Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sultan Qaboos University
  • Country of publisher: oman
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Sep/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biochemistry, Biomedicine, Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Biomedicine, Community Health, Family Medicine, Health Sciences, Biochemistry
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 1999
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '1136' articles

Transfusion in Haemoglobinopathies Review and recommendations for local blood banks and transfusion services in Oman

Transfusion in Haemoglobinopathies Review and recommendations for local blood banks and transfusion services in Oman

Authors: Arwa Z. Al-Riyami, Shahina Daar
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman. This information is especially pertinent to medical professionals and policy-makers developing required services for the standardised transfusion support of these patients.

Keywords: Hemoglobinopathies; Sickle Cell Disease; Thalassemia Major; Blood Transfusion; Blood Banks; Oman
Ranolazine A true pluripotent cardiovascular drug or jack of all trades, master of none?

Ranolazine A true pluripotent cardiovascular drug or jack of all trades, master of none?

Authors: Alice Mezincescu, V. J. Karthikeyan, Sunil K. Nadar
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the majority of patients with CVD are treated with interventional procedures, a substantial number require medical therapy in terms of both prognosis and symptomatic relief. However, commonly used agents such as β-blockers and calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure in patients whose resting pressures are often already low. Ranolazine is a promising agent that does not have significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate. Use of this drug has been documented in various cardiovascular conditions, including ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and arrhythmias. This review article aimed to examine current evidence on the use of ranolazine in various cardiovascular conditions in order to determine whether it is a true pluripotent cardiovascular agent or, on the other hand, a “jack of all trades, master of none.”

Keywords: Drug Therapy; Cardiovascular Agents; Ranolazine; Cardiovascular Diseases; Ischemic Heart Disease
Should Premarital Screening for Blood Disorders be an Obligatory Measure in Oman?

Should Premarital Screening for Blood Disorders be an Obligatory Measure in Oman?

Authors: Amal A. Al-Balushi, Budoor Al-Hinai
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages in Oman, there is a correspondingly high prevalence of hereditary blood disorders, particularly sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia. This article proposes the possibility of implementing mandatory premarital carrier screening for blood disorders in Oman, while giving due consideration to potential social and cultural obstacles. Although the implementation of such legislation would require collaboration between different sectors and may negatively affect the autonomy of certain individuals, mandatory premarital screening would help to alleviate the burden of hereditary blood disorders on the national healthcare system, as well as reduce avoidable suffering among carriers and their families.

Keywords: Consanguinity; Premarital Examinations; Genetic Carrier Screening; Mandatory Screening; Sickle Cell Trait; beta-Thalassemia; Oman
Allergic Rhinitis in Relation to Food Allergies Pointers to future research

Allergic Rhinitis in Relation to Food Allergies Pointers to future research

Authors: Amal A. Al-Balushi, Budoor Al-Hinai
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Allergic rhinitis is a ubiquitous type of allergic reaction which results in significant costs to affected patients and their families. Although allergic rhinitis can coexist with other atopic conditions, the role of food allergies in the development of allergic rhinitis has not been well studied. This article explores relevant literature on this subject in order to identify gaps in the available body of knowledge and elucidate scope for further research.

Keywords: Allergic Reactions; Respiratory Hypersensitivity; Allergic Rhinitis; Food Allergies; Allergens
Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion Descriptive study of the first four years’ experience in Oman

Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion Descriptive study of the first four years’ experience in Oman

Authors: Arwa Z. Al-Riyami, Mouza Al-Salmani, Sabria N. Al-Hashami, Sabah Al-Mahrooqi, Ali Al-Marhoobi, Sumaiya Al-Hinai, Saif Al-Hosni, Sathiya M. Panchatchar...
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) causes hydrops fetalis. The successful treatment of HDFN has been reported with intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT). This study aimed to describe the initial experience with IUT procedures in Oman. Methods: This retrospective observational study took place at the Royal Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Blood Bank, Muscat, Oman, and included all women who underwent IUT procedures in Oman between March 2012 and March 2016. Gestational and neonatal outcomes were assessed, including complications, morbidity, neurodevelopmental sequelae and mortality. Results: A total of 28 IUT procedures for 13 fetuses carried by 11 women were performed. Gestational age at the time of referral ranged from 13–30 weeks, while the median gestational age at first IUT procedure was 26 weeks (range: 19–30 weeks). Indications for the procedure included HDFN caused by anti-D (n = 6), a combination of anti-D and anti-C (n = 4), anti-K (n = 1) and anti-Jsb (n = 1) antibodies and nonimmune hydrops fetalis due to a congenital parvovirus infection (n = 1). Median fetal haemoglobin levels at the beginning and end of the procedure were 4.6 g/dL and 12.8 g/dL, respectively. Most procedures were transplacental intravascular transfusions through the placental umbilical cord root (71.4%), followed by transamniotic intravascular transfusions (14.3%). The overall survival rate was 61.5%, with five deaths; of these, four were intrauterine and one was an early neonatal death due to non-resolved hydrops and severe cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion: As a relatively novel obstetric procedure in Oman, IUT seems to result in a favourable outcome for hydropic fetuses.

Keywords: Fetus; Hydrops Fetalis; Anemia; Intrauterine Blood Transfusion; Fetal Death; Oman
Determination of an Aspergillus fumigatus-Specific Immunoglobulin G Reference Range in an Adult Omani Population

Determination of an Aspergillus fumigatus-Specific Immunoglobulin G Reference Range in an Adult Omani Population

Authors: Munira Al-Rahman, Mahmood Al Kindi, Ibrahim Kutty, Ibrahim Al-Kalbani, Jalila Alshekaili
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: The presence of abnormally high levels of Aspergillus fumigatus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies can serve as a diagnostic criterion for severe conditions like allergic bronchopulmonary and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. This study aimed to determine a reference range of A. fumigatus-specific IgG levels within a healthy adult Omani population. Methods: This study took place during November 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The sera of 125 healthy Omani blood donors were tested for A. fumigatusspecific IgG levels using an automated fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Results: Initially, the data were not normally distributed; however, log transformation and the exclusion of four outliers resulted in an acceptable Gaussian distribution. The reference range was 2.0–68.7 mgA/L at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles, respectively, with 90% confidence intervals of 2.0–3.0 mgA/L and 48.0–76.0 mgA/L, respectively. Conclusion: The A. fumigatusspecific IgG reference range within a healthy adult Omani population was comparable to those reported in other populations.

Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergllosis; Pulmonary Aspergillosis; Immunoglobulin G; Reference Range; Oman
Implications of Early Pregnancy Obesity on Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health Retrospective cohort study from Oman

Implications of Early Pregnancy Obesity on Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health Retrospective cohort study from Oman

Authors: Anita Zutshi, Jayasree Santhosh, Julie Sheikh, Fareeha Naeem, Ahmed Al-Hamedi, Shahla Khan, Eishthiag Al-Said
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early pregnancy obesity among Omani women and to review maternal antenatal complications, intrapartum and postpartum events and neonatal complications among such women in comparison to women of normal weight. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 2,652 pregnant Omani women who delivered at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between November 2011 and April 2012. The patients’ electronic medical records were reviewed for antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum data. Body mass index was measured during the first trimester (≤12 gestational weeks) and classified according to the World Health Organization categories. Maternal and neonatal complications were compared between obese women and those of normal weight. Obstetric outcomes in uncomplicated pregnancies were also compared. Results: In the study cohort, there were 901 (34%) obese women and 912 (34.4%) women of normal weight; of these, 440 (48.8%) and 672 (73.7%) had uncomplicated pregnancies, respectively. Obese women had a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes (relative risk [RR]: 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70–2.92; P <0.01), gestational hypertension (RR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.63–5.65; P <0.01), Caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.08–2.03; P <0.01), postpartum haemorrhage (RR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.11–4.10; P = 0.01) and fetal macrosomia (RR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.21–6.09; P <0.01). Conclusion: Approximately one-third of the studied Omani women were obese. These women had a significantly increased risk of various maternal antenatal complications, intrapartum and postpartum events and neonatal complications.

Keywords: Obesity; Pregnancy; First Trimester; Pregnancy Complications; Obstetric Labor Complications; Fetal Diseases; Oman
Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Clinical Trial Participation in Oman A cross-sectional study

Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Clinical Trial Participation in Oman A cross-sectional study

Authors: Hussain Al-Lawati, Khalid Al-Baimani, Mahra Al-Zadjali, Nasra Al-Obaidani, Ziyana Al-Kiyumi, Murtadha K. Al-Khabori
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Clinical trials are prospective studies on human subjects designed to answer various clinical questions. However, only a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in Oman. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Omani patients and their relatives towards participating in clinical trials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2015 and March 2016 among 174 patients and relatives attending the Haematology and Oncology Outpatient Clinics and Day Care Unit of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to elicit participants’ knowledge of and attitudes towards participation in clinical trials. Results: A total of 100 patients and relatives agreed to take part in the study (response rate: 57.5%). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2. Only 31.3% of the studied population knew what clinical trials were and only 6.5% had themselves previously participated in a clinical trial. The majority agreed or strongly agreed that they would participate in clinical trials related to their own condition (59.2%). Overall, 89.7% expected to be informed about potential clinical trials by their treating physicians. Conclusion: Omanis had a low level of knowledge of clinical trials and a very low rate of previous participation in such trials, despite a moderate level of interest. Patients should therefore be educated and informed of ongoing clinical trials in order to improve participation rates for clinical trials conducted in Oman.

Keywords: Attitudes; Knowledge; Clinical Trials as Topic; Patient Participation; Oman
Effects of Peer-Facilitated, Video-Based and Combined Peer-and-Video Education on Anxiety Among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography Randomised controlled trial

Effects of Peer-Facilitated, Video-Based and Combined Peer-and-Video Education on Anxiety Among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography Randomised controlled trial

Authors: Hosein Habibzadeh, Zahra D. Milan, Moloud Radfar, Audrey Cund
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Coronary angiography can be stressful for patients and anxiety-caused physiological responses during the procedure increase the risk of dysrhythmia, coronary artery spasms and rupture. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of peer, video and combined peer-and-video training on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: This single-blinded randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted at two large educational hospitals in Iran between April and July 2016. A total of 120 adult patients undergoing coronary angiography were recruited. Using a block randomisation method, participants were assigned to one of four groups, with those in the control group receiving no training and those in the three intervention groups receiving either peer-facilitated training, video-based training or a combination of both. A Persian-language validated version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure pre- and post-intervention anxiety. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean pre-intervention anxiety scores between the four groups (F = 0.31; P = 0.81). In contrast, there was a significant reduction in post-intervention anxiety among all three intervention groups compared to the control group (F = 27.71; P <0.01); however, there was no significant difference in anxiety level in terms of the type of intervention used. Conclusion: Peer, video and combined peer-and-video education were equally effective in reducing angiography-related patient anxiety. Such techniques are recommended to reduce anxiety amongst patients undergoing coronary angiography in hospitals in Iran.

Keywords: Cardiac Imaging Techniques; Coronary Angiography; Anxiety; Patient Education; Iran
Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

Authors: Deena Kheyami, Ahmed Jaradat, Tareq Al-Shibani, Fuad A. Ali
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: The current study aimed to carry out a post-validation item analysis of multiple choice questions (MCQs) in medical examinations in order to evaluate correlations between item difficulty, item discrimination and distraction effectiveness so as to determine whether questions should be included, modified or discarded. In addition, the optimal number of options per MCQ was analysed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. A total of 800 MCQs and 4,000 distractors were analysed between November 2013 and June 2016. Results: The mean difficulty index ranged from 36.70–73.14%. The mean discrimination index ranged from 0.20–0.34. The mean distractor efficiency ranged from 66.50–90.00%. Of the items, 48.4%, 35.3%, 11.4%, 3.9% and 1.1% had zero, one, two, three and four nonfunctional distractors (NFDs), respectively. Using three or four rather than five options in each MCQ resulted in 95% or 83.6% of items having zero NFDs, respectively. The distractor efficiency was 91.87%, 85.83% and 64.13% for difficult, acceptable and easy items, respectively (P <0.005). Distractor efficiency was 83.33%, 83.24% and 77.56% for items with excellent, acceptable and poor discrimination, respectively (P <0.005). The average Kuder- Richardson formula 20 reliability coefficient was 0.76. Conclusion: A considerable number of the MCQ items were within acceptable ranges. However, some items needed to be discarded or revised. Using three or four rather than five options in MCQs is recommended to reduce the number of NFDs and improve the overall quality of the examination.

Keywords: Medical Education; Educational Measurement; Academic Performance; Psychometrics; Examination Questions; Discriminant Analysis; Bahrain
Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Amira M. Sultan, Wael A. Seliem
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a causative pathogen of various healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and is particularly prevalent in high-risk hospital settings. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This prospective study was performed between January 2013 and June 2014 among NICU patients at the Mansoura University Children’s Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt. Neonates who developed HAIs due to CRAB were assigned to a case group, while those infected with carbapenem-sensitive A. baumannii (CSAB) were assigned to a control group. Results: Among the 124 neonates who developed A. baumannii-caused HAIs during the study period, 91 (73.4%) were caused by CRAB and 33 (26.6%) were caused by CSAB. Prematurity, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), a previous stay in another hospital, prolonged NICU stay, the presence of invasive devices, previous exposure to carbapenems or aminoglycosides and prolonged antibiotic therapy before infection were significantly associated with CRAB-caused HAIs. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified prematurity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 25.3; P <0.01), mechanical ventilation (aOR = 18.9; P <0.01) and the previous use of carbapenems (aOR = 124.7; P <0.01) or aminoglycosides (aOR = 22.6; P = 0.04) to be independent risk factors for CRAB infections. Conclusion: Various risk factors were significantly associated with CRAB-caused HAIs among the studied NICU patients.

Keywords: Healthcare Associated Infections; Antimicrobial Drug Resistance; Carbapenem Antibiotics; Acinetobacter baumannii; Neonatal Intensive Care Units; Egypt

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.