Shoulder pain

Shoulder pain

Authors: A. Agrawal*| Department of Radiodiagnosis, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College Indore, India., P. Tripathi| Department of Radiodiagnosis, Mahatma...
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Shoulder pain is a common and important musculoskeletal problem. Compromised shoulder movement due to pain, stiffness, or weakness can cause substantial disability and affect a person’s ability to carry out daily activities. Common shoulder disorders exhibit similar clinical features, and the lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria. This review proposes an evidence based approach using a simplified classification of shoulder problems, incorporating diagnostic techniques applicable to a primary care consultation and a “red flag” system to identify potentially serious disease.

Keywords: Shoulder pain, Importance, Evaluation, Diagnosis
Malignant solid tumors in basra pediatric oncology center

Malignant solid tumors in basra pediatric oncology center

Authors: L.J. Dawood*| Assit. Prof. Memberof Royll College, Facaulty Member of Washington University - Basrah Pediatric speciality Teaching Hospital, Medical C...
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Malignant solid tumors represent about 50% of all malignant neoplasm in children aged less than 15 years ,They make more than 80% of all malignancies in infants. To focus on clinical and biological characteristics of patients with various types of malignant solid tumors who have been admitted to the Oncology center at Basra Maternity and Children Hospital during the period from the 1st of January 2004 till the end of December 2009. A retrospective study was carried out at Basra Maternity and Children Hospital during the period from the 1st of January 2004 till the end of December 2009.Total cases of cancer admitted to the Center during that period were 704 cases, malignant Solid tumors represented 27.5% of total cases(194 cases). One hundred sixty five patients were included in the study, their age ranged from one month to 14 years, 85 males and 80 females. Sympathetic nervous system tumors represented the highest percentage (35.8%) followed by renal tumors (26.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (18.2%), germ cell tumors (10.3%), retinoblastoma (6.7%) and the least percentage was for hepatic tumors (3%) . The highest frequency of malignant solid tumors was found in the age group of (1-4years), that included 79 patient (47.9%), most of them had neuroblastoma ;32 patients (40%). Most cases with malignant solid tumors were from the center and northern areas of Basra (28.5%,14.6% respectively) and to a lesser extent in western (10.3%), southern (6%), and eastern areas( 1.2%). Other governorates like ThiQar and Maysan account for high rates (21.8%,16.4% respectively) of admissions in Basra pediatric oncology center. The overall mortality was 27.3% (45 cases), it ranged from 11.8%-40%, and most common cause of death was advanced metastatic disease. Non compliance or discontinuation of treatment is an important dilemma for all types of cancer. This study revealed that sympathetic nervous system tumors, the commonest of them was neuroblastoma , most cases presented in stage III or stage IV of the disease. So Improving the diagnostic facilities in Basra Oncology Center by introducing specific type of investigation for evaluation of patient with malignant solid tumors like metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan, positron emission tomography (PET), genetic study, and other important biochemical investigations could assign the patient risk group, and not depending only on simple criteria for the classification of the disease.

Keywords: Malignant solid tumors, Oncology, Clinical, Patients
Antenatal Detection of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection (A Comparative Study between Serological and Molecular Ident

Antenatal Detection of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection (A Compara...

Authors: A. Hany*| Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of medicine, BeniSuef University., M.R.C.O.G. Abdel-Hafeez| Department of Obstetrics & Gyneco...
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a common virus that infects most people worldwide. CMV infection is usually harmless and rarely causes illness. A healthy immune system can hold the virus in check. However, if a person's immune system is seriously weakened in any way, the virus can become active and cause CMV disease. The samples consisted of 120 pregnant women, prospectively screened for CMV by serology from March 2012 to November 2012. The women were presenting for routine antenatal care at a tertiary referral women's hospital Maternal and Children Hospital (M.C.H.) Buridah ,Elqassem, All subjects gave written consent. CMV IgG and IgM were detected in patient serum by using a commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay,and determination of the presence of CMV genome by PCR in Amniotic Fluid. The age range of the pregnant women was 18 to 46 years, with no significant difference seen between the mean age of seropositive and seronegative women. The CMV seropositivity rate for the pregnant women showed that, overall, 76.8% women were CMV IgG positive at pregnancy. Pregnant women were considered in high risk due to (i) documented seroconversion to positively for CMV from 3 months before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (four patients) (ii) CMV symptoms (increase in liver enzyme levels and/or fever) and presence of CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) (five patients) (iii) intrauterine growth retardation as detected by ultrasound (three patients). PCR was used to detect excretion of CMV from the amniotic fluid in 5 of six cases(83.3%) were sero positive,and 1 false negative(16.7%) ,In group without infection , PCR was positive in 1 case ( 1 false positive). Congenital CMV infection is a major health problem that should be approached on the basis of which women should be enrolled in prenatal diagnostic programs, which clinical specimens should be tested, and which laboratory procedures should be adopted for the diagnosis of congenital CMV transmission or infection. Determination of the presence of CMV genome by PCR in amniotic fluid can be considered as a rapid ,non invasive and accurate tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital CMV infection but negative results cannot rule out of infection ,So that diagnosis of this infection based on correlation between serological and PCR Identification.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus infection, Prenatal diagnosis, Cmv enzyme immunoassay, PCR, Amniocentesis
Management of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

Management of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopo...

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani ,Maharashtra, India, A.M. Jangam| Department of Plant Pathology, Ma...
( 51 downloads)
Abstract

An experiment was carried out to see the efficacy of different chemicals and bioagents against bacterial blight disease severity (PDI) and disease incidence (PI). Significantly low disease severity and low disease incidence were recorded in treatment T4 i.e. copper oxychloride 0.25 % + streptocycline 100 ppm sprays to the tune of 11.83 per cent (PDI) and 19.36 per cent (PI) respectively as against the unsprayed control 27.56 per cent and 45.51 per cent respectively and obtained significantly higher seed cotton yield 2567.33 kg/ha followed by carbendazim 0.1 % + streptocycline 100 ppm. Amongst the antagonist tested against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, Trichoderma hamatum was significantly superior in per cent reduction of mycelia colony diameter (mm) of pathogen at all the incubation periods tested. The next best antagonist noticed was T. harzianum and P. fluorescens. Per cent reduction in colony diameter (mm) of the pathogen after 3, 6 and 9 days of incubation in T. hamatum was noticed to the tune of 50.94, 48.03 and 44.12 per cent, respectively.

Keywords: Management, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv., Malvacearum, Gossypium spp, Chemicals, Bioagents
Mycological investigation in patients with acute otitis media

Mycological investigation in patients with acute otitis media

Authors: O.J. Akinjogunla*| University of Uyo, Uyo, Faculty of Science, Department of Microbiology, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, N.O. Eghafona| Department of Micr...
( 45 downloads)
Abstract

Middle ear swabbed samples from 272 patients with acute otitis media (AOM) attending Ear, Nose and Throat clinics were collected and cultured using standard mycological technique. Deoxyribonuclease and In-vitro susceptibility of the fungal isolates to Flucytosine (Flu), Nystatin (Nys), Voriconazole (Vor) and Ketoconazole (Ket) were evaluated using DNase agar and disc diffusion techniques, respectively. The results showed the highest prevalence of AOM in age group ≤ 10 years with 84 (30.9%) cases and lowest prevalence in age group ≥ 61 having 12 (4.4%) cases. Only 124 (45.6%) samples showed positive growth, while 148 (54.4%) showed no growth. Of the 124 samples with growth, 9(36.4%) samples showed growth of single fungal isolate, while 18 (6.6%) and 7 (2.6%) showed growth of two and three fungal isolates, respectively. Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate, followed by Candida albicans with 38 (24.4%), Cryptococcus neoformans 32 (20.5%), Candida spp 21 (13.5%) and Aspergillus flavus 14 (9.0%). Only 46 (29.5%) of fungal isolates were deoxyribonuclease producers, with 30/38 (78.9%) being C. albicans and 16/21 (76.2%) being Candida spp. The results of antifungal susceptibility showed that between 65.8 to 71.1% C. albicans, 64.3 to 85.7% A. flavus, 64.7 to 78.4% A. niger, 53.1 to 75.0% C. neoformans, and 52.4 to 57.1% Candida spp. were sensitive to Ket, Vor and Flu, while between 81.6-84.4% of C. albicans and C. neoformans were sensitive to Nys. In overall, 72.4%, 76.3%, 67.9% and 62.2% of the fungal isolates were sensitive to Flu, Nys, Vor and Ket, respectively. Consequently, Nystatin will be highly effective in treating AOM caused by fungi.

Keywords: Acute otitis media, Deoxyribonuclease, Antifungal, Prevalence, Fungi
Evaluation of natural plant extracts, antagonists and fungicides in controlling root rot, collar rot, fruit (brown) rot and gummosis of citrus caused by Phytophthora spp. in vitro

Evaluation of natural plant extracts, antagonists and fungicides in co...

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani ,Maharashtra, India, M.C. Dhavale| Department of Plant Pathology, M...
( 59 downloads)
Abstract

The results revealed that all the six bioagents tested in vitro applying dual culture technique against Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora citrophthora and Phytophthora palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, bioagent, Trichoderma harzianum recorded minimum mean colony diameter (7.73 cm2) and highest inhibition (87.85%) of mycelial growth of P. nicotianae over untreated control followed by the bioagent T. viride, T. koningii which recorded mean colony diameter of 9.95 cm2, 14.15 cm2 and mean mycelial inhibition of 84.36 %, 77.76%, respectively. Evaluation of different botanicals by Poisoned Food Technique showed that all plant extracts tested in vitro were found significantly effective in reducing the percentage mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora over untreated control. However, plant extract (@ 5, 10 and 15%) of Garlic, recorded lowest mean colony diameter (47.45 mm) and highest mean mycelial growth inhibition (47.26%) followed by Neem, Onion which recorded the mycelial growth of 55.20 mm, 60.85 mm, and the mean mycelial growth inhibition of 38.65%, 32.38%, respectively. Results revealed that all the nine fungicides tested in vitro applying Poisoned Food Technique against P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, fungicide, Cymoxynil 8% + Mancozeb 64% (Curzate M-8) recorded minimum mean colony diameter (16.12 mm) and maximum mean inhibition (82.09%) of mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control (mean colony diameter 90.00 mm and mean inhibition 0.00) followed by the fungicide Metalaxyl-M 4% + Mancozeb 64% (Ridomil Gold), Metyram (Polyram), which recorded mean colony diameter of 20.16 mm, 24.16 mm and mean mycelial inhibition of 77.59%, 73.14%, respectively.

Keywords: Citrus, Phytophthora spp., Plant extracts, Bioagents, Fungicides
Bacteriological and metal analyses of water samples from Awotunde fish pond and river

Bacteriological and metal analyses of water samples from Awotunde fish...

Authors: A.T. Odeyemi*| Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, R.O. Agunbiade| Department of Zoology, Ekiti State...
( 50 downloads)
Abstract

The microbiological and metal analyses of water samples obtained from Awotunde fish pond and river in Ila-Orangun, Osun State, Nigeria were determined. The total bacterial and coliform counts were done using pour plating technique. Mineral was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry techniques. The physicochemical parameters were done using standard methods. The total bacterial and coliform count of the water samples ranged 6.4 x 104 CFU/ml - 7.4 x 104 CFU/ml and 1.1 x 103 CFU/ml - 4.0 x 103 CFU/ml respectively. The values obtained for the physicochemical parameters ranged as follows: temperature (24 - 26) oC, HCO3 (2.0 - 4.6), pH (6.0 - 7.2), alkalinity (40 - 100) mg/l, hardness (60 - 120) mg/l, conductivity (200 - 400)μS/cm, dissolved oxygen (1.1 - 2.0) mg/l, BOD (0.06 - 0.22) mg/l, chloride (28.4 - 106.4) mg/l, nitrite (4.0 - 188.0) mg/l, sulphate (14.0 - 640.0) mg/l, nitrate (0.0 - 90.0) mg/l and phosphate (1.6 - 83.2) mg/l. The mean values of the mineral contents of the water samples are as follows; potassium (94.4 mg/l), sodium (94.7 mg/l), magnesium (89.3 mg/l) and calcium (94.9 mg/l). The mean value obtained for the heavy metal concentrations are as follow; copper (0.1 mg/l), manganese (0.13 mg/l), nickel (2.09 mg/l), lead (0.03 mg/l) and iron (0.26 mg/l). This shows that heavy metal concentrations were below critical limit according to the WHO standard. However, the microbial counts obtained portend the fact that the fish harvested from the pond might be a source of food poisoning if such fishes are not adequately cooked. Since the river serve as a source of water for domestic usage, an outbreak of water borne diseases could be imminent. Hence there must be a need for the Nigeria fish farmers to improve on their fish farming management which includes fish food preparation, environmental sanitation and monitoring the quality fish yield.

Keywords: Microbiological, Awotunde fish pond, Physicochemical, Coliform, Heavy metal
Effect of agrochemicals on microflora in soybean rhizospheric soil

Effect of agrochemicals on microflora in soybean rhizospheric soil

Authors: G.P. Jagtap| Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultual University, Parbhani. Maharashtra, India
( 47 downloads)
Abstract

After application of agrochemicals at 1, 30 DAS and at harvest the total number of fungi, bacteria, actynomycetes, pseudomonas, azatobactor, rhizobium were counted.The result with regard to bacterial population in soybean field were significantly influenced by bioinoculant viz., rhizobium. The bacterial populations were inhibited by herbicides Alachlor in soybean and fungicides i.e. thiram and mancozeb in soybean. After 30 days of spraying of chemicals the bacterial populations were restored. With regard to rhizobium population, the bioinoculant were significantly influenced the population soybean field. The herbicides and fungicides were significantly decreased bioinoculant population, maximum inhibition was observed in mancozeb treated plot at 30 DAS. The results with regards to pseudomonas, actinomycetes and fungi population were influenced by bioinoculant viz., rhizobium. While population were inhibited by alachlor, thiram and mancozeb in soybean field. The Pseudomonas, actinomycetes and fungi population were restored after 30 days of spraying. With regard to yield of soybean were significantly influenced by bioinoculant in combination with herbicide and fungicide.

Keywords: Agrochemicals, Bioinoculants, Soybean
Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia

Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi A...

Authors: A.F. Alsayeqh| Departement. of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, 51354 Buraydah, KSA., S.M. Fat'...
( 67 downloads)
Abstract

There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011) in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

Keywords: FMD, Recurrent, Appearance, Prevention, Strategy, Outbreaks
In-vitro antibacterial evaluation of ethanolic stem crude extracts of anacardium occidentale linn. (anacardiaceae) on streptococcus mutans associated with dental caries

In-vitro antibacterial evaluation of ethanolic stem crude extracts of...

Authors: O.J. Akinjogunla*| Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B.1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State., I.T. Adenugba| Department of...
( 58 downloads)
Abstract

The preliminary phytochemistry and antibacterial activity of ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale on Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries were determined using chemical, standard microbiological and agar disc diffusion techniques. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale revealed the presence of alkaloids (+++), phenolics (+++), saponins (+), tannins (++), flavonoids (++), phlobatanins (+), anthraquinones (+), terpenes (++), deoxy-sugar (++) and cardiac glycosides (+). The results showed that between 65.2% to 95.6% of S. mutans isolated were sensitive to different concentrations of ethanolic stem crude extracts of A. occidentale with Activity Index (A.I) ranging from 0.38 to 1.22. Ethanolic stem crude extracts of A. occidentale showed the highest mean zones of Inhibition (17.9 ± 1.3mm) at 50.0 mgml-1 and lowest inhibition diameter (6.5±1.5mm) at 12.5 mgml-1 on S. mutans, thus, exhibiting concentration dependent activity. The results show that S. mutans with code WD09 was resistant to Streptomycin, Amoxycillin, di-methyl sulphoxide and A. occidentale ethanolic stem crude extracts. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale that have shown some measures of antimicrobial potency, judging by the antibacterial activity and activity index for developing synthetic drugs against dental caries caused by Streptococcus mutans.

Keywords: Streptococcus mutan, Cashew, Caries, Phytochemical, Antibacterial
Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

Authors: R. Adil| Department of Veterinary Pathology College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Khalsa, Amritsar Punjab – 143002 India, M.D. Latief| Department...
( 89 downloads)
Abstract

Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

Keywords: Animal, Pulmonary, Models
Consumer health maintenance related to goat meat fatty acids composition and distribution as influenced by some non gene

Consumer health maintenance related to goat meat fatty acids compositi...

Authors: N. Assan| Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Science, Department of Agriculture, Bulawayo Region, Bulawayo
( 224 downloads)
Abstract

Meat health related issues as perceived by the consumers has become motivators for liking and purchasing of meat products in developed world with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease. Apart from the genetics of the animal desirable goat meat quality production is affected by various known non genetic factors of which could be manipulated to modify the composition and distribution of fatty acids and other biochemical and physical meat quality properties. Knowledge of these as individual factors and/or their combined influence is essential for efficient and desirable meat production which is safe for human consumption. There has been an observed distinctive association of individual levels of non genetic factors such as diet, castration and muscle type with composition and distribution of fatty acids in goat meat which corroborates results reported for other species of animals worldwide.

Keywords: health, goat meat, fatty acids, Non-genetic factors
Livestock waste and its impact on the environment

Livestock waste and its impact on the environment

Authors: I.P. Ogbuewu, V.U. Odoemenam, A.A. Omede, C.S. Durunna, O.O. Emenalom, M.C. Uchegbu, I.C. Okoli, M.U. Iloeje
( 89 downloads)
Abstract

Livestock industries produce meat, milk and egg, and also generate large volumes of wastes that could be harmful to the environment if not well managed. The demand for animal products is driven by increasing per capital incomes, urbanization, changing lifestyles as well as rapid population growth. These increases in demand for animal products are expected to continue in the years to come. Livestock keepers on the quest of optimizing the benefit of the ever increasing demand for their products have resorted in the production and accumulation of large volumes of wastes. However, the disposal of these wastes continues to be a challenge from the standpoints of cost, environmental safety, and biosecurity. The question remains how would these livestock wastes be managed without detrimental effects on food security, natural resources and health? This review was necessitated in an attempt to answer these questions.

Keywords: live stock, health, water, air, soil, management
Lifetime estimation methods in power transformer insulation

Lifetime estimation methods in power transformer insulation

Authors: M.A., Taghikhani
( 101 downloads)
Abstract

Mineral oil in the power transformer has an important role in the cooling, insulation aging and chemical reactions such as oxidation. Oil temperature increases will cause quality loss. The oil should be regularly control in necessary time. Studies have been done on power transformers oils that are used in different age in Iranian power grid to identify the true relationship between age and other characteristics of power transformer oil. In this paper the first method to estimate the life of power transformer insulation (oil) is based on Arrhenius law. The Arrhenius law can provide loss of power transformer oil quality and estimates remaining life. The second method that is studies to estimate the life of power transformer is the paper insulation life prediction at temperature160 ° C.

Keywords: Power transformer, Transformer oil, Arrhenius law, Estimated life of insulation
Estimation of scale parameter of inverse gaussian distribution under a bayesian framework using different loss functions

Estimation of scale parameter of inverse gaussian distribution under a...

Authors: N. Feroze
( 87 downloads)
Abstract

In this paper, the Bayesian analysis of scale parameter of inverse Gaussian distribution has been considered. The Bayes estimators along with corresponding risks have been derived under a class of priors and using various loss functions. The Bayesian credible intervals have been derived for the said parameter. In order to predict the future values of the variable the posterior predictive distributions have been constructed under different priors. A simulation study has been conducted for different parametric values to assess and compare the performance of different estimators.

Keywords: Bayes estimators, Posterior risks, Posterior predictive distribution, Credible intervals (C.I)

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