the TV white space. They proposed the crosscorrelation based detection solution based on low complexity FM demodulator to detect emulated signals at low signal to noise ratio (SNR) region. The proposed solution was verified by the hardware prototype.

Keywords: Welcome Message from Editor-in-Chief
Energy-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing of SC-FDMA Systems

Energy-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing of SC-FDMA Systems

Authors: Fucheng Yang, Lie-Liang Yang
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

In this paper, we propose a frequency-hopping M-ary frequency-shift keying spectrum sensing network (FH/MFSK SSN) for identifying the on/off states of the users supported by a single-carrier frequency-division multiple assess (SC-FDMA) primary radio (PR) system. Specifically, the spectrums of an uplink interleaved frequency-division multiple access (IFDMA) PR system are monitored by a number of cognitive radio sensing nodes (CRSNs). These CRSNs distributedly detect the on/off states of users based on one of the three energy detection schemes. After the local spectrum sensing, the CRSNs transmit their detected states to a fusion centre (FC) with the aid of FH/MFSK techniques. At the FC, the on/off states of the users supported the IFDMA PR system are finally classified according to either the conventional equal-gain combining (EGC) scheme or the novel erasure-supported EGC (ES-EGC) scheme. In this way, the on/off information about the spectrums occupied by an IFDMA PR systemcan be obtained, so that they can be exploited by a cognitive radio (CR) system. For local spectrum sensing, in this paper, we consider four synchronisation scenarios concerning the synchronisation between the received IFDMA signals and the CRSNs. The performance of the FH/MFSK SSN associated with various schemes is investigated by simulations. Our studies show that the FH/MFSK SSN constitutes one of the highly reliable spectrum sensing schemes, which are capable of exploiting both the space diversity provided by local CRSNs and the frequency diversity provided by the subcarriers of IFDMA system.

Keywords: Spectrum sensing, cognitive radio, cooperative, energy-based detection, frequency-hopping, M-ary frequency-shift keying, equal-gain combining, erasure-supported equal-gain combining, noncoherent detection, multipleaccess
Optimal Random Access and Random Spectrum Sensing for an Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio with and without Primary Feedback Leveraging

Optimal Random Access and Random Spectrum Sensing for an Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio with and without Primary Feedback Leveraging

Authors: Ahmed El Shafie
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

We consider a secondary user (SU) with energy harvesting capability. We design access schemes for the SU which incorporate random spectrum sensing and random access, and which make use of the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback. We study two problem-formulations. In the first problemformulation, we characterize the stability region of the proposed schemes. The sensing and access probabilities are obtained such that the secondary throughput is maximized under the constraints that both the primary and secondary queues are stable. Whereas in the second problem-formulation, the sensing and access probabilities are obtained such that the secondary throughput is maximized under the stability of the primary queue and that the primary queueing delay is kept lower than a specified value needed to guarantee a certain quality of service (QoS) for the primary user (PU). We consider spectrum sensing errors and assume multipacket reception (MPR) capabilities. Numerical results show the enhanced performance of our proposed systems.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, energy harvesting, queues, stability, dominant system, queueing delay
Detecting Multi-ChannelWireless Microphone User Emulation Attacks in White Space with Noise

Detecting Multi-ChannelWireless Microphone User Emulation Attacks in White Space with Noise

Authors: Dan Shan, Kai Zeng, Weidong Xiang, Paul Richardson
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are susceptible to primary user emulation (PUE) attacks. Conventional PUE attack detection approaches consider television broadcasting as the primary user. In this work, however, we study a special kind of PUE attack named wireless microphone user emulation (WMUE) attack. Existing work on WMUE attack detection deals with single channel senario. Although multi-channelWM(MCWM) systems are common, detecting WMUE attacks under a multi-channel setting in noisy environments has not been well studied. In this work, we propose a novelmulti-channelWMUEattack detection scheme which operates in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments with low computational complexity, thanks to the first 1.5-bit FM demodulator whose outputs are represented by only 0, 1 and -1. Experimental results show that, the proposed scheme can effectively detect multi-channel WMUE attacks within 0.25 second when SNR is lower than 6 dB.

Keywords: CRN, WMUE, MCWM, FM demodulator
Energy/bandwidth-Saving Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Two-hopWRAN

Energy/bandwidth-Saving Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Two-hopWRAN

Authors: Ming-Tuo Zhou, Chunyi Song, Chin Sean Sum, Hiroshi Harada
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

A two-hop wireless regional area network (WRAN) providing monitoring services operating in Television White Space (TVWS), i.e., IEEE P802.22b, may employ a great number of subscriber customer-premises equipments (S-CPEs) possibly without mains power supply, leading to requirement of cost-effective and power-saving design. This paper proposes a framework of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) and an energy/bandwidth saving CSS scheme to P802.22b. In each round of sensing, S-CPEs with SNRs lower than a predefined threshold are excluded from reporting sensing results. Numerical results show that the fused missed-detection probability and false alarmprobability could remainmeeting sensing requirements, and the overall fused error probability changes very little. With 10 S-CPEs, it is possible to save more than 40% of the energy/bandwidth on a Rayleigh channel. The principle proposed can apply to other advanced sensing technologies capable of detecting primary signals with low average SNR.

Keywords: TV White Space, Cognitive radio, IEEE 802.22, Wireless Regional Access Network, Cooperative Spectrum Sensing, Energy saving
Performance Analysis on the Coexistence of Multiple Cognitive Radio Networks

Performance Analysis on the Coexistence of Multiple Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Lijun Qian, Oluwaseyi Omotere, Riku Jäntti
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

The demand for wireless services is growing on a daily basis while spectral resources to support this growth are static. Therefore, there is need for the adoption of a new spectrum sharing paradigm. Cognitive Radio (CR) is a revolutionary technology aiming to increase spectrum utilization through dynamic spectrum access, as well as mitigating interference among multiple coexisting wireless networks. In many practical scenarios, multiple CR networks may coexist in the same geographical area, and they may interfere with each other and also have to yield to the primary user (PU). In this study, we investigate how much throughput a node in a CR network can achieve in the presence of another CR network and a PU. The results of this study illustrate how the transmission probability and sensing performance affect the achievable throughput of a node in coexisting CR networks. In addition, these results may serve as guidance for the deployment of multiple CR networks.

Keywords: Multiple cognitive radio networks, achievable rate
Spectrum Occupancy Measurements in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band: Guidelines for Licensed Shared Access in Finland

Spectrum Occupancy Measurements in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band: Guidelines for Licensed Shared Access in Finland

Authors: Marko Höyhtyä, Marja Matinmikko, Xianfu Chen, Juhani Hallio, Jani Auranen, Reijo Ekman, Juha Röning, Jan Engelberg, Juha Kalliovaara, Tanim Taher, Ali...
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

This paper presents results from spectrum occupancy measurements in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band at Turku, Finland. The band is currently under study in European regulation and standardization for mobile communication systems. We review the recently introduced Licensed Shared Access (LSA) concept as a potential means for making the 2.3-2.4 GHz band available for mobile communications on a shared basis while protecting the rights of the incumbent spectrum users. The spectrum occupancy measurements conducted in one location in Finland show that the use of this band is rather low indicating that there might be potential for mobile communication systems to share this band with the incumbents under the LSA approach. Based on the obtained knowledge about the use of the studied band in Finland we create a set of guidelines for LSA to make the operation efficient both from the technical and economic viewpoint.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum measurement, spectrum occupancy, spectrum sharing
A Reputation-based Distributed District Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grids

A Reputation-based Distributed District Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grids

Authors: D. Borra, M. Iori, C. Borean, F. Fagnani
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

In this paper we develop and test a distributed algorithm providing Energy Consumption Schedules (ECS) in smart grids for a residential district. The goal is to achieve a given aggregate load pro le. The NP-hard constrained optimization problem reduces to a distributed unconstrained formulation by means of Lagrangian Relaxation technique, and a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a Quantum inspired Particle Swarm with Levy flights. A centralized iterative reputation-reward mechanism is proposed for end-users to cooperate to avoid power peaks and reduce global overload, based on random distributions simulating human behaviors and penalties on the e ective ECS di ering from the suggested ECS. Numerical results show the protocols e ectiveness.

Keywords: Distributed Algorithms, Autonomous Demand Response management, Energy Consumption Scheduling, Smart Power Grids, Reputation algorithm
Switching Brains: Cloud-based Intelligent Resources Management for the Internet of Cognitive Things

Switching Brains: Cloud-based Intelligent Resources Management for the Internet of Cognitive Things

Authors: R. Francisco, A.M. Arsenio
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Cognitive technologies can bring important benefits to our everyday life, enabling connected devices to do tasks that in the past only humans could do, leading to the Cognitive Internet of Things. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN) are often employed for communication between Internet objects. However, WSAN face some problems, namely sensors’ energy and CPU load consumption, which are common to other networked devices, such as mobile devices or robotic platforms. Additionally, cognitive functionalities often require large processing power, for running machine learning algorithms, computer vision processing, or behavioral and emotional architectures. Cloud massive storage capacity, large processing speeds and elasticity are appropriate to address these problems. This paper proposes a middleware that transfers flows of execution between devices and the cloud for computationally demanding applications (such as those integrating a robotic brain), to efficiently manage devices’ resources.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Finite State Machines, Resource Optimization, Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks, Cloud Computing, Middleware
High-level Programming and Symbolic Reasoning on IoT Resource Constrained Devices

High-level Programming and Symbolic Reasoning on IoT Resource Constrained Devices

Authors: Sal vatore Gaglio, Giuseppe Lo Re, Gloria Martorella, Daniele Peri
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

While the vision of Internet of Things (IoT) is rather inspiring, its practical implementation remains challenging. Conventional programming approaches prove unsuitable to provide IoT resource constrained devices with the distributed processing capabilities required to implement intelligent, autonomic, and self-organizing behaviors. In our previous work, we had already proposed an alternative programming methodology for such systems that is characterized by high-level programming and symbolic expressions evaluation, and developed a lightweight middleware to support it. Our approach allows for interactive programming of deployed nodes, and it is based on the simple but e ective paradigm of executable code exchange among nodes. In this paper, we show how our methodology can be used to provide IoT resource constrained devices with reasoning abilities by implementing a Fuzzy Logic symbolic extension on deployed nodes at runtime.

Keywords: High-level programming, Resource constrained devices, Knowledge Representation, Fuzzy Logic
Hypernetworks based Radio Spectrum Profiling in Cognitive Radio Networks

Hypernetworks based Radio Spectrum Profiling in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Shah Nawaz Khan, Andreas Mitschele-Thiel
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

This paper presents a novel concept of active radio spectrum profiling f or Cognitive Radio (CR) networks using evolutionary hypernetworks. Spectrum profiling enables cognitive radio nodes to abstract and predict usable spectrum opportunities in pre-defined P rimary Users ( PU) c hannels. T he PU c hannels a re actively monitored through spectrum sensing and the resulting binary time series are used for channel abstraction and prediction. An overlay spectrum sharing approach is assumed in this paper and the evolutionary hypernetworks are used for the realization of the radio spectrum profiling concept. The abstracted information not only facilitates the optimization of channel selection and mobility, but also improves the quality of service for the secondary user applications. This paper presents the main concepts, their application to CR ad hoc networks, and an analysis of its impact on the CR network performance.

Keywords: Channel prediction, Cognitive radio, Spectrum profiling
An Improved 6LoWPAN Hierarchical Routing Protocol

An Improved 6LoWPAN Hierarchical Routing Protocol

Authors: Xue Li, Zhixin Sun
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

IETF 6LoWPAN working group is engaged in the IPv6 protocol stack research work based on IEEE802.15.4 standard. In this working group, the routing protocol is one of the important research contents. In the 6LoWPAN, HiLow is a well-known layered routing protocol. This paper puts forward an improved hierarchical routing protocol GHiLow by improving HiLow parent node selection and path restoration strategy. GHiLow improves the parent node selection by increasing the choice of parameters. Simutaneously, it also improves path recovery by analysing different situations to recovery path. Therefore, GHiLow contributes to the ehancement of network performance and the decrease of network energy consumption.

Keywords: 6lowpan; hilow; path recovery; parent node selection
A Life Extend Approach Based on Priority Queue N Strategy for Wireless Sensor Network

A Life Extend Approach Based on Priority Queue N Strategy for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Jyun-Fan Ke, Wen-Ju Chen, Der-Chen Huang
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

In this paper, we proposed a method on the tradeoff between packet transmission speed and battery life in wireless sensor networks (WSN). The data obtained by sensor nodes comprised various types of information with various levels of importance. A misjudgment of the priority of packets according to the importance of data may delay the transmission of important information. The energy consumed by sensor nodes varies according to system states. Therefore, this research used queuing theory and the birth-death process to build a mathematical model capable of quantifying various energy consumption parameters. MATLAB was used to calculate the distribution of system state probability for sensor nodes with two queues. Packet delay equation was then applied to obtain the expected values of delay time for packets of various priorities. We adjust various system parameters and observe how these changes influenced system state probability. Finally, we use different N values to obtain the minimal value of system energy consumption. Obtaining this value helps to overcome the energy hole problem (EHP), which in turn extends the lifespan of the overall WSN. Prioritizing packets can ensure the transmission of important data within a shorter time span. Experimental results show the energy consumption is reduced and important data can be transmitted with less packet delay time.

Keywords: wsn, ehp, queuing theory, preemptive priority queue, ubiquitous sensor networks
Robust and Adaptive Block Tracking Method Based on Particle Filter

Robust and Adaptive Block Tracking Method Based on Particle Filter

Authors: Bin Sun, Zhi Liu, Haixia Zhang
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

In the field of video analysis and processing, object tracking is attracting more and more attention especially in traffic management, digital surveillance and so on. However problems such as objects’ abrupt motion, occlusion and complex target structures would bring difficulties to academic study and engineering application. In this paper, a fragmentsbased tracking method using the block relationship coefficient is proposed. In this method, we use particle filter algorithm and object region is divided into blocks initially. The contribution of this method is that object features are not extracted just from a single block, the relationship between current block and its neighbor blocks are extracted to describe the variation of the block. Each block is weighted according to the block relationship coefficient when the block is voted on the most matched region in next frame. This method can make full use of the relationship between blocks. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can provide good performance in condition of occlusion and abrupt posture variation.

Keywords: object tracking, blocking, particle filter
Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

Authors: zhuo wu, Lei Wang
Year: 2015, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

In this paper, we developed a cross-layer design for two-way relaying (TWR) networks with multiple antennas, where two single antenna source nodes exchange information with the aid of one multiple antenna relay node. The proposed cross-layer design considers adaptive modulation (AM) and space-time block coding (STBC) at the physical layer with an automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer, in order to maximize the spectral efficiency under specific delay and packet error ratio (PER) constraints. An MMSE-interference cancellation (IC) receiver is employed at the relay node, to remove the interference in the fist phase of the TWR transmission. The transmission mode is updated for each phase of the TWR transmission on a frame-by-frame basis, to match the time-varying channel conditions and exploit the system performance and throughput gain. Simulation results show that retransmission at the data link layer could alleviate rigorous error-control requirements at the physical layer, and thereby allows higher data transmission. As a result, cross-layer design helps to achieve considerable system spectral efficiency gain for TWR networks, compared to those without cross-layer design.

Keywords: cross-layer design, two-way relaying, mmse-interference cancellation, stbc

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