Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Potassium Releasing Capacity in Some Soils of Anantnag District of Kashmir

Potassium Releasing Capacity in Some Soils of Anantnag District of Kashmir

Authors: Subhash Chand and Tahir Ali
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The potassium releasing capacity of fifteen soil samples of Anantnag district of Kashmir were assessed by using five chemical extractants. The decreasing order of potassium release by the different chemical extractants in the soils was 1M HNO3 > 0.01 N HCl--12 extractions>0.01 N HCl--9 extractions> 0.3 N NaTPB-16 hours > 0.01N HCl 3 extractions> 1.38N H2SO4=0.01N HCl-1 extractions> % K saturation. The K released by 1M HNO3 was significantly correlated with 1.38N H2SO4 (0.995**) and 10.28 N H2SO4 (0.996**) .The significant correlations among different form of K in Anantnag soils indicate the various K pools (exchangeable=Non-exchangeable) for proper K fertilizer management. The potassium status in Anantnag soils was variable.

Keywords: Extractants, Fertilizer, Potassium, Soil quality
Average Annual Global Temperature and Cyclonic Disturbance over the North Indian Ocean

Average Annual Global Temperature and Cyclonic Disturbance over the North Indian Ocean

Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj and R.Uma
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Tropical Cyclone activities over the North Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) constitute one of the major natural disasters of our country. To understand the Tropical Cyclonic activities, estimations of their frequencies are necessary. In this study, the Average Annual Global Temperature and Cyclonic disturbance that includes Depression, Cyclonic Storm and Severe Cyclonic Storm over the North Indian Ocean has been analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation technique. Tropical Cyclone over the North Indian Ocean has decreased to some extent due to the increase in global temperature.

Keywords: Cyclonic disturbance, global temperature, spearman rank correlation
Solar Insolation at Chennai during the 23rd Solar cycle

Solar Insolation at Chennai during the 23rd Solar cycle

Authors: Samuel Selvaraj .R and Sivamadhavi .V
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The Solar irradiance is treated as a constant (solar constant) for many practical purposes. But, actually it varies by a small amount due to various causes. The objective of this paper is to emphasize the variations produced in the total (global) radiation on a horizontal surface due to the changes in the Sun Spot Number. The region considered is Chennai, the Capital city of Tamil Nadu. We have done the data analysis during the 23rd solar cycle, which began in May, 1996 and ended in December, 2008. This solar cycle lasted for about 12.6 year. The monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface at Chennai has been calculated for this period without and with the effect of the changes in the sunspot number. The estimated value including the effect of sunspot number agrees better with the measured value. The variation produced in the monthly mean daily global radiation on a horizontal surface amounts to about 0.02%.

Keywords: Sun spot, Solar declination, Sunrise hour angle
Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Lysine and Linoleic Acid Content of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) under Temperate conditions

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Lysine and Linoleic Acid Content of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) under Temperate conditions

Authors: Aziz M. A., Tahir Ali, M.A Bhat, Amees T. Aezum and S. Sheeraz Mahdi
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management for Soybean (Glycine max L.) Under Temperate Conditions”. The experiment was laid out under 18 treatment combinations viz., three levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers (50, 75 and 100% RD), three levels of organic manures (control, FYM 10 t ha-1 and Dalweed 10 t ha-1) and two levels of biofertilizers (control and dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB) in randomised complete block design with three replications. Lysine content was found superior with application of 75% recommended inorganic fertilizers over other levels, Linoleic acid content increased with increasing levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers. Among organics FYM (10 t ha-1) yielded significantly superior results for seed quality than Dalweed (10 t ha-1). Dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB showed significantly superior seed quality over control.

Keywords: INM, Linoleic acid, Lysine, Bio fertilizers, FYM, Soybean
Effects of Lead Toxicity on Developing Testes in Swiss Mice

Effects of Lead Toxicity on Developing Testes in Swiss Mice

Authors: Ragini Sharma and Umesh Garu
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Environmental toxicology studies the effect of environmental toxicants on the health of all organisms and on the different compartments of the environment. Despite the scientific studies carried out over the years, on the toxic effects of lead on development of organism, still there are uncertainties over the reproductive effects of different levels of lead exposure. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. Reproductive dysfunctions by lead have distinct morphological changes, decrease sperm quality and alter sperm morphology. The effect of different toxicants is registered at different levels of development of the male reproductive tract, thus rendering the analysis of reproductive damage much more complicated. In the animal model, lead has a primary effect on the testes, and acts at all levels of the developing reproductive axis. The present review is undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead acetate on development of reproductive system in Swiss albino mice. Previous reported studies shown that lead exposure suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, thus alters the histology of testis, the morphology of the spermatozoa and the relationship of cell types in the testes. Mating of lead-treated males with non-treated females confirmed the reduction of fertility in the exposed males.

Keywords: Lead toxicity, Testis, Development, Spermatogenesis, Swiss mice
Correlation of some Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by EMIT and GC/MS Analysis

Correlation of some Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by EMIT and GC/MS Analysis

Authors: Raafat A. Mandour
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Drug toxicology tests are most commonly performed on urine, since most drugs and their breakdown products are excreted in the urine at higher concentration. A total number of 449 inhabitant urine samples were collected from patients admitted to emergency hospital, Mansoura University (Nov 1999 to June 2005). These samples were analyzed by EMIT and GC / MS for benzodiazepine, barbiturate, opiate and cannabinoid. The aim of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of using urine immunoassay kits for detection of some drugs of abuse, and study the correlation between the results obtained by EMIT and GC / MS techniques. Results revealed that urine immunoassay kit is useful for rapid preliminary screening of abuse drug. GC / MS results confirm that 245 samples (54.56 %) are positive of the total number of samples. These positive samples by GC / MS were as follows; benzodiazepines; 159 (clonazepam, oxazepam, temazepam), barbiturates; 58 (thiobarbiturate, butabarbital, seconal) and opiates; 28 (methadone metabolite)). We conclude that GC / MS analysis must be done for accurate identification and confirmation of EMIT results. Also, GC / MS is recommended as the most suitable technique for obtaining optimum analytical results.

Keywords: Urine samples, EMIT, GC/MS
Heavy Metal Content in Leaves of Ficus retusa Collected from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sites in Northern Egypt: Mitigation of Toxicity by Washing Treatments

Heavy Metal Content in Leaves of Ficus retusa Collected from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sites in Northern Egypt: Mitigation of Toxicity by Washing Treatments

Authors: E. M. Abou El Saadat, M. R. Hassan, I. A. Hassan and Weheda, B. M.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Leaves of Ficus retusa were collected from three locations; suburban, urban and industrial in Northern Egypt. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils collected from the suburban site were lower than that collected from other sites. Plants washed with 1% soap showed better growth, higher chlorophyll content and higher photosynthetic rates than those remained unwashed or washed with tap water or 0.1N HCl. Our results indicated that washing treatments alleviated the phytotoxic effects of heavy metal pollution on plants.

Keywords: Growth, Heavy metals, Pollution, Photosynthesis, Washing
Chloride Removal from Wastewater by Biosorption with the Plant Biomass

Chloride Removal from Wastewater by Biosorption with the Plant Biomass

Authors: Apte Sagar. S., Apte Shruti S., Kore V. S., Kore S. V.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Chlorides are the natural substances which are found in the water bodies in varying amounts. However, their concentrations are significantly low. However, the industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewaters that are generated from the human society may contain large amount of chlorides, which can cause significant disruption in the ecological balance. Many techniques have been adopted in order to reduce the amount of chlorides in wastewater like demineralization, reverse osmosis, coagulation, precipitation, electrodialysis and so on. However, these techniques are physico – chemical in nature, and are cost consuming capital cost wise as well as maintenance cost wise. Therefore, the following paper makes an effort towards putting forth a biological alternative for the removal of chlorides from wastewater. The present paper studies the suitability of Parthenium sp. as a sorbent for chloride removal. Further, variations in the efficiency of biosorption with respect to different pH, concentration and time were studied. The paper concluded that Parthenium sps. dried biomass is capable of achieving upto 40% reduction in the chloride content at Lab scale.

Keywords: Biosorption, Parthenium, chlorides, wastewater
Development of Bivoltine Double Hybrid of the Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L. Tolerant to High Temperature and High Humidity Conditions of the Tropics

Development of Bivoltine Double Hybrid of the Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L. Tolerant to High Temperature and High Humidity Conditions of the Tropics

Authors: Suresh Kumar N., Harjeet Singh, Saha A. K. and Bindroo B. B.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Cocoon crop stability with sustainably good performance is a prerequisite to introduce bivoltine races in a tropical country like India under high temperature and humidity stress. Considering the poor performance of productive bivoltine hybrids during summer season, emphasis was given to evolve bivoltine silkworm breeds suitable to tropical conditions for achieving the primary objective of establishing bivoltine sericulture with quality raw silk among sericulturists. In India, it is not conducive to rear highly productive bivoltine hybrids, especially in summer. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop bivoltine silkworm hybrids tolerant to high temperature situations of the tropics. Attempts made earlier on these lines had resulted in the development of robust bivoltine hybrids viz., CSR18 x CSR19, CSR46 x CSR47 and CSR50 x CSR51. However, these hybrids could not make any impact in Indian sericulture industry. Keeping this in view, attempt is being made here to develop bivoltine double hybrid tolerant to high temperature and high humidity conditions of the tropics. The breeding process as well as the comparative performance of the new hybrid with the already developed double hybrid is also discussed in detail. The study has resulted in the development of bivoltine double hybrid tolerant to high temperature and high humidity conditions of the tropics.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, High temperature, High humidity, Bivoltine, Double hybrid
Performance Evaluation of Surface Flow Constructed Wetland System by Using Eichhornia crassipes for Wastewater Treatment in an Institutional Complex

Performance Evaluation of Surface Flow Constructed Wetland System by Using Eichhornia crassipes for Wastewater Treatment in an Institutional Complex

Authors: Yadav S. B., Jadhav A. S., Chonde S. G. and Raut P. D.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Land areas which are wet during part or all of the year are referred as wetlands. Constructed wetlands are manmade systems that mimic the functions of natural wetlands and applied for wastewater treatment. Aim of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using a macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes in constructed wetland for treatment of wastewater in an institutional complex. The daily inlet and outlet wastewater physico-chemical parameters were analysed during the period of two months. The parameters studied were pH, BOD, COD, DO, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Nitrogen and Phosphorus. The percentage removal of the parameters were analysed and studied until the percent removal rate gets stabilised. The study showed that the surface flow constructed wetlands are best alternative among modern treatments.

Keywords: Constructed Wetlands, Eichhornia crassipes, Macrophytes, Wastewater Treatment, Wetlands
Aerobic Sponge Method Vermitechnology for Macro-Level Conversion of Organic Garbage

Aerobic Sponge Method Vermitechnology for Macro-Level Conversion of Organic Garbage

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Earthworms in the second decade of 21st century are the most significant figure in the realm of biodegradation of agricultural wastes, agro-industrial wastes, urban organic garbage and sewage sludge. The degraded product as their excreta find resolvable route to sustainable agriculture, a most relevant solution for the developeddeveloping country like India to enhance sustainability of soil organic matter for balance of physical-chemicalbiological properties. Earthworms virtually stand alone as a symbol of “clean technology” in the field of organic waste transformations and also stand alone as a symbol of “sustainable organic agriculture technology”. Although several protocols and techniques have been shown and implemented in India we still lack a suitable, modifiable and appropriate feasible technology for organic garbage into vermicompost at the levels of ward, community and corporate/municipality, which is the need of the hour. India being an agrarian country needs valuable, processed organic inputs to sustain its soils. Indian wet garbage accounting for average 60% of the country’s total organic garbage generated, must be considered as resourceful by-product for human endeavor, to make it a ready source for vermicomposting and finding a return route to productive soils. Business partnership considering organic garbage as “organic wealth”, for innovation and entrepreneurship, research, education and technology development, all within a framework of a partnership between city Corporations, private research and development units and Universities as sustainable workable models for all seasons need to be implemented in India, independent of Govt. agencies for fruitful ventures. Currently handling of garbage by the Corporations and Municipalities need a thorough brush –up which is operating on the grounds of political scenario rather than on the grounds of techno-commercial ventures. This paper calls for the attention of theoretical scientists to look for macro-level practicalities and also challenges its current, innovative Aerobic Sponge Method Vermitechnology (ASMV), its implementations anywhere with authenticity in terms of feasibility and sustainability on the grounds of working modalities along with sustainable returns through “organic garbage filth to organic cabbage growth” motto.

Keywords: ASMV technology, Aerobic Sponge Bed, conventional vermitechnology, Eudrilus eugeniae, open land access, wet garbage
Assessment of CO2 Emissions in the Petroleum Refining in Cameroon

Assessment of CO2 Emissions in the Petroleum Refining in Cameroon

Authors: Jean Gaston Tamba, Donatien Njomo and Eric Tonye Mbog
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

CO2 has risen to the top of the list of the energy sector's environmental impacts and petroleum refining in particular, as the source of anthropogenic climate change. CO2 emissions inventory from the petroleum refining sector in Cameroon reported in this article was conducted following the recommendations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); it concerns the unique refinery called the Cameroon national refinery (SONARA). This assessment is based on a bottom-up methodology of Tier 3. The combustibles data are obtained from the SONARA Technical Department during the period 2000-2008. The combustibles emission factors were determined after measurements following the American Society of Testing Materials standards within the SONARA laboratory. Hence, assessment results of CO2 emissions at the SONARA show about 239 kilotons of CO2 were rejected into the atmosphere. That is 5.56% the total CO2 emissions in Cameroon for the year 2008. Moreover, the furnace of the atmospheric unit distillation is the combustion zone that emits the most CO2. Emissions account for 45% of CO2 emissions at the SONARA that is an average of 96.3 kilotons. This is the first CO2 inventory for the petroleum refining category carried out in Cameroon; but we could not include fugitive emissions. However, the guidelines of the UNFCCC on GHG inventories state that countries shall report a national communication of anthropogenic emissions to the Conference of Parties, according to their capacities.

Keywords: Assessment, CO2 emissions, petroleum refining, Cameroon
Experimental Studies for Growth and Bioenergetics in Eudrilus eugeniae under Three Agro-climatic Conditions of Rainy, Winter and Summer

Experimental Studies for Growth and Bioenergetics in Eudrilus eugeniae under Three Agro-climatic Conditions of Rainy, Winter and Summer

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Energy transformations and energetic of oligochaete species is available in population/ecological energetic of the soil inhabitants of the temperate and tropical regions. The study of bioenergetics is relevant for both basic sciences as well as applied fields to assess the environmental impact on the economically important organisms like compost earthworms. In the present research an experiment has been implemented to study the utilization of food budget in the tropical compost earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae under regular seasonal patterns of rainy, winter and summer by providing ad libitum partially-aerobically decomposed cattle dung. This study was done to know the effect of season on the feeding, defecation and cocoon production of the earthworms for its best utilization from the point of commercialization under three agro-climatic conditions. The fate of eaten food from hatchlings to post reproductive periods were documented for the study of growth period, growth, food consumption, daily food intake as a function of age group, total food intake as function of age group, feeding rate, feces defecation, food assimilation, assimilation rate (ASR), assimilation efficiency (ASE), conversion of assimilated food into body substance, conversion rate, gross conversion efficiency (K1), net conversion efficiency (K2), food oxidized as an expression of metabolism and metabolic rate. The impact of season on the feeding, defecation, absorption, assimilation and cocoon production has been discussed in detail.

Keywords: Absorption, Assimilation Rate, Conversion Efficiency, Feeding Rate, Metabolic Rate, Oxidation
Studies on Biomass Yield from Echinochloa pyramidalis, E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra in Yard-Scale Surface Flow Wetlands in Cameroon

Studies on Biomass Yield from Echinochloa pyramidalis, E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra in Yard-Scale Surface Flow Wetlands in Cameroon

Authors: Lekeufack Martin, Fonkou Th�ophile, Ivo Balock Sako, Pamo Etienne and Amougou Akoa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

In this work, yard-scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater to assess the growth of and biomass production from Echinochloa pyramidalis, E. cruspavonis and Leersia hexandra. The loading rate of about 85 liters per m2 per day was applied to each wetland for two consecutive years. Growth parameters including plant density, height of plants, diameter of stems and leaf dimensions were measured after every two weeks. The aerial parts of the plants were harvested and weighed after each season. Total biomasses ranging from 113 to 154 tons/hectare/year were estimated for E. pyramidalis, while for E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra they were estimated to range from 74 to 79 tons/hectare/year and from 61 to 64 tons/hectare/year respectively. The biomass yield of E. pyramidalis was significantly higher than those of E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra. In addition more biomasses were produced in the dry seasons than in the rainy seasons. The growth and biomass yields were significantly influenced by the seasons and temperature.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, wastewater, macrophytes, biomass yield
Predicting Iron Adsorption Capacity and Thermodynamics onto Calcareous Soil from Aqueous Solution by Linear Regression and Neural Network Modeling

Predicting Iron Adsorption Capacity and Thermodynamics onto Calcareous Soil from Aqueous Solution by Linear Regression and Neural Network Modeling

Authors: Bhaumik R., Mondal N. K., Das B., Roy P. and Pal K. C.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Calcareous soil with various physical parameters along with morphological characteristics Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) was used for removal of Fe+2 from aqueous solution through batch process. During batch study various parameters effects on the adsorption capacity of Fe+2. This adsorption was followed by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model. The activation energy was determined at 9.47 kJ/mol indicating physical adsorption. According to D-R model, Es also supports this. Gibb’s free energy (∆G0), explains the spontaneous nature of adsorption and negative value of ∆H0 implies exothermic nature. A six layered feed forward neural network with back propagation training algorithm was developed using twenty one experimental data sets obtained from laboratory batch study. The ANN predicted results were compared with the experimental results of the laboratory test. It was concluded that calcareous soil is an effective adsorbent for removal of Fe+2 from aqueous solution.

Keywords: ANN model, Batch adsorption, statistically analysis, thermodynamic parameters

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