Modeling and simulation to predict partial deposition of ammonia and specific growth rate of bacterial in homogeneous fo

Modeling and simulation to predict partial deposition of ammonia and s...

Authors: S.N. Eluozo| Subaka Nigeria Limited Port Harcourt; Civil and Environmental Engineering Consultant Department of Research and Development, Rivers State...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

Specific growth rate of bacteria has been expressed through characteristics influence deposition at various stratums to aquiferous zone. The growth rates of bacteria are under the influence of the substrate utilization that contaminates groundwater aquifers in various formations. Derived mathematical equations generated theoretical values that expressed the rate of exponential phase of ammonia deposition and bacteria growth rate in homogenous formation. Slight fluctuations were experienced in between the aquiferous zones under the influence of variation from degree of porosity and permeability of the stratum. Experimental values were compared with the theoretical values; both parameters produced a best fit. These expressed the application of the derived model that determines partial deposition of ammonia and bacteria growth rate in homogenous formation. The study is imperative because the model expressed partial depositions of ammonia that determine the growth rate of bacteria at various formations to groundwater aquifers in the study area.

Keywords: Simulation, Partial deposition, Ammonia and homogenous formation
Evaporation modeling with artificial neural network: A review

Evaporation modeling with artificial neural network: A review

Authors: P.S. Shirgure| National Research Centre for Citrus (ICAR), Nagpur, India- 440 010.
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Evaporation from the open pan as well as surface is a complex phenomenon of the hydrological cycle and influenced by many meteorological parameters, such as rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and bright sunshine hours. Measurement of evaporation with accuracy is and continuous is a difficult operation. In such situations, it becomes an imperative to use neural network models that can estimate evaporation from available climatic data and may give more accurate results than the measured pan evaporation. In this regard, a number of models for predicting the pan evaporation have been developed by several investigators for different locations of India and abroad. Most of the current models for predicting evaporation use the principles of the deterministically based combined energy balance – vapor transfer approach or empirical relationships based on climatological variables. This resulted in relationships that were often subjected to rigorous local calibrations and therefore proved to have limited global validity. Due to these limitations the conventionally applied regression modeling techniques need to be further refined to achieve improved performance by adopting new and advanced technique like neural networks. Evaporation process is complex and needs non-linear modeling and hence, can be modeled through Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Large number of researchers have been established the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the problems in agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and environmental fields. The review related to evaporation modeling using neural networks is discussed here in brief.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), Evaporation, Evaporation modeling, Research review
Some observations on oestrus manifestations in the red Sokoto goat

Some observations on oestrus manifestations in the red Sokoto goat

Authors: M.A. Umaru| Department of Theriogenology and Animal production, H.S. Garba| Department of veterinary medicine, J.B. Adeyanju| Department of veterinary...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

This paper reports of some observations on the type and frequency of oestrous expressions in the red sokoto doe (RSD). There is reduced manifestation of oestrous signs in does kept without males. Presence of males and coitus also does affect the nature and frequency of a given oestrous expression. The presence of a buck combined with cloprostenol (an oestrous synchronizing agent) induction produces intense manifestation of heat in a higher percentage of RSDs.

Keywords: Coitus, Oestrus manifestation, Red Sokoto goat
Indigenous goat as a potential genetic resource in Zimbabwe: A review

Indigenous goat as a potential genetic resource in Zimbabwe: A review

Authors: N. Assan| Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture Management, Bulawayo Region, Box 3550, Bulawayo, Zimb...
( 40 downloads)
Abstract

Indigenous goat breeds should be considered as promising genetic resource taking into account that goats comprise a considerable proportion of livestock and contribute substantially to the economic requirement of small scale farmers in Zimbabwe. They are tropically adapted and suited to low input range conditions, furthermore are reputed to give birth every year which may be considered unique characteristic of indigenous goats. In order to improve the average level of indigenous goat breeds for economic valued traits by genetic means the flocks must be subjected to selection for specific traits or combination of traits required. The prime aim of selection is to identify superior animals and use them for breeding so that the efficiency of the flock is improved. Another viable option is crossbreeding where it has been used has a constant feature associated with the introduction of improved goat type breeds into local goat population. Selection and crossbreeding have not been utilized to any extent to improve productivity of local goats and it is highly recommended that if these are to be successful they should be invariably accompanied improvements in management. There is little point in seeking genetic improvement in indigenous goat breeds due to selection or crossbreeding if management and nutrition are inadequate.little point in seeking genetic improvement in indigenous goat breeds due to selection or crossbreeding if management and nutrition are inadequate.

Keywords: Indigenous goat, Genetic resource, Selection, Crossbreeding, Zimbabwe
Mammary Adenocarcinoma in lioness

Mammary Adenocarcinoma in lioness

Authors: A.D. Firdous| Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Mannuthy Thrissur -680651, Kerala, India., S....
( 48 downloads)
Abstract

A lioness was brought for postmortem at the Wild Animal Rescue Centre, Kodanad Kerala India. The right mammary gland was extremely enlarged and was completely invaded by coalescent yellowish granular masses and whitish connective tissue. Histopathology of the organs revealed proliferation of round or polyhydric mild anaplastic cells, with round hyper chromatic nuclei, evident nucleoli and eosinophilic cytoplasm and with moderate anaplasia. The cells formed solid masses surrounded by fine connective stroma. Mitotic figures were conspicuous and in many areas the tumor cells invaded the blood and lymphatic vessels. There were metastatic changes in the retro-mammary lymph node and other organs of the pelvic, abdominal or thoracic cavities with similar characteristics of primary tumor.

Keywords: Anaplastic cells, Mammary gland, Metastasis
Magnitude of correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in ruminants

Magnitude of correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects f...

Authors: N. Assan| Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo Region, Box 3550, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
( 41 downloads)
Abstract

This is a review paper that looks at the influence of sign and magnitude of the correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle. Considerable debate exists about the validity of results on the factors which influence the sign and magnitude of the correlation between direct and genetic effects of growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle. The current reports on sign and magnitude of the correlation between direct and maternal effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle show that both positive and negative values are possible. It emerged that the use of an appropriate covariance of direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle has a bearing on the accuracy of selected programs. The importance of the correlation between direct and maternal effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle is based on the notion that ignoring the covariance of direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle may distort the ranking of individual animals in a population. The review paper, therefore, concludes that the sign and magnitude of covariance of direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in sheep, goats and cattle, is dependent on various factors which include management, breed and data preparation process.

Keywords: Covariance, Direct, Maternal, Growth traits, Ruminants
Research review on Irrigation scheduling and water requirement in citrus

Research review on Irrigation scheduling and water requirement in citr...

Authors: P.S. Shirgure| National Research Centre for Citrus (ICAR), Nagpur, India- 440 010.
( 63 downloads)
Abstract

Citrus is the main fruit group grown in tropical as well as sub-tropical climate of more than 150 countries in the world. Irrigation scheduling and water requirement of the citrus crops are one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of natural resources. A large number of research findings have emerged world over on irrigation scheduling and water requirements of the citrus based on available soil water content and its depletion and based on pan evaporation replenishment. The research review of the literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion patterns of soil available water content, irrigation schedules of various citrus crops and fertigation. Irrigation water management with proper water use is one of the prime concerns of modem horticulture irrespective of soil and water resource availability. A variety of recommendations have reviewed the world over on irrigation scheduling based on analysis of meteorological parameters, evapo-transpiration, depletion of available water content, soil and leaf water potential. The review of the literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion patterns of soil available water content. Similarly, irrigation scheduling has shown good responses on growth, yield, and quality compared to calender method of irrigation schedules. The present status of the review of irrigation scheduling and water requirement of citrus cultivars is clearly presented in this research review article.

Keywords: Acid lime, Citrus, Nagpur mandarin, Water requirement, Irrigation scheduling, Yield
Survey affects of effective factors on contracts for development of south pars gas field

Survey affects of effective factors on contracts for development of so...

Authors: M. Ahmadian| University of Tehran. Faculty of Economics, Tehran., V. Varahrami| University of Tehran. Faculty of Economics, Tehran.
( 43 downloads)
Abstract

Exploration and extraction contracts are the main tool for using foreign new technologies for development of offshore oil and gas resources. Some factors such as risk aversion of owner country and foreign company, oil and gas price and asymmetric information have effects on value of contracts. These factors are so important in developing of contracts for extraction from offshore resources as South Pars Filed in Iran, exactly in some contracts such as buyback contracts.

Keywords: South pars gas field, Offshore gas resource, Risk aversion, Asymmetric information, Buy-back contract
Methodological ontology

Methodological ontology

Authors: K.K. Tsang| University of Hong Kong
( 61 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of this article is to consider the question why we can combine quantitativeand qualitative methodologies, which represent different and contradictoryepistemologies, in social research. This article suggests that, in addition topragmatism, the more fundamental thing underpinning and legitimizing themixture of the methodologies is the methodological ontology of objectivism.

Keywords: Quantitative methodology, Qualitative methodology, Positivism, Interpretivism, Objectivism, Methodological ontology
Patterns and scope of investment by cooperative organizations in rural communities of Kano state

Patterns and scope of investment by cooperative organizations in rural...

Authors: M.S. Hussain| Faculty of Education and Extension Services. Department of Adult Education and Extension Services. Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto,...
( 45 downloads)
Abstract

This study investigated the patterns and scope of investment by cooperative organisations in rural communities of Kano state. It specifically examined the patterns of cooperative investment, Scope of investments of cooperative organisations; Impact of cooperative activities on rural community development, obstacles militating against the effective operations of cooperative organisations. The research design was based on the main tenets of descriptive survey. The sample of the study was 320 participants selected from fourty cooperative societies. It was made up of 200 (72%) males and 120 (23%) females. Three instruments were used to collect data, demographic questionnaire, Questionnaire for members and focus group discussions. The data collected in this study were subjected to chi-square test and descriptive (frequency count). The findings revealed that production is the dominant pattern of cooperative investments, while processing, consumer and multi purpose are also patterns of cooperative investments. The scope of investments of cooperative organization was that Loans to small scale trades, workers loans, commercial activities and agriculture. There was a significant differences in the expressed opinions with regards to how the activities of cooperative organisations are implemented some of the respondents are of the opinions that it is very well, and some said it is some how and others said it is not effective. It was also observed that the activities of cooperatives have impacted positively on the lives of the rural people. Based on these findings it is recommended that there is the need to educate the members in order to enhance their capacity for optimum results, Government should devise a better way for supervising the activities of cooperative organisations and also provide an enabling policy. Cooperative organizations should be organizing adult literacy classes for their members in order to reduce the level of illiteracy in the community and serve as pressure groups.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Fungi, Mathematical model
Bioprediction of body weight and carcass parameters from morphometric measurements in livestock and poultry

Bioprediction of body weight and carcass parameters from morphometric...

Authors: N. Assan| Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture Management, Bulawayo Region, Box 3550, Bulawayo, Zimb...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Body weight is an important attribute in animal production as it forms the basis for not only assessing growth and feed efficiency but also in making economic and management decisions. The major focus of this review is to look at bioprediction of body weight and carcass parameters from morphometric (linear body) measurements in livestock and poultry production. There is a consensus amongst researchers working with different livestock and poultry species that morphometric characteristics could serve as predictors of body weight and carcass parameters. Different studies have exploited correlations of morphometric measurements with body weight and carcass parameters to develop techniques for estimating body weight and carcass parameters in different livestock and poultry species, where weighing scales may not be available. The review highlights some of the factors which may influence the accuracy of prediction of body weight and carcass parameters using regression models. Categorization of data according to sex and age is necessary to improve prediction power of equations. The estimation of body weight using morphometric measurements becomes very useful in smallholder livestock and poultry producers who rarely keep birth records. Measurements of various morphometric traits are of value in estimating body weight and carcass parameters in livestock and poultry production and because of the relative ease in measurements they can be used as an indirect method of predicting body weight and carcass parameters. These will provide good information on performance, productivity and carcass characteristics of livestock and poultry. The review concludes that there is need to develop different predictive equation for various species since different species have different relationship between linear body measurements with body weight and carcass parameters. The use of morphometric measurements to predict body weight or carcass parameters would overcome many of the problems associated with visual assessment or evaluation.

Keywords: Livestock, Poultry, Body weight, Morphometric measurements, Prediction
Conceptual instrumentation of washing machine for conformity to the Islamic laws of Syarak

Conceptual instrumentation of washing machine for conformity to the Is...

Authors: [{"name":"R. Yahaya","affiliation":"Faculty of Electrical and Instrumentation, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450, Selangor, Malaysia."},{"name":"M.H. R...
( 46 downloads)
Abstract

The concept of today’s washing machine that uses control technology to clean clothing is based on clothing weight factor proportionately to the amount of water used irrespective of the nature of the contaminants. However according to Islamic law, clothing such as being contaminated with children’s urine for an example has to be cleaned using continuous flowing water especially during the initial stage of washing. With the concept of algorithm system and integrated into the washing machine, the continuous running water will be subjected during the initial wash and spin option. The light sensors used on both inlet and outlet valve will ensure the contaminated solids or liquids will be accordingly removed. Application of solenoid valve is used to control the water tank level during washing and drying period. Similar concept has been developed at Farm Unit, Department of Agriculture Science, UniSZA for removing the toxin from food tuber of Dioscorea hispida before it can consume securely. The analysis shows that using flowing new water will remove toxicity which was represent of excrement in clothing. This paper elaborates the concept of automatic washing machine operation which complies with Islamic law of syarak.

Keywords: Washing machine, Automatic removal machine, Law of syarak, Statistical analysis, Dioscorea hispida
Objective bayesian analysis for the gompertz distribution under doudly type II cesored data

Objective bayesian analysis for the gompertz distribution under doudly...

Authors: T.N. Sindhu| Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320 Islamabad 44000, Pakistan., M. Aslam| Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ...
( 47 downloads)
Abstract

Trimmed samples are widely utilized in several areas ofstatistical practice, especially when some sample values at either or bothextremes might have been adulterated. In this article, the problem ofestimating the parameter of Gompertz distribution based on trimmed samplesunder informative and non-informative priors has been addressed. The problemdiscussed using Bayesian approach to estimate the parameter of Gompertzdistribution. We have examined Bayes estimates under symmetric and asymmetricloss functions. The explicit expressions for estimator and risk are developedunder all loss functions. Elicitation of hyperparameter through priorpredictive approach is also discussed. Posterior Predictive distributions andCredible Intervals are also derived under different priors. The influence ofparametric value on the estimate and risk is also discussed. Finally, to assessthe performance of the estimators, numerical results using Monte Carlosimulation study were reported.

Keywords: Inverse transformation method, Doubly censored samples, Loss functions, Credible intervals, Posterior predictive distributions
Sustainable water resources management, future demands and adaptation strategies in Sudan

Sustainable water resources management, future demands and adaptation...

Authors: A.M. Omer| Energy Research Institute (ERI), Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, UK.
( 43 downloads)
Abstract

For the thirty-nine million, who live in Sudan, environmental pollution is amajor concern; therefore industry, communities, local authorities and centralgovernment, to deal with pollution issues, should adopt an integrated approach.Most polluters pay little or no attention to the control and proper managementof polluting effluents. This may be due to the lack of enforceable legislationand/or fear of spending money on treatment of the effluent prior to discharge.Furthermore, the imposed fines are generally low and therefore do not deterpotential offenders. The present problems that are related to water andsanitation in Sudanare many and varied, and the disparity between water supply and demand isgrowing with time due to the rapid population growth and aridity. The situationof the sewerage system in the cities is extremely critical, and there are nosewerage systems in the rural areas. There is an urgent need for substantialimprovements and extensions to the sewerage systems treatment plants. The furtherdevelopment of water resources for agriculture and domestic use is one of thepriorities to improve the agricultural yield of the country, and to meet thedomestic and industrial demands for water. This article discusses the overallproblem and identifies possible solutions.

Keywords: Sudan, Water resources development, Community water supply, Effective water-supply management, Environment
Demand for clean energies efficient development in building technologies

Demand for clean energies efficient development in building technologi...

Authors: A.M. Omer| Energy Research Institute (ERI), Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, UK.
( 42 downloads)
Abstract

The increased availability of reliable and efficient energyservices stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses thepotential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable powermarket in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology.Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies,environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current andfuture perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar,groundsource heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, anddemonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas frombiomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which ispotentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salientpoints and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature isreviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts ofbiogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use ofbiomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and othermaterials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, highervalue products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must beencouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especiallyin remote rural areas. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequentenvironmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouseeffect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. NationalCentre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2011 andJuly 2011. An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way tomeet high building performance. However, because renewable energy sources arestochastic and geographically diffuse their ability to match demand isdetermined by adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisationof a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, orthe reduction of the community’s energy demands to a level commensurate withthe locally available renewable resources. The adoption of green or sustainableapproaches to the way in which society is run is seen as an important strategyin finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing andcontrolling CO2, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the useof alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how thesealternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energysources. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving thatcan be achieved through the use of renewable energy technologies. Also, thisstudy clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energysaving that could be achieved through use of renewable energy technologies anddescribes the objectives, approach and scope of the study. The move towards ade-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by thebusiness opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentallyfriendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmosphericcarbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use ofnatural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases andprovides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. The increasedavailability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates newdevelopment alternatives. We present and focus a comprehensive review of energysources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore theseenergy sources. We conclude that using renewable energy technologies, efficientenergy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measuresnecessary to reduce climate changes.

Keywords: Cleaner energy, Environment, Wind, Heat pumps, Biomass, Ecological

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