The International Journal of Frontier Sciences

The International Journal of Frontier Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Science Associates
  • Country of publisher: pakistan
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Jul/13

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Health and Wellness
  • Publisher's keywords: Medical and Health Sciences, Public Health and Management, Bio-Medical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Dentistry, Veterinary Sciences, Nursing
  • Language of fulltext: english

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2017
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: Other

This journal has '42' articles

Perceptions about Hepatitis C, its Myths, Misconceptions and Association with Health-Related Behaviour among People of District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan

Perceptions about Hepatitis C, its Myths, Misconceptions and Association with Health-Related Behaviour among People of District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Ayesha Babar Kawish, Aamira Hashmi, Muzammil Irshad, Naila Azam
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Abstract

Background: Hepatitis C virus is a blood-borne virus where the most common modes of its transmission are unsafe injection practices, inadequate sterilization of medical equipment, and transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products. Approximately, 130–150 million people globally are suffering from chronic hepatitis C infection. A significant number of these chronically infected will develop liver cirrhosis or liver cancer subsequently. Approximately 500,000 people die of hepatitis C related liver diseases every year. This study aimed to describe personal characteristics, knowledge of respondents and to find out association of these factors with perceptions about Hepatitis C. The study also aimed to focus on perceptions (perceived susceptibility, severity and cues to action) of general population and finding association between their perceptions and health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Layyah city situated in Punjab province. Total of 423 male participants were selected through multistage sampling from general population of district Layyah. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: Out of 423 respondents, participants with the poor level of knowledge had right perceptions about hepatitis C (16.8%). 82.7% of the respondents were aware about the availability of hepatitis C treatment. Highest perceptions were observed in age group of 21-25 years old (39.7%), unmarried (73.0%), Saraiki (58.2%) and unemployed population (45.9%). People with less myth had the right perceptions about the hepatitis C. Conclusion: Increasing age, unmarried status and ethnicity were associated with right perceptions shown by respondents. Knowledge remained significant in showing association with perceptions about hepatitis C. General population perceived their susceptibility, severity of consequences and cues to actions were connecting them to show right perceptions overall. Relatives, colleagues and TV were common source of information about hepatitis C respectively.

Keywords: Hepatitis C, Myths, Misconceptions, Knowledge, Health Belief Model, Perceived susceptibility, Perceived severity, Cues to action
Frequency of Infection in Cervical Lymph Node Biopsy Site using Chlorhexidine and Povidine Iodine

Frequency of Infection in Cervical Lymph Node Biopsy Site using Chlorhexidine and Povidine Iodine

Authors: Qudrat Ullah, Anam Pervaiz, Usman Ali Rehman, Asif Hanif, Sami Ullah Bhatti
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Abstract

Background: Lymph node are located throughout the lymphatic system, they are concentrated in certain areas of the body including head and neck. Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck. Of the 800 lymph nodes in the human body, 300 are in the neck. Cervical lymph nodes are subject to several different pathological conditions including tumours, infection and inflammation. Methodology: The Povidine-iodine and chlorhexidine for preoperative skin preparation in cervical lymph node biopsy procedure were used in this study and patients were asked for follow up after a week. On follow up day their wounds were checked, assessed and withdraw all stiches and complications were recorded accordingly and analysed them. It was discussed and showed that which one of Povidine-iodine and chlorhexidine is best to use for preoperative skin preparation in cervical lymph node biopsy procedures to reduce surgical site infection and economical one. Results: Out of 150 patients, 46% (69) were males and 54% (81) were females that had cervical lymphadenopathy after skin preparation by chlorhexidine antiseptic solution showed frequency of infection in total of 150 patients 16.67% (25) were infected while the other 83.33%(125) were not infected. Out of 150 patients who were underwent cervical lymphadenopathy after using povidine iodine skin preparatory antiseptic solution, 42% (63) were males and 58% (87) were females and among those frequency of infection showed 44.67% (67) were infected while the others 55.33% (83) were not. Conclusion: Preoperative scrubbing of the patient's skin with chlorhexidine–alcohol is better than scrubbing with povidone–iodine for preventing surgical-site infection after cervical lymph node biopsy.

Keywords: Povidine iodine, chlorhexidine, biopsy, lymphadenopathy
Factors Affecting Uptake of Routine Immunization Among Children Age 12- 23 Months in District Rahimyar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

Factors Affecting Uptake of Routine Immunization Among Children Age 12- 23 Months in District Rahimyar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shafquat Amin, Inayat Thaver and Muhammad Imran
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Abstract

Background: Vaccination prevents significant amount of childhood deaths around the globe. Pakistan is vaccinating children through EPI since 1978 against 10 diseases. Pakistan is facing difficulties in achieving goal of vaccine coverage due to multiple factors. Researches reveal that human resource, poor equipment and training of health care personnel are important for successful immunization programme. Current study was conducted to assess the routine immunization coverage among children of age 12-23 months in Rahimyar Khan district, Punjab, Pakistan and to identify factors that affect uptake of routine immunization in Rahimyar Khan district, Punjab, Pakistan Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional study which was conducted in Rahimyar Khan from Oct 2016-Jan 2017. A total of 378 mothers having children of age 12-23 months were interviewed through structured questionnaire. Total 12 (six rural and six urban) Union Councils of district Rahimyar Khan were selected through random sampling. For household selection, random area of union council was selected, and bottle was rotated to select first house, then every Nth (5th) house were approached for sample until required sample size was obtained. Data was analysed by SPSS 22.0. Chi Square test was used to explore association between independent variables and outcome variable. Results: A total of 378 mothers of children age 12-23 months were interviewed. About 66.10% children were found fully immunized. Measles- II vaccine coverage was 60.8% while 78% were immunized against BCG vaccines. Mother’s educational status, occupation and father’s educational status, occupations were observed to the significantly affect the immunization coverage of children. The monthly household income, age of children and area of residence also significantly affected the immunization coverage of children. Other factors such as the child gender, ethnicity, religion, type of family and number of children did not significantly affect the immunization coverage. Majority of respondents’ perception were place of delivery and community health workers play role to enhance the vaccination coverage. Conclusion: The study concluded that the majority (66.10%) of children were completely immunized within recommended time. The reasons of vaccine refusal and lower immunization coverage areas can be countered by overcoming the factors such as place of delivery, theory of knowledge, general public motivation and well-planned infrastructure at National and local level.

Keywords: Vaccination, Vaccination coverage, mortality under 5, Immunization, Immunization
Sustainable Environmental Development and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Context of Pakistan

Sustainable Environmental Development and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Context of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Rashid
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Abstract

Introduction: Disasters are the catastrophic events which affects human lives, infrastructure and economy at significant scale. Pakistan is vulnerable to disasters due to its climate change and geography. Climate change causes much more complications and disasters. So, there should be focus on climate change adaptations to reduce disaster risks. If country spends 1 dollar on DRR it saves 5 to 7 dollars to be spent on same population if disaster strike. So, development for disaster risk reduction is much more important. Making the communities resilient and reduces vulnerability environmental sustainability is very important. After the Millennium Development Goals recommendations, Pakistan is also trying to gain environmental sustainability but more in papers instead of practically. So, the need is to make sure practical implementations of these plans and efforts. The objective of this study was to overview the sustainable environmental development and disaster risk reduction in the context of Pakistan. Methodology: This is the descriptive cross-sectional review study. Conclusion: As Pakistan is vulnerable for natural disasters due to its geography and climate change like floods, landslides, droughts and Tsunamis. These impact communities according to vulnerability level of the community. Impacts of these disasters on communities can be reduced by reducing their vulnerability and increasing their resilience level.

Keywords: Disaster, Climate Change, Sustainable Environment, Millennium Development Goals
Reforms Needed in Aged Patient’s Care

Reforms Needed in Aged Patient’s Care

Authors: Hamna Rao
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Abstract

Today’s health workforce is constantly engaged to enhance the standards of healthcare services and ensuring comprehensive healthcare standards to the community. Queensland’s health workforce is Australia’s second largest health workforce (1) and serving proportionately in all areas of QLD, making efforts to make health better by making research, surveys and developmental planning in rural and regional areas. Aged Care is currently the most concerned health issue among OECD countries (2) as aged population continues to grow and it’s challenging for Australian health sector to meet the standards of quality care in provision of aged care health services. As per Australian Institute of Health and Welfare statistics it is projected that Australia will constitute 22% of aged population in next 30 years (AIHW).

Keywords: Reforms Needed in Aged Patient’s Care
Primary Healthcare

Primary Healthcare

Authors: Muhammad Imran
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Abstract

One of the most effective and valuable principles to promote health in all countries has been adoption of Primary Health Care (PHC) as a fundamental strategy. In September 1978, an international conference was held in Alma-Ata, whose great achievement was declaring PHC as a roadmap for “Health for All” by the year 2000 (HFA 2000). Indeed, as a new approach beyond the traditional system of health care, PHC insisted on justice in the delivery and distribution of services in the health sector (1).

Keywords: Primary Healthcare
Frequency of Parenteral Exposure and Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV among Operating Room Personnel

Frequency of Parenteral Exposure and Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV among Operating Room Personnel

Authors: Qudrat Ullah, Usman Ali Rehman, Asif Hanif, Sami Ullah Bhatti
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Abstract

Background: There are many experiences in the operation theatre professionals to get Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Human immunodeficiency virus during their profession in operating room due to accidental needle pricks or through cut by any sharp. The objective of this study is to find out the Frequency of parenteral exposure and seroprevelence of HBV, HCV and HIV among operating room personnel. Methodology: Frequency of parenteral exposure and seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV among operating room personnel was found using ICT method. Results: All 108 (100 %) operating room personnel were HBV, HCV and HIV negative, none of them showed positive results. Among these 108 operating room personnel to complete my research, among these 58 (53.7%) were male and 50 (46.3%) were female. Conclusion: It is concluded by the study that there are no positive cases of HBV, HCV and HIV among operating room personnel in Gulab devi hospital and Masood hospital.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Human immunodeficiency virus
Frequency of Different Organism in Nosocomial Swabs using Surface Method Fumigation with Formaldehyde in Operation Theatre

Frequency of Different Organism in Nosocomial Swabs using Surface Method Fumigation with Formaldehyde in Operation Theatre

Authors: Rifat Saba, Qudrat Ullah, Usman Ali Rehman, Asif Hanif and Sami Ullah Bhatti
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Abstract

Background: A facility within a hospital where surgical operations are carried out in a sterile environment is an operating theatre also known as an operating suite, operation theatre or operation suite. In past, the operation theatre was a place where there was an educational setting have had raised tables or chairs at the centre for performing operations surrounded by several rows of seats for students and other spectators to observe the case in progress. The objective of this research is that to better the efficacy of sterilization of operation theatre to reduce the surgical site infection and contamination at highest level. Methodology: Data was collected from surgical department of Gulab Devi Chest Hospital. Carbolization was employed to disinfect operating room and fumigation to sterilize. After neutralization with ammonia, culture swabs were collected from OT table, OT light, OT floor, OT wall, anaesthesia machine and OT trolley. Efficacy of fumigation was concluded using statistical tools. Results: There were no positive results prior and even after the fumigation. Conclusion: There was no organism growth in OT. There was no evidence of Escherichia coli, Proteus Mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. faecalis, Coagulase negative staph and Salmonella choleraesius.

Keywords: Operation theatre, fumigation, carbolization, nosocomial infection, sterilization, neutralization
Frequency of HIV in Obstructive Lung Disease Patients

Frequency of HIV in Obstructive Lung Disease Patients

Authors: Waqas Ahmed, Qudrat Ullah, Mughees Ahmad and Asif Hanif
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Abstract

Background: Obstructive lung disease (OLD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Obstructive lung disease is the narrowing of bronchioles mainly due to excessive smooth muscle contraction. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Frequency of HIV in obstructive lung disease patients. Methodology: Samples were collected randomly, and study was completed in almost six months. 100 samples were taken with an informed consent taken from all the patients. EDTA and Clotted blood was collected for HIV ELISA and HIV screening. Results: In this study, 69% Males and 31%Females, 34% Smokers, 26% patients were Hypertensive, 10% patients were diabetic, 3% patients were diagnosed HIV positive by screening and ELISA. Conclusion: The frequency of HIV in obstructive lung disease patients in this research is not very high as compared to the previous researches, showing high frequency and relationship between HIV and obstructive lung disease patients. The reason behind low frequency is due to low sample size so by increasing the sample size we can get better understanding of frequency of HIV in obstructive lung disease patients. Another reason of insignificant results is low prevalence of HIV in Pakistan as compared to the previous researches in certain countries.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Obstructive lung disease, Asthma, HIV ELISA
Post-Operative Pain Comparison between Peri-Operative Bupivacaine Infiltration Vs Post-Operative Opioids Analgesics in Patient Undergoing Abdominal Surgery in First 6 Hours

Post-Operative Pain Comparison between Peri-Operative Bupivacaine Infiltration Vs Post-Operative Opioids Analgesics in Patient Undergoing Abdominal Surgery in First 6 Hours

Authors: Syeda Hina Zahra, Qudrat Ullah, Usman Ali Rehman, Asif Hanif and Sami Ullah Bhatti1
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Abstract

Background: To compare between opioids and wound infiltration to reduce post-operative pain in abdominal surgery in first 6 hours, in appropriate treatment, contraindications of treatment and increase mortality of patients. This article presents novel approach to surgical site infiltration techniques and intravenous opioids for abdominal surgery to reduce pain. The main aim of this study is optimal patient comfort rather than reduce pain intensity, reduction offside effects is also an important goal in pain management. Methodology: Data was collected from surgical department of Gulab Devi Chest Hospital. During abdominal surgery bupivacaine was given to some patients while other were managed by postoperative opioids and by using designed performa it is concluded that which one of them is better method for post-operative pain management. Results: This is the descriptive study conducted in Gulab Devi Hospital Lahore.in this study, in this study minimum age of the patients was 14 and maximum age of the patients was 80. The mean age was 32.16+12.32 years. In this study out of total 100 patients, 18(18.00%) were male patients and 82(82.00%) were females. Female gender predominated in this study. in this study, p-value is 0.00 (<0.05%) so pain relieving chances of bupivacaine infiltration as moderate pain scale were 84% and in distracting pain scale chances in bupivacaine infiltration were 16%.But pain relieving chances of opioids as moderate pain scale were 12.24 % and in distracting pain scale chances in opioids were 87.75%.so peri-operative pain management by bupivacaine infiltration is better than post –operative opioids management in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conclusion: According to my research bupivacaine wound infiltration is better method for postoperative pain management in abdominal surgeries. Our study was conducted at Gulab Devi Hospital and Services Hospital in an area of pain management by opioids and infiltration, which may limit the applications of our findings in area of pain management by opioids and infiltration prevalence.

Keywords: Bupivacaine, opioids, analogue pain scale, abdominal surgery
Relationship between the Susceptibility of Salmonella.Typhi to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin and their respective Susceptibility to Nalidixic Acid

Relationship between the Susceptibility of Salmonella.Typhi to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin and their respective Susceptibility to Nalidixic Acid

Authors: Nabila Bashir, Ali Ahmad, Hashim Raza and Muhammad Imran
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Abstract

Background: Typhoid fever is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world including Pakistan. Resistance to the first line anti typhoid drugs viz chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin has aggravated this situation. Quinolones are currently used as the first line antityphoid drugs, instead. Fluoroquinolones are currently recommended for patients infected with Typhi. The fluoroquinolones have shown good in vitro as well as clinical activity against Typhi infections. Materials and Methods: It was a comparative cross-sectional conducted at Department of Microbiology UHS, Lahore, Pakistan within one year (January 2011-December 2011). A total of 100 clinical isolates of Typhi were evaluated. ATCC 9150 Paratyphi A was used as a standarad strain. The bacterial isolates were preserved in microbanks (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, UK) and stored at-70˚C during a period of (2007- 2011). Data was analysed through SPSS version 22. Results: Of the 100 isolates, 45 strains were showing MIC ≤ 1µg/ml which means that they were susceptible while 55 strains were intermediate having MIC 2µg/ml. No strain was however, found resistant to ciprofloxacin according as per the CLSI 2011. As per the CLSI 2012 revised ciprofloxacin break points for disc diffusion and MIC for salmonella species. According to CLSI 2012 interpretive criteria, on disk diffusion testing 13 isolates were sensitive, 13 were resistant and 74 were intermediate to ciprofloxacin. On MIC, 55 strains were resistant showing MIC ≥1µg/ml and 45 isolates were intermediate showing MIC 0.125-0.5µg/ml. No isolate was found sensitive to ciprofloxacin according to CLSI 2012 interpretive criteria. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study showed the value of nalidixic acid susceptibility as an indirect but a certain marker of ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Nalidixic acid resistant showed increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution method.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance,Typhoid fever, Nalidixic acid resistant, ciprofloxacin susceptibility
Trends in Health Wearables

Trends in Health Wearables

Authors: Hamna Rao
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Abstract

In the last decade technology has advanced tremendously in all fields and health sector is equally benefited. Healthcare is more likely known as e-health in this era of information and technology because of its advancements and opportunities given to health sector. E-health proposes more convenient and approachable accessibility for the health providers and patients. Information technology and electric health together have made the health sector more updated and idealized for individuals. Health devices, appliances and wearables are kind of recent innovations in healthcare. With the trend of health devices and health wearables there have been certain challenges in healthcare sector as well when it comes to clinical acceptance and practice. This literature review aims to define current health scope of wearables, challenges and future if wearables in health industry.

Keywords: Trends in Health Wearables
Role of Epidemiological Studies in Disease Prevention

Role of Epidemiological Studies in Disease Prevention

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar
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Abstract

Today’s society is full of disease that are of different natures including genetic, infectious and metabolic etc. Every disease has its own mechanisms of affecting humans and different prevention mechanisms as per disease nature. These factors are included in epidemiology of disease. Other factors include prevalence and incidence of diseases in different populations. Exactly knowing about disease epidemiology helps governing authorities to prevent the disease. Unfortunately, under-developed and developing nations are not focusing on diseases epidemiology. On the other hand, all developing nations developed best public health practices based on diseases epidemiology data. These studies may vary from basic epidemiological surveys to identification of microorganism strains etc.

Keywords: Epidemiological Studies, Disease Prevention
Frequency of Clinical symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux disease in asthmatic patients

Frequency of Clinical symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux disease in asthmatic patients

Authors: Nadeem Hafeez, Qudrat Ullah, Asif Hanif, Zaheer Akhtar, Mustansar Ali, Muhammad Umar and Rukhma Rafaqat
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Abstract

Background: Gastroesophageal reflex is known as an acid reflex, is long term condition where stomach contents back into the oesophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications. GERD disease is caused by weakness or failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter. Symptoms include the acidic taste behind the mouth, heart burn, chest pain, difficult breathing and vomiting. Complication includes esophagitis, oesophageal strictures and barrettes oesophagus. Objective: The aim of this research was to introduce the symptoms of GERD disease in asthmatic patients and how these symptoms worsen the symptoms of asthma disease and what clinical pictures present with the asthmatic disease. Methodology: A designed performa was used to collect the data and after filling the performa, results were drawn and conclusion through the facts and the information given by patients. Results: In the present study among all 164 asthmatic patients, 70 (42.7%) patients showed dyspepsia, 58 (35.4%) were with chest burning, 23 (14%) were asking about chest pain, with acidic mouth taste were 39 (23.8%), 22 (13.4%) were feeling sore throat and 44 (26.8%) showed regurgitation reflex. Among these 164 patients 16 (9.8%) were smokers and 148 (90.2 %) were non-smokers. 47 (28.7%) were males and 117 (71.3%) were females. Conclusion: It is concluded that gastroesophageal reflux disease in asthmatic patients present symptoms of acidic mouth taste, chest burning, chest pain, dyspepsia, regurgitation reflex and sore throat.

Keywords: GERD, Dyspepsia, Chest burning, Chest pain, Regurgitation
Daily Activity Related Quality of Life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults

Daily Activity Related Quality of Life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults

Authors: Yousaf, Ruhamah; Arif, Muhammad; Ullah, Qudrat; Rafiq, Saima; Hanif, Asif; Ali, Mustansar
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Abstract

Background: The significant reason for anguish as well as incapacity is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Activities of daily living might be relentlessly curbed among patients with COPD and appraisal needs evaluation regarding influence of infirmity and detriments on day-to-day living. The primary objective was to know the daily activity associated quality of life in COPD adults. The secondary objective was to analyze demographical profile, such as gender and age of COPD subjects as well as evaluate the physical activity related breathlessness in COPD patients. Methodology: This study was executed at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital. We used cross sectional study design to collect the data. For collecting the statistics of 150 subjects aged 40-60 years of either gender Saint George’s Questionnaire was liable. It included the patient’s biodata, effect of COPD on physical activities and limitations in routine work. Results: The ages of 150 COPD patients selected were between 40 and 60 years. Patients were classified into two categories on the basis of disease severity according to GOLD criteria 71 (47.3%) were with moderate severity and 79 (52.7%) were with severe severity. 113 (75.3%) patients were smokers while 37 (24.7%) patients were non-smokers. 110 (73.3%) COPD patients were active smokers in comparison 40 (26.7%) COPD patients were passive smokers. COPD patients with current smoking status were 79 (52.7%) and with past smoking status were 71 (47.3%). 19 (12.7%) COPD patients felt breathlessness while sitting and lying. 53(35.3%) COPD patients felt breathless while getting washed or dressed. 85(56.7%) COPD patients felt breathless while walking around the home. 114 (96%) COPD patients discerned breathlessness while walking up a flight of stairs. 145 (96.7%) COPD patients had breathlessness while playing sports or games. 146 (97.3%) COPD patients experienced difficulty in breathing during activities like carrying load. 88 (58.7%) COPD patients discerned breathlessness during entertainment or recreation. 88 (58.7%) COPD patients discerned breathlessness during entertainment or recreation. 7 (4.7%) COPD patients felt breathlessness while moving from bed or chair. Conclusion: As with the progression of COPD impairment in activities become worse due to breathlessness causing decline in patient’s ability making them unable to complete their task to fulfill the needs of life and ultimately become bed bound due to shortness of breath.

Keywords: COPD, quality of life, physical activity, activities of daily livings

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