Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

A Review on Household’s Carbon Dioxide Emission of Municipalities

A Review on Household’s Carbon Dioxide Emission of Municipalities

Authors: Sumita Nair, Madhu Chandrakar
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

The major issue of today’s era is to combat global warming and conserve environment. The emissions of different greenhouse gases from sources are major cause of concern. Municipalities are considered as one of the main sources of carbon emission of the countries and also the key area of emission reduction potential. India is the second largest in population, fourth largest in energy consumption and third largest in greenhouse producer and burns ten folds fuel wood as compare to United State. By adopting carbon emission reduction practices, carbon credits can be earned which can be traded in international market. This study of carbon dioxide emission of municipalities suggests that the emission reduction policies of municipalities can earn carbon credits for countries. In these emission reduction practices Household’s emissions can play important role because it accounts for about 78 % of the total emission. To reduce carbon emission of countries, carbon emission reduction strategies can be adopted and in these considerations the household activities are the major cause of concern. Electricity, gas use, transportation, food etc. are the major carbon emission contributors and nevertheless these can be served as the major carbon emission reduction activities. Present study suggests that the reduction in household emissions can result in achieving the carbon emission reduction target of country. Few data from studies on emission reduction policies facilitates the future scope and need of household carbon emission of municipalities study.

Keywords: Environmental carbon trading, Electricity, Food, Gas use, Household carbon emission, Municipalities, Transportation
Brassica Oleracea Botrylis Leaves (BOBL) Powder as Bioadsorbent to Remove Ni (II) Ions from Wastewater: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies

Brassica Oleracea Botrylis Leaves (BOBL) Powder as Bioadsorbent to Remove Ni (II) Ions from Wastewater: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies

Authors: R. Vashantha, Jeyavathana Samuel, M. Vincy Amutha Snolin
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution was carried out using brassica oleracea botrylis leaves (cauliflower leaves) and was characterized by SEM, XRD and EDAX techniques. The effect of solution pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature was investigated in a systematic manner. Various thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S° have also been evaluated and it has been found that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and randomness in nature. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isotherm models. Among these isotherm models Freundlich model was fitted well with its good correlation coefficient. The experimental data were analyzed by kinetic parameters such as Lagergen pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models and found that the biosorption of Ni(II) followed pseudo-second order model by its good correlation coefficient values which are very close to unity. Desorption and recovery of the adsorbent was found that 12%. The results concluded that the BOBL powder was an efficient, eco-friendly and economically cheap adsorbent in the removal of Ni(II) ions from the aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, Bioadsorbent, Isotherms, Thermodynamic parameters, Kinetics, Desorption
Study of Physicochemical Parameters to Determine the Limnology of Lake, Located in Thane

Study of Physicochemical Parameters to Determine the Limnology of Lake, Located in Thane

Authors: Nandita Singh
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Study was done to determine the levels of chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen in lake Varhala of Thane district. The parameters that determine the levels of chlorophyll-a and DO like pH, temperature, and nitrate were also estimated. These results could help to understand the lake ecosystem and help predict the lake limnology.

Keywords: Chlorophyll-a, Dissolved Oxygen, Varhala lake
Isolation and Characterization by Infrared Spectroscopy of Extracted Dye from the Petals of Magnolia champaka

Isolation and Characterization by Infrared Spectroscopy of Extracted Dye from the Petals of Magnolia champaka

Authors: Nikhila Rane, Kavita Patil
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

An increased interest for natural pigments started several years ago on the consumers is just beginning to be felt. This paper concerns with the development of process for the isolation of natural dye extracted from the flowers of Magnolia Champaka which is available almost everywhere in India. In India traditionally some plants were used for dyeing the fabrics. According to the dye yield and fastness properties the plant was chosen for fabric dyeing. So for the current need we have chosen the flowers of Magnolia Champaka to obtain the dye. To get this dye we have carried out different extraction methods Viz Aqueous extraction, Acid extraction, alkaline extraction, Solvent extraction, Soxhlet Method and obtained dye were characterized and confirmed the functional group of Luteolin and Tannin by Infrared Spectroscopy. The chemicals used to produce dyes today are often highly toxic and carcinogenic. Thus use of natural dyes has increased several folds in the past few years. The study concerns with the extraction of natural dye from flowers of Magnolia Champaka. Indian women ornament their hair with these flowers, devotees offer flowers to God and Goddesses. Afterwards these flowers are thrown but same can be used for dye extraction.

Keywords: Alkaline and aqueous extraction, Infrared Spectroscopy, Magnolia Champaka, Solvent extraction
Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Trace Elements in Soil of Gazipur Industrial Area, Bangladesh

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Trace Elements in Soil of Gazipur Industrial Area, Bangladesh

Authors: Sharmine Akter Simu ,Mohammed Jamal Uddin, Ratan Kumar Majumder, Mohammed Nazim Zaman, Mohammed Aminur Rahman, Mohammad Abul Kashem
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The study is mainly focused on assessment of agricultural soil contamination and its degradation scenario by trace elements which are mainly attained from industrial activity and agrochemicals at Gazipur district. Twenty soil samples were collected randomly from different locations of Gazipur along the river side of agricultural fields. Most of the trace elements concentration is higher than world average. There are two main clusters among trace elements. There are significant positive correlations among the elements according to Pearson Correlation Matrix and minimal to moderate enrichment factor indicates anthropogenic sources. The highest geo-accumulation index are contributing extremely pollution scenario of the study area. Contamination factor indicates that the study areas are both moderately to less contaminated by the heavy metals. Pollution load index analyses indicate that the places are polluted by trace elements and their sources are mostly industrial processes and agrochemicals. Principle component 1 denotes mainly natural source of elements. But principle components 2 stands for mainly anthropogenic sources. So, it is evident that the soil in the study area has been degrading severely through trace elements contamination mostly from anthropogenic sources and it has great possibility that plants would uptake heavy metals from the soil.

Keywords: Trace elements, Cluster, Correlation, Geo-accumulation index, Contamination factor, Principle component, Pollution Load Index
Extraction and Dyeing Behavior of Pomegranate dye on Tencel Fabric

Extraction and Dyeing Behavior of Pomegranate dye on Tencel Fabric

Authors: Faisal Rehman, Tayyab Naveed, Wajeeh Ullah, Reza Assefi Pour, Wang Wei
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Application of natural dyes for textile is increasing due to the awareness of ecology, environment and pollution control. The objective of this study is to dye Tencel fabric with pomegranate peel natural dye for comparative analysis of colour efficiencies (K/S), CIE L*a*b* values and the colour fastness properties. The mordants used were ferrous (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate. For the extraction of dye, aqueous extraction method was used. Pre-mordanting method was used and dyeing effect on tencel fabric was analyzed at temperatures 80°C and 90°C. It was found that mordant type has an influence on color efficiency and the color coordinates of fabric dyed with pomegranate peel dye. The colour efficiency (K/S: 4) and color fastness to washing, light, rubbing and perspiration were better and outstanding (grade 4-5) at 90°C temperature in all dyed samples. In overall results, pre-mordanting method at 90°C temperature gives best results of color efficiency and color fastness properties.

Keywords: Natural dyes, Pomegranate Peel, Tencel, Extraction, Mordant, Color fastness
An Assessment on the Level of Compliance in Handling and Disposal of Spent Oils from Retail Fuel Service Stations in Gwarinpa District of Abuja, Nigeria

An Assessment on the Level of Compliance in Handling and Disposal of Spent Oils from Retail Fuel Service Stations in Gwarinpa District of Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Obiukwu S. C, Kadafa A. A
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Protecting the environment from the activities of retail fuel service stations requires proper monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulatory standards by regulatory bodies and adequate compliance by operators. The research sought to determine the level of compliance to environmental regulations among retail fuel service stations within Gwarinpa District of Abuja, Nigeria in the handling and disposal of spent oils. Questionnaires, field observations of the facilities and interviews were used to collect relevant information from the respondents and regulatory agencies. The research conducted a census of all seven retail fuel service stations within the GWARINPA District. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in analysing data such as content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results showed that majority of the retail fuel stations activities in the handling and disposal of spent oil were non-compliant to existing regulations stipulated by the Department of Petroleum Resources(DPR) and National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA). In the light of the above, the research recommended the need for operators to create awareness and train staff on environmental best practices and also ensure implementation of these practices. There is also need for regulatory bodies to improve on enforcement strategies.

Keywords: Spent oil, Contamination, Compliance, Enforcement
Diatom Diversity of Three Freshwater Lakes in Kolhapur City, Maharashtra

Diatom Diversity of Three Freshwater Lakes in Kolhapur City, Maharashtra

Authors: Jadhav A. S., Patil P. V. and Raut P. D.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Diatoms are particularly interesting as a potential indicator of water quality. Diatoms are used as bio-indicators of pollution. The study focused on present status of diatom diversity and to determine pollution level of three lakes in Kolhapur city. The study was conducted from September 2012 to February 2013. About 18 species of diatoms were identified from three lakes. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Evenness index (J’), Species Richness (SR), Index of dominance were calculated for diatom. All the three lakes showed species richness in between 1.73 - 2.27. The highest Species Richness was found in Rankala lake where as less for Rajaram lake. Also, Species Richness for all the three lakes was in between 2 to 2.5. Species Eveness Index was observed to be slightly high for Kalamba lake while it was least for Rajaram lake. The study revealed that the diversity of diatoms varies seasonally which is higher in winter season and lower during the month of September and October (post monsoon season) indicating more pollution in the lakes. The major species Aulacoseira ambigau, Navicula cryptocrphala, Synedra ulna and Cymbella turgidula.

Keywords: Diatoms, Environmental indicators, Diversity, Lakes, Kolhapur
Physico-chemical and Microbial Analysis of Godavari Water during Pushkaram

Physico-chemical and Microbial Analysis of Godavari Water during Pushkaram

Authors: Yamuna Devi Siraparapu, Bhaskara Venkata Prasad B, Aruna Kumari S, Padma U
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of river Godavari has been studied during Godavari Pushkaram 2015. Godavari is the second longest river in India. Pushkaram is the festival of Godavari which occurs once in 12 years. At this time of Godavari Pushkaram lakhs of people took bath in Godavari water. The present analysis on Godavari water was carried out for one year i.e., from January 2015 to December 2015 means before Pushkaram, during Pushkaram and after Pushkaram. For water quality analysis seven sampling stations were selected which are located at upstream, middle stream and downstream of east and west Godavari. The water samples were collected and analyzed as per the standard methods of APHA (1999). In this study Temperature, PH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), sulphate, E-Coli parameters were analyzed. The obtained results are compared with water quality standards given by World Health Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and Bureau of Indian Standards. During Pushkaram there are some deviations in physico chemical parameters, but there is drastic change in E-Coli. On the basis of various parameters studied during Pushkaram, Godavari water is polluted due to anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: Godavari Pushkaram, physico-chemical and microbial parameters, anthropogenic activities
Prospects of Adopting Eco-Friendly Measures of Soil Sustainability among Vegetable Producers in Dhading, Nepal

Prospects of Adopting Eco-Friendly Measures of Soil Sustainability among Vegetable Producers in Dhading, Nepal

Authors: B. Ghimire, S.C. Dhakal, S. Sharma
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Using simple random sampling technique, primary data were collected from 120 vegetable producers in Dhading district of Nepal with aid of pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. Household income analysis resulted increased in income from vegetable farming significantly by 35.21% with increased area of 2.24 Ropani after adopting measures of soil sustainability. Among four different soil sustainability measures used for the study, use of improved FYM (99.17%) was highly adopted followed by improved cattle shed and urine use, legume integration and use of botanical pesticides. Scaling technique ranked problems of high cost of constructing house for dung storage, lack of improved cattle shed lack of detailed knowledge and unavailability of raw materials as the most severe on the adoption of improved FYM, use of cattle urine, legume integration and use of botanical pesticides respectively. About 75% of farmers were found satisfied with the measures and 69.2% were willing to continue and promote in the future. Observation in neighbors (96.7%) was the most motivating factor of adoption. Adoption had changed cropping pattern and varieties and showed positive impact on livestock sector, women empowerment, soil properties, crop diversification, utilization of local resources and climatic hazards in the study area.

Keywords: Vegetable, Soil sustainability, Scaling, Adoption, Nepal
GIS based Assessment of Noise Environment of Imphal City, Manipur (India): A Comprehensive Study

GIS based Assessment of Noise Environment of Imphal City, Manipur (India): A Comprehensive Study

Authors: Wazir Alam, Bindiya Aribam and Waikhom Roshan Singh
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Assessment of equivalent noise level was carried out within spatially distributed traffic junctions, residential colonies, commercial locations and silent zones of Imphal city for different time periods of the day. Moreover, a detail traffic noise assessment of two busy traffic junctions of the city were carried in in order to evaluate detail traffic noise scenario with respect to different traffic volume situations. The noise and geographic coordinate data from different locations of the city were further used for mapping of prediction of vulnerable noise zones of the study area using geostatistical interpolation method. The interpolated noise pollution maps revealed unsatisfactory noise environment of the city and highlight the vulnerable noise zones of the city that requires appropriate measures to control noise level.The study also highlighted and advocates the need of an appropriate initiatives for sustainably managing urban noise environment and ensuring public health safety that can be achieved by participation of various stakeholders in the form of increasing adequate of parking spaces, open spaces, effective traffic management, improvement of road conditions, construction flyovers, bye lanes and alternative roads.

Keywords: A-Weighted, Decibels, Noise Mapping, Traffic Noise Index, Noise Risk Zone
Physico-Chemical Properties of Lateritic Soils in Ado-Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

Physico-Chemical Properties of Lateritic Soils in Ado-Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Osuji O. S and Akinwamide J.T
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The physico-chemical properties of lateritic soils in Ado Ekiti Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria were evaluated. The study area was divided into Six Zones: A total of 30 samples were collected with five samples per zone. Laboratory tests such as: X-ray fluorescence (X-RF) and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) in other to evaluate their chemical composition. Natural Moisture Content (NMC) , Specific gravity, Grain size analysis, Consistency tests ,were carried out on each of the samples the purpose of which to study their physical properties. These tests were carried out in accordance with (BS1377:1990). The laboratory results indicated that the NMC ranged from 1.1 to 18.7%; specific gravity ranged from 2.23 to 2.79 ; the liquid limit ranged from 25 to 65%, plastic limit ranged from 17 to 43%, plasticity index ranged from 10 to 30%; linear shrinkage ranged from 3.6 to 15.5%.The soils were classified as clay of low compressibility (CL) for zones 1 and 2, clay of high compressibility (CH) for Zone 3 samples 1,2 and 5 and Zone 4 sample 2,Zone 5 samples 2 and 5 and Zone 6 samples 1and 2 according to (USCS,1986) and A-2-4, A-2-6, A-6, and A-7-5. From the foregoing, the soils classified some as low plasticity, sandy gravelly clay, clayey soils and others as medium compressibility soils. Based on Sesquioxide (S-S) ratio the soils grouped into True laterite and lateritics soils which indicate poor laterisation for zones 1 and 2 while other zones have undergone considerable degree of laterisation. Major clay mineral found were: illite, heamatite, and to lesser amount of halloysite. It was concluded that the research work has provided information for all construction personnel within the study area. The soils are not expected to perform very well as concrete aggregates since they contain high amounts of SiO2 and Fe2O3.since the oxides have deleterious effects on construction materials, particularly concrete aggregate.

Keywords: Claymineral, physico-chemical properties, lateritic soil, oxides, Sesquioxide
Prediction And Estimation Of Sediments Discharge From Kangimi Dam Reservoir Catchment, Kaduna, Nigeria

Prediction And Estimation Of Sediments Discharge From Kangimi Dam Reservoir Catchment, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkareem Ibrahim Ayinla, Agunwamba C Jona
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Sedimentation has been found to be a major future threat to water shortage and scarcity, as human activities and animal rearing aggravate its sources. There is need to provide the tools to predict and measure sediments, hence, this work aimed at providing a model to predict and estimate quantitatively sediment inflows for an area with herds’ activities. The work applied Global Information System to derive the catchment feature characteristics for various sub-catchments. Soil samples were randomly collected for particle size analysis using Bouyoucos method for soil erodibility determination, while water samples were collected from surface runoff for suspended sediment concentrations using filtration and drying methods. The sediment load was obtained by multiplying the discharge and suspended concentration, and then converted to kilogram per day/tones per day. A rating relationship between the sediment loads and discharges on slope, drainage areas and herds’ column, were used to determine the effects of sediment discharge characteristics. The prediction and estimation was done using Multivariate Universal Soil Loss Equation, thus, model formulation. The parameters of Universal Soil Loss Equation were evaluated from the standard in conjunction with global information system tool. However, the research provide the drainage areas, slope and four indices of soil erodibility to regressed against measured sediments from herds’ column, for determining the extent and severity of sediment generation from the catchment, hence, the model. The soil particle size indicated that soil aggregates were not stable and prone to sediment and erosion wash if agricultural land use, animal herdship and human activities, persist. The model predicted well with Modified Clay Ratio with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.83 and coefficient of correlation, R= 0.91 at 0.01 (p<0.01). The study shows that herds’ activities contributed to sediment yields as model reasonably matched with the measured data and moderately predicted within the data without deviation, and recommended the use of the model for the Kangimi dam reservoir sediment inflows among others compared.

Keywords: Sediments, Herds’, Catchment, Discharge, Soil erodibility indices and USLE
Geo-Environmental Evaluation for Exploring Potential Soil Erosion Areas of Jainti River Basin Using AHP Model, Eastern India

Geo-Environmental Evaluation for Exploring Potential Soil Erosion Areas of Jainti River Basin Using AHP Model, Eastern India

Authors: Tusar kanti Hembram and Sunil Saha
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

This work aimed to explore soil erosion susceptibility zones of Jainti River basin, which is the 6th order tributary of Ajay River. A total of ten geo-environmental parameters i.e. land use and land cover, geomorphology, slope, drainage density, elevation, lineament, length of overland flow, vegetation cover, soil type and relative relief was selected based on collinearity statistics. Individual factor weights (Fi) and their sub-class weights (Vi) was calculated based on Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and summed up for producing a map of spatial soil erosion vulnerability. The result reveals that 19.97% (108.97 km2) of the study area, mainly the upper and middle parts of the catchment areas face highly to severe soil erosion problems due to higher elevation, slope and relief, lack of vegetation cover, existence of badland features. The accuracy of the result assessed through ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The Area Under Curve (AUC) is 0.771 resembles to the prediction correctness of 77.1%. It is concluded that this model is very useful for further planning regarding soil erosion problem and replacement of the quality of land in sustainable way.

Keywords: Collinearity; AHP Model; Soil Erosion Susceptibility Map (SESM); Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC); Area Under Curve (AUC)
Noise Levels in Dussehara at Mahewa, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

Noise Levels in Dussehara at Mahewa, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Mohd Nafees and Satyendra Nath
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The present research focused on noise level monitoring during pre dussehara, post and during dussehara day’s at Mahewa, Naini Allahabad. The variation of noise levels L10, L90 and Leq were observed during pre dussehara ranges between 82.2- 86.2 dB, 67.0- 69.4 dB,77.36– 80.74 dB, followed by post dussehara 85.2-88.3 dB, 69.1- 70.90 dB, 79.97-82.65 dB and during dussehara were 92.1-99.2dB, 68.9- 69.9 dB, 84.89– 89.35 dB respectively at day time (6:00 PM to 9:00 PM). At night time, the variation of noise level L10, L90 and Leq was observed during pre, post and dussehara between 58.7-79.9 dB, 42.1-62.8 dB, 53.31-74.12 dB, 62.6-80.6 dB, 42.3-63.6 dB, 56.00-75.08 dB, and 84.1-116.4 dB, 67.3-79.2 dB, 78.64-104.28 dB respectively. Present research was focused on semi urban area locality during pre, post and dusherra and also explore the main causes of noise pollution on during days.

Keywords: Dussehara, Monitoring, Noise Level, Noise Pollution

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