An overview for the application of multispectral device for determination of alkaloid level in dioscorea hispida

An overview for the application of multispectral device for determinat...

Authors: S. Roslan, M.H.H. Razali, W.I.W. Ismail

Recently with development of computer imaging, the application field of near infrared image processing becomes much wider. The potential of machine vision application in the determination of alkaloid in Dioscorea hispida rhizome was explored. A camera vision system used in this research is TETRACAM multispectral camera, which consists of three bands, namely red band (R), green band (G) and near infrared band (NIR). The first component is the hardware component that functions as an image acquisitioned for the system. The second component is the software part which converts data obtained from the hardware. From the design review, the images from a variety of harvested of Dioscorea hispida will be captured and the readings in multispectral wavelength index were tabulated. The statistical relationship between multispectral wavelength and alkaloid level in the fruit were determined. The development on this study is grouped as non destructive method to determine the dioscorine content which is one of the alkaloid components in the rhizome of Dioscorea hispida.

Keywords: Prediction device, Multispectral image, Tetracam machine vision, Alkaloid detection, Dioscorea hispida
Factors influencing involvement of peri-urban farmers in mini-livestock farming in south-western Nigeria

Factors influencing involvement of peri-urban farmers in mini-livestoc...

Authors: S.I. Ogunjimi, O.J. Yusuf, A.O, Ajala

The study focused on factors influencing involvement of peri-urban farmers in mini-livestock farming in South-Western Nigeria. Specifically, the peri-urban farmers’ socio-economic characteristics were described, their level of involvement in rearing mini-livestock were determined and constraint associated with mini-livestock farming were examined. 182 respondents were interviewed through the use of structured interview schedule and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Data analysis was carried out using frequency counts, percentage, and factor analysis. The results of the study showed that more males were involved in mini-livestock rearing than females, while the mean age of a farmer was 46 years. Majorities were literate and information sourced from fellow farmers was most common and reliable source of information accessible by the respondents, while there was low extension contact. Problems confronting the respondents include inadequate credit facilities, untimely supply of inputs, improper management skill and low extension contacts. Results of the factor analysis revealed eleven factors which contributed to farmers’ involvement in mini-livestock farming. These include community influence, farmland acquisition, characteristics of mini-livestock, personality factor, and economic status. Other factors were capacity building, household composition,external orientation, farm characteristics, social group orientation and communication tool. The study concluded that policy making on mini-livestock development should focus at enhancing the socio-economic status of peri-urban farmers through improved to access to credit facilities and capacity building through training on improved management practice. This could have a profound influence on increased production, sustainable livelihood and alleviation of poverty among the populace.

Keywords: Capacity building, Factor analysis, Management practices, Socio-economic status, Credit facilities, Sustainable livelihood
Impact of palm oil and extracted fish meal on haematological parameters, serum constituents and histology of African cat

Impact of palm oil and extracted fish meal on haematological parameter...

Authors: T.O. Babalola, D.F. Apata

This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of supplementing feed with palm oil and extracted fish meal on the histological, haematological and serum biochemical profile of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ten experimental diets were formulated by replacing fish oil with palm oil (PO) at 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% in extracted and unextracted fishmeal-based diets in a 2 x 5 factorial design. The red blood cell counts (RBC) were significantly affected by the PO levels and highest in fish fed 50% and 75% FO replacement with PO. Extraction of fishmeal significantly affected the haematological parameters. Total protein, glucose concentrations, AST and ALT activities were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the PO levels. However, serum total cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in fish fed 50% FO. Similarly HDL was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in fish fed 50%, 75% and 100% FO replacement with PO, but HDL of fish fed unextracted fishmeal diets was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those fed the extracted fishmeal diets. Histological examination of the intestines showed no accumulation of lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. However, liver from fish fed unextracted fish meal-based diets with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% FO replacement showed homogenous size hepatocytes with vacuolized cytoplasm, swelling and nuclei displacement were also evident. These results indicate that extraction of fishmeal and use of PO as a substitute for FO in the diets of H. longifilis had no noticeable negative health impacts.

Keywords: Palm oil, Fish oil, Fishmeal, Serum constituents, Haematology, Histology
Developing awareness profiling force and activities linking safety and quality of foods of animal origin in Bangladesh

Developing awareness profiling force and activities linking safety and...

Authors: M. Mufizur Rahman, S. M. Lutful Kabir

Food safety is an important topic as large number of consumers has become victim of consuming adulterated foods. As the food safety laws, administration and inspection in Bangladesh do not include monitoring the chain of production and comply the recommendation by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System, the government is encouraging the private sector to put the food processing and marketing into the context of standard, cost effectiveness, public health issues and global trade. Recommendations came up for strengthening collaboration between Ministries and stakeholders. Since the public health service cannot combat alone the complex situation, the governmental agencies and academic institutions must work together to delineate many of the problems in food safety, consumers protection and zoonoses. In this paper the profiling force linking safety and quality of foods of animal origin in Bangladesh is highlighted.

Keywords: Food safety, Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS), Food processing, Animal origin, Bangladesh
Role of cooperative-societies in community development in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto state, Nigeria

Role of cooperative-societies in community development in Sokoto metro...

Authors: G. Najamuddeen, B.Z. Abubakar, M.G. Kebbe, A.S. Magaji, S. Ukashatu

This research was conducted in order assess the role of cooperatives in community development in Sokoto metropolis. The data for this research were obtained by sampling the opinion of 60 respondents all of which are members of different cooperatives in the study area using simple random sampling technique. The research instrument used was questionnaire administration and the data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages).The study showed that 50% of the respondents were between the ages of 20 and 30 years. 62% of them sourced their money through personal contributions. The research revealed that the contribution of cooperatives societies in community development through self help effort are more of schools rehabilitation, road construction and other community projects (mosques construction, rehabilitation, donation of books and medicine to schools and community clinic, financial and material assistance to disabled people). 70% of the respondents have stated that that they have not received any assistance from the government. Recommendations were made and an appeal to the government to intensify its effort in financing capacity building and provision of technical facilities.

Keywords: Role, Cooperative-societies, Community, Development, Sokoto, Metropolis
Power Quality enhancement in MICROGRID (

Power Quality enhancement in MICROGRID (

Authors: M. Manigandan, MIEEE and Dr. B. Basavaraja, SMIEEE

Microgrids are systems with clusters of micro generators, which are installed for distributed power generation. When interfaced to the utility grid, microgrids are exposed to common utility power-quality disturbances. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, FC and MT for sustained power generation. We propose herein a dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/MT hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers. The general function of the multilevel inverter is to synthesize a desired AC voltage from several levels of DC voltages. As the number of voltage levels increases the harmonic content decreases significantly. The modulating technique is modified reference modulating techniques. i.e., third harmonic injected reference and offset line voltage injected reference with triangular carrier waves. The main objective of this study is to reduce total harmonic distortion. A novel technique for the selection of switching states to synthesize the desire vector is proposed. This paper realizes the implementation of five-level diode clamped MLI.

Keywords: Microgrid, DG, Wind turbine, PEM Fuel cell, ND - MLI DSTATCOM
Innovating veterinary public health challenges of Bangladesh to integrate the concept of ‘one world, one health’

Innovating veterinary public health challenges of Bangladesh to integr...

Authors: M.M. Rahman, M.H. Rahman

The present paper addresses relevant problems and constraints of VPH in Bangladesh in the light of global concept “One World, One Health” that need to be overcome and to ask for help, coordination and collaboration of international organization to promote and build the capacity for the spectrum of important VPH issues contributing to zoonoses, food-borne disease control, food safety and fostering better and living condition. In Bangladesh the loss of border controls within countries and the globalization of trade have led to an increasing trade in animals and products of animal origin. As a consequence there appears the demand and imperative need for new and elaborate surveillance strategies. The world is changing fast and new diseases are emerging and reemerging across the globe. Many of these new diseases can be linked to animals or changes occurring in environmental conditions. Bangladesh government has launched a collaborative effort and established increased participatory approach and joint venture activities with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) in respect of capacity building for surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, and food safety. The four recommendations mentioned below could provide valuable direction to the future VPH program and activities linked to global concept “One World, One Health” These are (1) Development and Strengthening of VPH (2) Formation of Veterinary Public Health Forum (3) Establishment of National Communicable Disease Center (4) Foundation of National Institute of VPH Studies.

Keywords: Veterinary public health, Bangladesh, Strategic recommendation
Estimation of the parameters of rayleigh distribution based on record values for censored data

Estimation of the parameters of rayleigh distribution based on record...

Authors: A. Ahmed, N. Feroze, A.S. Akhter

In this paper, we discuss the estimation of location and scale parameters of the Rayleigh distribution based on the Upper record values by the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) and an alternative linear estimate, proposed by Gupta (1952). Type II singly and doubly censored samples are used for estimation. Tables of coefficients for best linear estimator and alternative estimator of are presented for various choices of censoring for n 8. Variances and covarinces of estimator of for BLUE and for alternative estimator are also presented. The computational formula and procedure used are explained. The purpose of the paper is to compare the performance of the estimation procedures in terms of relative efficiencies. The findings of the study suggest that the BLUE method can be replaced by Gupta method especially in the large samples.

Keywords: Record values, Type II censoring, Rayleigh distribution
Artificial neural networks in foodstuffs: a critical review

Artificial neural networks in foodstuffs: a critical review

Authors: S. Goyal, G.K. Goyal

This paper provides a critical review of literature concerning the artificial neural networks (ANN) in foodstuffs. The main aim is to provide background information, motivation for applications and an exposition to the methodologies employed in the development of ANN techniques in foodstuffs. This review includes that all the latest works on the application of ANN to foodstuffs which have been reported excellently with positive and encouraging results. This review paper highlights the methodologies and algorithms employed for ANN models suitable for various foodstuffs, viz., avocados, tomatoes, cherries, grape, mosambi juice, apple juice, chicken nuggets, pistachio nuts, potato chips, kalakand, cakes, processed cheese, butter, milk and other foodstuffs. This review paper would be very beneficial for those working in food industry, academicians, students, researchers, scientists, factories manufacturing the food products and regulatory authorities, as it provides comprehensive latest information.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Soft computing, Artificial intelligence, Foodstuffs, Review
Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

Authors: P.S. Shirgure

Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

Keywords: Acid lime, Citrus, Irrigation scheduling, Drip irrigation, Fruit yield, Productivity
Evaporation modeling with multiple linear regression techniques – a review

Evaporation modeling with multiple linear regression techniques – a re...

Authors: P.S. Shirgure

Evaporation is influenced by number of agro-meteorological parameters and one of the integral components of the hydrological cycle and. Usually, estimates of evaporation are needed in a wide array of problems in agriculture, hydrology, agronomy, forestry and land resources planning, such as water balance computation, irrigation management, crop yield forecasting model, river flow forecasting, ecosystem modeling. Irrigation can substantially increase crop yields, but again the scheduling of the water application is usually based on evaporation estimates. Numerous investigators developed models for estimation of evaporation. The interrelated meteorological factors having a major influence on evaporation have been incorporated into various formulae for estimating evaporation. Unfortunately, reliable estimates of evaporation are extremely difficult to obtain because of complex interactions between the components of the land-plant-atmosphere system. In hot climate, the loss of water by evaporation from rivers, canals and open-water bodies is a vital factor as evaporation takes a significant portion of all water supplies. Even in humid areas, evaporation loss is significant, although the cumulative precipitation tends to mask it due to which it is ordinarily not recognized except during rainless period. Therefore, the need for reliable models for quantifying evaporation losses from increasingly scarce water resources is greater than ever before. Accurate estimation of evaporation is fundamental for effective management of water resources. The evaporation models using MLR techniques is discussed her in details.

Keywords: Evaporation, Evaporation modeling, Multiple linear regression
Crop diversification in India: a study of maize cultivation in Karnataka

Crop diversification in India: a study of maize cultivation in Karnata...

Authors: K. Singha| Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 72, India., A. Chakravorty| Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 72, Ind...

Growing need of agricultural production has been greatly felt with the growth of population, not only for the sake of food security but also for providing employment. Crop diversification within the sector has also been noticed to a great extent. Of which, the growth of production of maize has registered at the highest with CAGR at 8.5 per cent in the last three decades. Using one way Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) for twenty-seven districts over twelve years, present study explored that the introduction of new hybrid seed (HYV) is one of the most important factors for significant growth of maize crop in the state. Further, though the crop is suitable in the drier region, the role of timely rainfall is also found to have significant on the yield level.

Keywords: Maize, Crop Diversification, HYV Seed
Natural treatments for seasonal and non-seasonal depression: a review of literature and comparison of antidepressant res

Natural treatments for seasonal and non-seasonal depression: a review...

Authors: A. Putilov| Research Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 2, Timakova Street, N...

The symptoms of depression might be alleviated by such non-pharmacological interventions as sleep deprivation, bright light exposure, and physical exercise. Some strategies of non-drug treatment for seasonal and non-seasonal depression seem to be very effective, but the involvement of specific biological mechanisms in the observed beneficial response still remains to be clarified. A present literature review was combined with a brief summary of the results of a set of author’s investigations that provided a possibility to compare the antidepressant effects of several one-week treatments in 268 female subjects with either winter depression or non-seasonal depression or without depression (n=118, 64 and 86, respectively). It was demonstrated that a total night sleep deprivation failed to improve mood in non-depressed subjects, whereas in seasonally and non-seasonally depressed subjects the significant improvements of similar magnitudes were observed. Furthermore, any type of one-week treatment (i.e., 6 or 7 days of bright light, physical exercise, melatonin or placebo intake, and vocation in a south region) administered either alone or in combination with one night of sleep deprivation produced a notable reduction of depression scores in both depressed and non-depressed subjects. Such treatments prevented relapse after sleep deprivation. Mood further improved after visual treatments, such as bright light and physical exercise, rather than after blind intake of ether melatonin or placebo. The studies of natural antidepressants highlighted the possibility that they often work as powerful placebos, and that, compared to the biology of depressives; their psychology is the most important mediator of clinical response. Further research might be aimed on testing the predictions based on evolutionary explanation of depression and antidepressant responses to natural treatments.

Keywords: Sleep deprivation, Physical exercise, Biological mechanisms, Antidepressant responses
Experimental studies on structural load monitoring using piezoelectric transducer based electromechanical impedance meth

Experimental studies on structural load monitoring using piezoelectric...

Authors: M.A. Radhika| Laboratory of Monitoring Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang, Avenue. Singapore 639798., V.G.M. Annamdas| Laboratory o...

In general aerospace, civil and mechanical (ACM) structures are often subjected to some or the other forms of loading during their service life. It has been reported that about 75% of aerospace structures fail due to fatigue cyclic loading. The civil-structural components are subjected to some form of axial and transverse loading which continuously deteriorates the health of the structure. Mechanical components are also subjected to stresses due to contact pressures between several components. Thus for ACM structures, effective monitoring through-out the entire life is required as these often involve public life and huge investments. Owing to such necessity, researchers around the world are continuously working on the development of smart sensor based effective monitoring techniques. Piezo electric (PZT) transducer based electromechanical impedance (EMI) is one such technique which was developed for structural health monitoring (SHM). In this technique, PZT transducers are usually attached to the structure to be monitored and are then subjected to unit sinusoidal electric voltage to generate the electromechanical (EM) admittance signatures when interrogated to the desired frequency range of excitations. These signatures consist of real (conductance) and imaginary (susceptance) parts which serve as indicator to predict the structural health. Any deviations in these signatures during the monitoring period indicate disturbance in the structure. However, the EMI technique was not widely explored for structural load monitoring (such as fatigue cyclic load, monotonous load, axial and transverse load) compared to damage detection. In this paper, systematic experiments were presented on the specimens for axial load variations, transverse load variations, monotonous and fatigue load variation with discussions on boundary effect and buckling effects. For axial, fatigue, monotonic load, the conductance was found to be effective where as for transverse load monitoring susceptance was found to be effective. This paper summarizes different types of loading effects related to EMI.

Keywords: Load, PZT transducer, Monitoring, Impedance, Boundary effect and buckling effects, Civil and mechanical (ACM) structures
Modeling and simulation of fungi transport in waste dump site in Obioakpor, rivers Stater of Nigeria

Modeling and simulation of fungi transport in waste dump site in Obioa...

Authors: S.N. Eluozo| Subaka Nigeria Limited Port Harcourt Rivers State of Nigeria.

Modeling and simulation of fungi transport in waste dump site has been evaluated. Mathematical model were developed considering all the variables in the system that influence transport process of fungi to ground water aquifers. Geologic history was found to influence the fast transport of fungi as presented in the figure. More so rapid increase of microbial growth were found to be influenced by porosity and permeability of the soil, geomorphology and geochemistry of the strategraphic were found insignificant on the transport process, these were experienced on high rate of microbial increase or growth as presented in the figure, the present of inhibitors (heavy metals) were also found to be insignificant, the study recommend that the derived model should be thoroughly apply to improve ground water quality in the study location.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Fungi, Mathematical model

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