slugTreatment of obesity: medical managements

slugTreatment of obesity: medical managements

Authors: R. Bolaños-Jímenez*| Neurosciences and Biotechnology laboratory, School of Medicine, Universidad Panamericana Mexico City, Mexico, J. Arizmendi-Vargas...
( 44 downloads)
Abstract

Obesity is a very complex illness. It is one of the most prevalent diseases in the western world, its importance lies in the comorbidities that surround it, as well as the predisposition to cardiovascular events and other diseases that reduce life quality and expectancy. There are many factors that contribute to obesity pathogenesis; genetic, psychological, emotional, social factors, among others. Nowadays dietetic measures and changes in lifestyle are the first step in management of obesity. Because in many cases it is not enough for patients to reach their ideal weight, pharmacotherapy must be used to treat obesity and its comorbidities. Several studies have compared various drugs for losing weight, being Orlistat the only one approved by the FDA. In bariatric surgery, many surgical techniques have been developed to try to reach a balance between efficacy and safety. Although it is relatively safe, it has its own risks inherent to the procedure and its complications. It is the most effective measure to improve the global patients’ health as it not only helps people to lose weight, but also helps to have a better control of other comorbidities and lower overall mortality.

Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Body mass index, Weight loss, Pharmacotherapy, Orlistat
slugBio-efficacy of different antibacterial antibiotic, plant extracts and bioagents against bacterial blight of soybean caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

slugBio-efficacy of different antibacterial antibiotic, plant extracts...

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani ,Maharashtra, India, S.B. Dhopte| Department of Plant Pathology, Ma...
( 47 downloads)
Abstract

An experiment was carried out to study efficacy of different antibacterial antibiotic, plant extracts and bioagents against bacterial blight of soybean caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. The results revealed that all the five antibiotics tested in vitro applying poisoned food technique against Pseudomonas syringae significantly inhibited the growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, antibiotic, Streptocycline + Copper oxychloride recorded minimum mean colony diameter (10.47mm) and maximum mean inhibition (83.65 mm) of growth of the test pathogen over untreated control (mean col. dia. 90.00 mm and mean inhibition, 0.00) followed by the antibiotic Streptocycline 100 ppm (mean col. dia., 15.64 mm and mean inhibition, 76.69%) and Copper oxycloride (mean col. dia., 21.42 mm and mean inhibition, 62.74%). In field, the highest mean per cent disease incidence 35.51 per cent was observed in poushamycin treatment. The lowest mean per cent disease incidence 12.74 per cent was found in treatment streptocycline 100 ppm + Copper oxychloride (@0.25%) and recorded highest seed yield (2605 kg/ha) and test weight (14.33 g). Plant leaf extract (@ 5 and 10%) of Neem recorded lowest mean colony diameter (34.72 mm) and highest mean mycelial growth inhibition (59.26%) of the test pathogen over untreated control followed by Ginger (mean col. dia, 44.42 mm and mean inhibition, 48.55%).

Keywords: Bio-efficacy, Fungicides, Plant extracts, Bioagents, Mycelial growth inhibition, Glycine max
Numerical  investigation  on  packing  density  and  inlet  configurations  of  hollow  fibres and their effects on flow

Numerical investigation on packing density and inlet configurat...

Authors: Keng Boon Lim| Professional Officers’ Division, Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore., Peng Cheng Wang| Engineering, Singapore Institute of Te...
( 73 downloads)
Abstract

This study aims to investigate the changes in output permeate flowrate of ultrafiltration hollow fibres with double - end configuration. Different parameters such as packing density, feed pressure and location of feed inlet are studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This study adopts the numerical approach to predict how each of the factors influence the output (i.e. flowrate) of the filtration process. Preliminary studies were done to validate the numerical predictions against existing literature, showing good agreement with available data. The effect of packing density on hollow fibre with double-end configuration was then investigated. The ratio of allowable spaces between fibres, denoted by ε, was used to quantify the packing density. 2 sets of numerical model for double-end hollow fibre with ε ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 were simulated for fibre length of 1 metre and 2 metre respectively. Results showed that a higher ε value used in for the packing of hollow fibres lead to higher permeate flowrate. However, this increment stagnates even as ε is increased beyond 0.6. Other factors such as inlet positioning and fibre length, which affects feed pressure distribution were also investigated. Simulation results concluded that feed pressure distribution and output flowrate varies depending on where the inlet is situated. The proposed new inlet located along the fibre length also improves the uniformity of the feed pressure distribution along hollow fibres. This makes positioning of the inlet crucial to the overall performance of the ultrafiltration module.

Keywords: Hollow fibres, Ultrafiltration, Packing density, CFD, Numerical simulation
Effects of dietary addition of toasted soybean seed meal on libido, semen quality and testis histology of rabbit bucks

Effects of dietary addition of toasted soybean seed meal on libido, se...

Authors: I.P. Ogbuewu*| Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P.M.B.1526, Owerri, Nigeria, C. Enumaibe| Depart...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of toasted soybean seed meal on sexual libido, semen quality and testis histology of rabbit bucks. The experimental rabbits were divided into two treatment groups (BT1 and BT2) of 12 bucks each. Bucks in BT1 group were fed control diet while those in BT1 group were fed control diet + 10% toasted soybean seed meal. The rabbit bucks were trained for semen collection into an artificial vagina using matured cyclic rabbit does. Semen was collected twice a week for four consecutive weeks. Results obtained revealed that sperm motility and sperm concentration were significantly (p<0.05) enhanced by toasted soybean seed meal. The result also revealed that testis weight and sexual libido was higher in BT2 group than those in BT1 group. The photomicrograph of the BT2 bucks revealed an increase in the number of active spermatogenic cells at different stages of development when compared with those bucks in BT1 group. In conclusion, dietary addition of toasted soybean seed meal to mature rabbit diet improved semen quality and histoarchitecture of the testis.

Keywords: Rabbit bucks, Soybean seed, Semen quality, Testicular histology
Effects of intramuscular injection of artemether® on the histology of the uterus and ovaries of pregnant wistar rats

Effects of intramuscular injection of artemether® on the histology of...

Authors: A.A. Tijani*| Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria, D.A. Adekomi| Department of Anatomy, Faculty...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

This experiment was aimed at studying some of the histological effects of Artemether® on the uterus and ovaries of pregnant Wister Rats. Twelve pregnant rats were divided equally into treated and control groups. The rats in treated group received Artemether® while those in control group received phosphate buffered saline. Administration was intramuscular. Macroscopically, no significant differences were observed in the organs extracted in the treated and control rats. Microscopically, there is thick uterine mucosa with edematous gland and stroma with developed follicle in the ovaries of treated rats as observed 72 hours after intramuscular administration of Artemether®. The results of this study showed that administration of Artemether® intramuscularly to pregnant Wistar rats caused embryo loss.

Keywords: Intramuscular, Artemether®, Pregnant rats, Embryo loss
A comparative histological study on the effect of exposure to the smoke leaf extract of tobacco nicotiana, cannabis sativa and datura stramonium on the lungs of sprague-dawley rats

A comparative histological study on the effect of exposure to the smok...

Authors: D.A. Adekomi*| Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria., A...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

Smoking may exert compromising effects on several organ systems of the body, but those in the lungs are the most deleterious. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate some of the effects of inhalation of smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana (Tobacco), Cannabis sativa and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) on the respiratory system, especially on the lungs. Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups A-D. The rats in the control group (A) were not subjected to any of the smoke extracts, while the rats in groups B, C, and D were exposed to smoke from a completely burnt 0.74g leaf extract of Tobacco nicotiana, Cannabis sativa and Datura stramonium each for 5 minutes three times daily (7am, 10am, and 1pm) respectively. The duration of exposure in all the groups was for five days. All the rats were sacrificed by decapitation and the lung tissues were obtained from each animal using thoracotomy, blotted dry and fixed in buffered neutral formalin for histopathological analysis using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain. In the lung tissue of the rats in the control group (A), the histological profile of the lungs were preserved, whereas in groups B, C, and D the histological outline of the tissues obtained revealed disruptive characteristics such as emphysema, evidence of bronchopneumonial features and fibrosis, occlusion of the bronchi, and dilation of the alveoli sac. In conclusion, the exposure of male Sprague Dawley rats to the smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana (Tobacco), Cannabis sativa and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) has compromising effects on the histological integrity of the lungs of the rats and by extension may cause irreversible functional and morphological alterations in the lung tissue.

Keywords: Cannabis sativa, Datura stramonium, Tobacco nicotiana, Lungs, Neutral buffered formalin
Sources of resistance of different cotton genotypes against bacterial blight disease incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum under natural epiphytotics

Sources of resistance of different cotton genotypes against bacterial...

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, M.K.V., Parbhani – 431 402 (MS)., A.M. Jangam| Department of Plant Pathology, Coll...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

Atotal thirty-six cotton genotypes were screened in replicated thrice withRandomized Block Design against bacterial blight disease incited by Xanthomonasaxonopodis pv. malvacearum under natural epiphytotics. Resultsrevealed that 3 genotypes showed moderately resistant, 31 showed moderatelysusceptible and 2 showed susceptible against bacterial blight of cotton. Disease severity at 60 DAS ranged from 2.42 to 27.5 per cent, PH 1009(2.42 per cent), Paig 29 (2.42 per cent) had shown lowest diseaseseverity. Disease severity at 90 DASranged from 9.63 to 58.6 per cent. NH633 (9.63 per cent) had shown minimum disease severity followed by PH 1062 (9.91per cent) and PH 1031 (10.37 per cent). Disease severity at 120 DAS ranged from 11.63 to 68.94 per cent. The lowest PDI was recorded by NH 633 (11.63%) followed by Paig 265 (13.26 %) and NH 637 (13.55 %). Mean disease severity(PDI) of cotton genotypes was recorded in range 9.71 to 51.68 per cent.

Keywords: Resistance, X. axonopodis pv. Malvacearum, Natural epiphytotics, Cotton
Detection of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus greening (huanglongbing) of mandarin by template preparation

Detection of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus...

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, M.K.V., Parbhani – 431 402 (MS)., M.V. Mahajan| Department of Plant Pathology, Col...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The polymerase ChainReaction (PCR) diagnosis is more reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool forgreening bacterium than other conventional approaches like Electron microscopy,DNA-DNA hybridization and immunofluorescence (IF) for detection of citrusgreening. During experiment, it was observed that sodium sulphite method of DNAisolation provided higher yield and better quality DNA than other methods.Primer C (450 bp) was more efficient in amplifying the DNA of greeningbacterium even at a very low concentration of 0.1 pg. To confirm thereliability of PCR, the greening bacterium was also detected ingraft-inoculated plants, which showed typical greening bacterium was alsodetected in graft-inoculated plants, which showed typical greening symptoms.Results showed amplification of 450 bp in PCR suggesting sampling in March ismore suitable for PCR detection of greening bacterium.

Keywords: Detection, PCR, Candidatus liberibacter, Asiaticus, Mandarin
Effects of aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officiale) on liver function profile in wistar rats

Effects of aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zin...

Authors: J.A. Tende*| Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria., A. Mohammed| Department of Human Physiolog...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

The present study evaluated the effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiberofficiale) extracts in rats. To achieve this objective,animals were assigned into the following groups as follows: Group 1: Served as control group and received 1ml of distilled water, Group 2: Received 20mg/kg b w of garlic, Group 3: Received 40mg/kg b w of garlic, Group 4: Received 20mg/kg b w of ginger, Group 5: Received 40mg/kg b w of ginger, Group 6: Received garlic 10mg and ginger 10mg/kg b w Group 7: Received garlic 20mg and ginger 20mg/kg b w. All administration was done orally for a period of 28 days. At the end of treatment all animals were sacrificed from all groups and blood samples collected and the serum separated for liver enzymes analysis. The liver tissue was carefully exicised and then subjected to routine histological investigation. The results of the study showed no statistically significant (p>0.05) difference on the level of serum ALT and AST in the experimental group fed with single and combined doses of garlic and ginger extract when compared to control group. There was also no significant change (p>0.05) on serum level of ALP in the group that received 20 and 40 mg/kg b w of garlic respectively when compared to the control group. However, the serum level of ALP was a statistically significant different (p<0.05) in the groups treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg b w of ginger and its combined doses when compared to their control group. The histological findings showed that the plant extract did not adversely affect the morphology of liver tissues in all groups treated with various doses of garlic and ginger extract at both single and combined doses administered to animals. In conclusion, the observed effect of the extract at both single and combined doses suggests a non toxic and deleterious effect of the plant extract on the liver tissue, hence safe for consumption especially in humans.

Keywords: Garlic, Ginger, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase
The study of effect of aqueous Cucurbita pepo linn seed extract on serum prolactin level of lactating female albino rats

The study of effect of aqueous Cucurbita pepo linn seed extract on ser...

Authors: I.S. Malgwi*| Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,Kaduna State, Nigeria., K.V. Olorunshola| Department...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Prolactin participation has been established for a growing number of physiological actions of these, the best studied is the stimulation of mammary gland development and induction of milk synthesis at the end of pregnancy and during lactation.The study investigated the effect of aqueous Cucurbita pepo Linn seed extract on serum prolactin level of lactating female albino rats. A total of twenty five (25) female healthy wistar albino rats were used for study. They were divided into the following groups as follows: Group 1: Served as control group and received 1ml of distilled water, Group 2: Received Metoclopramide 5mg/kg b w, Group 3: Received 250 mg/kg b w of C. pepo L,Group 4: Received 500 mg/kg b w of C. pepo L. and Group 5: Received 1000 mg/kg b w of C. pepo L. All regimen was given orally once daily for a period of eight (8) days, starting from day 3 to day 11 of lactation. The acute toxicity and phytochemical screening were carried out. The result of acute toxicity studies showed that the aqueous Cucurbita pepo Linn seed extract was safe up to 5000 mg/kg b w. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavanoids and alkaloids. From the results obtained in this study, it was evident that the administration of plant extract at doses of 250,500 and 1000mg/kg b w produced a significantly increased (p<0.0001) prolactin level from 4.90 ± 0.18 in the control group to 26.3 ± 1.60, 26.5 ± 1.60 and 24.9 ± 2.13 in the experimental groups respectively when compared to the control group. However, a maximum increased prolactin concentration was observed in the group that received 500 mg/kg b w of the extract. The values of prolactin levels obtained in the extract treated groups are comparable to the metoclopramide (5mg/kg b w). It can be concluded that elevated level of prolactin as observed in this study justifies the folkloric use of this plant in stimulating lactation and as well as increasing milk production.

Keywords: Cucurbita pepo Linn, Lactation, Prolactin, Rats, Metoclopramide
Glycaemic effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in wistar rats

Glycaemic effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in wistar rats

Authors: J.A. Tende*| Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria., E.D. Eze| Department of Human Physiology,...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Date palm fruit is commonly known fruit often called “Dabino” by Northern Nigerians. It is often eaten during fasting periods as it gradually improves low sugar levels due to its sugary or sweet nature. The present study aimed at evaluating the glycaemic responses of non diabetic albino rats administered with date palm (phoenix dactylifera). To accomplish this aim, animals were fasted for 18 hours after which they were randomly assigned into three (3) groups of five (5) animals each as follows: Group 1: Received 40g of glucose dissolved in 100ml of distilled orally, Group 2: Received 1000mg/kg b w of aqueous extract of date palm orally and Group 3: Received 1500mg/kg b w of aqueous extract of date palm orally. The results obtained indicated a non statistically significant (P>0.05) difference on blood glucose levels in the animals administered with the low and high doses of aqueous date fruit extract of 1000mg/kg b w and 1500mg/kg b w respectively when compared to the control group. However, oral administration of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg b w of date fruit extract produced a significantly decreased (p <0.05) blood glucose level when compared to the control group. In conclusion, the results from study revealed that date palm fruits may be classified as low glycaemic index food items, hence its consumption of may be of benefit in glycaemic control in non-diabetics.

Keywords: Date palm fruits, Glycaemia index, Rats, Blood glucose
The histopathological effects of salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of rats

The histopathological effects of salvia officinalis on the kidney and...

Authors: D.A. Adekomi*| Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria., T.D. Adeniyi| Department of Anatomy,...
( 36 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of this investigationwas to evaluate some of the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats (7-11 weeks old)were randomly assigned into two groups; A and B. Aqueous extract of S.officinalis leaves (300 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to therats in group B while the rats in group A received equal volume of normalsaline for 14d. At termination of treatment, the histopathology of the kidneyand liver were assessed. The kidney and the liver in the extract treated ratdisplayed organized and preserved histological profile. Our findings suggestthat S. officinalis has no deleterious effects on the kidney and liverof the rats.

Keywords: Kidney, Liver, Normal saline, Histopathology, Sprague-Dawley Rats
Prevalence of asthma in the subjects attending multi specialty centre OPD, Ballimaran, Delhi

Prevalence of asthma in the subjects attending multi specialty centre...

Authors: H. Izharul*| Dept of Juris & Toxicolgy, AU Tibbia College & Hospital, New Delhi, A. Mahboob| Dept of Preventive and social medicine, AIUMC Muzaffarnag...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The burden of Asthma in developing countries such as India isof sufficient magnitude to warrant its recognition as a priority in governmenthealth strategies. Particular resources need to be provided to improve the careof disadvantaged groups with high morbidity, including certain racial groupsand those who are poorly educated, live in large cities, or are poor. Thepresent study was conducted to find out current prevalence of asthma insubjects attending multi specialty centre OPD Ballimaran, Delhi. Attempts werealso made to detect possible factors contributing to the prevalence. A total of1000 subjects were included in the study using questionnaire, clinicalevaluation by physician and spirometry. The current prevalence of asthma inmale population of Delhi was 13.42% and in female population 12.41%,respectively. The prevalence of asthma was more (13.42%) in male populationthan female population (12.41%) respectively.

Keywords: Asthma, Spirometry, OPD
Genetic mice models of Parkinson’s disease

Genetic mice models of Parkinson’s disease

Authors: R. Bolaños-Jiménez*| Neuroscience and Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Universidad Panamericana, México DF, México., C. Escamilla-Ocañas|...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

The loss of dopaminergicneurons in the substancia nigra pars compacta leads to the characteristicsymptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), whose Lewy bodies is a pathologic signalmost always found. Various monogenic forms account for a minority of cases ofPD, but have provided crucial insight into disease mechanism. However,genetically faithful models have not been exposed to putative toxicants in amanner that is clearly relevant to human exposures, and most of studies haveused conventional genetically modified animals and convenient dosing paradigms.Better translation between preclinical, neuropathologic animal model and,clinical research would be important for future clinical trials.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Dopaminergic neurons, Neurodegeneration, Substantia nigra pars compacta, Gene, Mutation
Physiological and pharmaceutical properties of peppermint as a multipurpose and valuable medicinal plant

Physiological and pharmaceutical properties of peppermint as a multipu...

Authors: M. Akbari| Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran., P. Ezati| Department of F...
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Peppermint is one of the oldest and most highly regarded herbs for appeasing digestion and may also restore digestive efficiency. In addition, peppermint has been known as disorders improving including: analgesic, ulcer, anti-spasmodic, anti-bloat, irritable bowel syndrome or gastrointestinal motility, and immune system stimulant and etc. Peppermint essential oil has biological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. In animal studies peppermint essential oil along chromium picolinate improved blood parameters in broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition. Peppermint essential oil stimulated immune system in broiler chicks. Furthermore peppermint not only improved disorder's digestive system, also peppermint had antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. Moreover peppermint was efficient in blood parameters improvement and immune system stimulation in birds. To achieve these goals with regard to sustainable medical uses, we reviewed a summary of introduction, history, active constituents physiological and pharmacology uses of peppermint with concerning on essential oil in this paper.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Blood parameters, Digestive system, Immune system, Peppermint essential oil

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.