Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal

Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Kerman University of Medical Sciences
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Mar/30

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Economics
  • Publisher's keywords: Air Pollution and Control, Environmental Economics, Human Ecology, Environmental Standard, Health Impact Assessment (HIA), Noise Pollution and Control, Environmental Health, Environmental Engineering
  • Language of fulltext: english

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2014
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '49' articles

Evaluation of landfill gas plant siting problem: a multi-criteria approach

Evaluation of landfill gas plant siting problem: a multi-criteria approach

Authors: Desmond Eseoghene Ighravwe, Damilola Elizabeth Babatunde
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Landfill activities have environmental and economic values to a community. While the former deals with the control of landfill gas (LFG) emission into the atmosphere, the latter deals with the conversion of LFG to clean energy and subsequently, wealth creation. To fully harness these benefits, LFG plants must be well sited in a community, and this can be achieved when proper techno-economic analysis has been carried out. This will not only justify the LFG plants investment cost, but it will also guarantee their sustainability. Methods: This study presented a framework that ranks and selects LFG project for a community. First, numerical expressions were used to evaluate the techno-economic and environmental requirements of the project sites, then, the importance of these requirements was determined using Criteria Importance Through Inter-criteria Correlation (CRITIC) method. The sites were ranked using grey relational analysis (GRA) and Weighted Aggregated Sum-Product Assessment (WASPAS) method. An illustrative example of the proposed framework was presented using real-world dataset from different communities in Nigeria. Finally, four LFG project sites were ranked using four environmental criteria, five technical criteria, and eight economic criteria. Results: The results of WASPAS were verified by comparing them with the results of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and axiomatic design (AD) methods. It was observed that the results of both methods were the same for the different LFG sites. Conclusion: According to the results, it is obvious that this study will be useful to policy-makers and investors in LFG business, while the former could seek for plants’ sustainability, the latter interest will be on the payback period of their investment.

Keywords: Nigeria, Waste disposal facilities, Atmospheres, Environment, Investments
The potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the daily consumption of vegetables

The potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the daily consumption of vegetables

Authors: Amir Hossein Baghaie , Mohammad Fereydoni
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Vegetables are one of the most important components of daily food. Thus, this research was done to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the consumption of vegetables distributed in the fruits and vegetables central market of Arak, Iran. Methods: In this study, a total 45 samples from edible parts of parsley, mint, chard, fenugreek, cress, basil, coriander, lettuce, and cabbage distributed in the fruits and vegetables central market of Arak were randomly collected and the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in these crop plants was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The non-carcinogenic risk of heavy metals intake through the consumption of the studied vegetables was evaluated for male and female using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method. Results: The highest and lowest Pb daily intake and Pb risk index was related to the consumption of cabbage and basil, respectively. And the highest daily intake of Cd and As was related to lettuce consumption, while the lowest daily intake of these metals was related to the consumption of coriander. Among the studied heavy metals, As had the highest hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic diseases. The highest HQ belonged to As through lettuce consumption and the lowest one belonged to As through coriander consumption (58 g/day). The HQ for female was higher than that for male. Conclusion: According to the results, the total hazard quotient (THQ) of non-carcinogenic diseases from the total studied vegetables was above the standard level. On the other hand, the HQ for female was higher than that for male.

Keywords: Human, Vegetables, Risk Factor, Arsenic, Lead
Investigation of heavy metals accumulation in the soil and pine trees

Investigation of heavy metals accumulation in the soil and pine trees

Authors: Javad Kharkan , Mohammad Hossein Sayadi , Mohammad Reza Rezaei
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Human activities related to workshops in the cities contribute to the release of heavy metals into the environment, which pose serious risks to the environment and to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration of lead (Pb), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in the pine trees and soil in various land uses of Birjand city, Iran. Methods: The sampling stations were randomly selected from different land uses including parks, streets, carwashes, car repair shops, and car smooth shops in Birjand city. The pine trees (skin and leaves) and soil samples were collected from 15 stations located at different and uses in 2017. To determine the concentration of heavy metals, atomic absorption spectrometer (Contr AA 700) was used. Results: It was revealed that the mean concentration of Pb, Fe and Mn in residential soil was 1.79, 419.39, and 30.76 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the Pb, Fe, and Mn concentration in pine skin and leaves was 0.63 – 0.18, 23.05–9.84, and 10.05–3.13 mg/kg, respectively. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) mean of the study areas demonstrated a descending trend for Fe (16.31 mg/kg) Conclusion: According to the results, the soils of car repair and smooth shops as well as carwashes in Birjand are becoming polluted by Pb, Fe, and Mn. Although, it does not threaten the city ecosystem, but with passage of time, these measures will be accumulated due to the soil alkalinity and will reach critical levels.

Keywords: Lead, Iron, Manganese, Soil, Cities
Comparing the ZnO/Fe(VI), UV/ZnO and UV/Fe(VI) processes for removal of Reactive Blue 203 from aqueous solution

Comparing the ZnO/Fe(VI), UV/ZnO and UV/Fe(VI) processes for removal of Reactive Blue 203 from aqueous solution

Authors: Amirreza Talaiekhozani , Farhad Banisharif , Maryam Bazrafshan , Zeinab Eskandari , Abbas Heydari Chaleshtari , Ghasem Moghadam , Ali Mohammad Amani
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Wastewater contaminated with dyes such as Reactive Blue 203 can produce a lot of health problems if it is released into the environment without a suitable treatment. Although there are several studies on dye removal from wastewater, removal of Reactive Blue 203 has not been investigated by hybrid methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Reactive Blue 203 from aqueous solution, using combined processes of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation. Methods: The removal of dye from aqueous solution using ZnO nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation was individually evaluated. Then, the results of combined methods were compared. Hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and temperature were the most important factors which were investigated in this study. Results: ZnO nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation were able to remove 97%, 71%, and 47% of the dye in the optimal conditions, respectively. Also, the removal of dye using combination of Fe(VI) oxidation process/UV radiation, ZnO nanoparticles/Fe(VI) oxidation process, and ZnO nanoparticles/UV radiation under optimum conditions was 100%. It seems that the combined methods were significantly more effective than the methods alone for removal of dye from water. Conclusion: UV radiation alone is a simple and efficient method for removal of Reactive Blue 203 from water. Removal of Reactive Blue 203 using Fe(VI) oxidation process can be completed in a fraction of second, therefore, it can be categorized as a rapid reaction.

Keywords: Wastewater, Ultraviolet rays, Zinc oxide, Adsorption
Magnetic nano-biocomposite CuFe2O4@methylcellulose (MC) prepared as a new nano-photocatalyst for degradation of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solution

Magnetic nano-biocomposite [email protected] (MC) prepared as a new nano-photocatalyst for degradation of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solution

Authors: Alireza Nasiri , Fatemeh Tamaddon , Mohammad Hossein Mosslemin , Majid Amiri Gharaghani , Ali Asadipour
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (CIP) are even more important in bacterial resistance, even at low concentrations. The aim of this research was to synthesize [email protected] (MC) as a new nano-photocatalyst for degradation of CIP from aqueous solution. Methods: The nano-photocatalyst ([email protected]) was characterized by FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the formation of pure-phase spinel ferrites. After [email protected] characterization, the effective parameters in removal efficiency of CIP such as reaction time, initial antibiotic concentration, pH, photocatalyst loading, and degradation kinetic were investigated and conditions were optimized. Then, CIP degradation experiments were conducted on the real sample in the optimal conditions. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined under optimum conditions. Results: The structural characterization of the magnetic nanobiocomposite showed that it is in nanoscale, ferromagnetic property, and thermal stability. The optimal conditions were obtained at pH = 7, irradiation time (90 minutes), photocatalyst loading (0.2 g), and initial concentration of CIP (3 mg/L). The removal efficiency of CIP in the optimal conditions was obtained as 80.74% and 72.87% from the synthetic and real samples, respectively. The removal of COD was obtained as 68.26% in this process. The evaluation of kinetic linear models showed that the photocatalytic degradation process was fitted by pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir-Hinshelwood. [email protected] photocatalyst had a good stability and reusability for the fourth runs. Conclusion: The photocatalytic degradation of CIP from aqueous media with [email protected] photocatalyst has a high efficiency, which can be used in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters.

Keywords: Spinel, Ciprofloxacin, Methylcellulose, Wastewater
Effects of pre-ozonation and chemical coagulation on the removal of turbidity, color, TOC, and chlorophyll a from drinking water

Effects of pre-ozonation and chemical coagulation on the removal of turbidity, color, TOC, and chlorophyll a from drinking water

Authors: Bahman Masoomi , Neamatollah Jaafarzadeh , Tayebeh Tabatabaie , Esmaeil Kouhgardi , Sahand Jorfi
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Ozone can be used as a single technology or in combination with other processes to improve the coagulation- flocculation or biodegradability in order to remove pollutants in natural water treatment. Methods: In this study, the effects of pre-ozonation with coagulant substances on the quality parameters of drinking water were investigated using humic acid, kaolin, clay, and green algae in a pilot scale. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions (at both acidic and alkaline pH in different dosages of ozone and coagulant at ozone contact time with simulated water sample (5-20 minutes) in different scenarios). Results: The highest removal efficiency of parameters in the state of pre-ozonation alone and preozonation with a coagulant was observed at contact time of 20 minutes, ozone dosage of 5 g/h, coagulant dosage of 25 mg/L, at alkaline pH along with a decrease in temperature. So that, the average removal rate of turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC), color, and chlorophyll a in contact time of 20 minutes was 76.9%, 52.8%, 66.6%, and 85%, respectively. However, compared to ozonation under similar conditions, the reduction in turbidity, TOC, color, and chlorophyll a was 36.13%, 24.4%, 32.13%, and 79.6%, respectively. Also, it was revealed that pre-ozonation with coagulant could effectively improve the removal of parameters. Conclusion: However, since pre-ozonation can be effectively used to improve the coagulation efficacy in the drinking water treatment, the pre-ozonation combined with coagulation is proposed as an alternative to conventional coagulation to improve the process of drinking water treatment plant.

Keywords: Pilot projects, Drinking water, Water quality, Ozone, Flocculation, Kaolin, Clay, Green algae
An environmentally friendly soil improvement technology for sand and dust storms control

An environmentally friendly soil improvement technology for sand and dust storms control

Authors: Sareh Rajabi Agereh , Farshad Kiani , Kazem Khavazi , Hassan Rouhipour , Farhad Khormali
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Dust storms occur when unchecked, strong, or turbulent winds combine with exposed loose and dried soil surfaces. Sand and dust storms have a significant impact on society, economy, and environment at local, regional, and global levels. The environmental and health hazards of such storms cannot be permanently reduced, however, by taking appropriate measures, its impact can be reduced. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of microbial precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a biocompatible agent on soil stabilization and control of dust storms using urease-producing bacteria (UPB) as a biological improvement technique, which were isolated, identified, sprayed on the soil surface. Methods: For this purpose, the erosion of bio-cemented soil samples was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel under the condition of wind velocity of 0 to 98 km.h-1 in two soil types with sandy and silty texture in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Results: The investigation of the threshold wind velocity of soil particles showed that soil particles began to move at velocity of 8 and 10 km.h-1 in silty and sandy soils, respectively, but in all biological samples (MICP), particles did not move until the wind speed reached 97 km.h-1. It was also revealed that the weight loss of all MICP-treated samples at different wind velocities was significantly reduced compared to the control group. Differences in the amount of soil loss among bio-cemented samples and control treatments were even superior at higher velocities, so that at velocities more than 57 km.h-1, soil losses increased significantly in the control group, while in soils treated with bacteria, soil loss was very low (about 2.5 kg.m-2.h-1). Comparison of the bacteria used in this study also showed that Bacillus infantis and Paenibacillus sp3 had high efficiency in controlling dust storms. Conclusion: The formation of abrasion-resistant surface layers on soil samples treated by bio-cementation showed that cementation by biological methods could be an effective way to stabilize surface particles and control sand and dust storms.

Keywords: Urease, Dust storms, Bio cement, Soil loss flux
Physicochemical transformation of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles in sea water and its impact on bacterial toxicity

Physicochemical transformation of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles in sea water and its impact on bacterial toxicity

Authors: Asli Baysal , Hasan Saygin , Gul Sirin Ustabasi
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: The enormous properties of metal oxide nanoparticles make it possible to use these nanoparticles in a wide range of products. As their usage and application continue to expand, environmental health concerns have been raised. In order to understand the behavior and effect of metal oxide nanoparticles in the environment, comprehensive and comparable physicochemical and toxicological data on the environmental matrix are required. However, the behavior and effect of nanoparticles in the real environmental matrix, e.g. sea water, are still unknown. Methods: In this study, the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the bacteria (gram positive-Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus/gram-negative Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in sea water were investigated. Furthermore, to better understand the behavior of the toxicity, surface chemistry, sedimentation, dissolution, particle size, and zeta potential of the nanoparticles dispersed in the sea water matrices were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. Results: The environmental matrix had a significant influence on physicochemical behavior of the tested nanoparticles. Besides, the inhibition of tested bacteria was observed against ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of sea water, while there was no inhibition in the controlled condition. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that surface chemistry with exposure to the sea water can have a significant role on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and their toxicity.

Keywords: Nanoparticle toxicity, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sea water, Physicochemical properties, Matrix effect
Investigating the efficiency of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in removal of penicillin G from aqueous solutions

Investigating the efficiency of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in removal of penicillin G from aqueous solutions

Authors: Soheila Chavoshan1 ID , Maryam Khodadadi2* ID , Negin Nasseh3, Ayat Hossein Panahi4, Aliyeh Hosseinnejad1
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Drugs, especially antibiotics, are one of the serious problems of modern life and the main pollution sources of the environment, especially in the last decade, which are harmful to human health and environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of penicillin G from aqueous solutions using single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Methods: In this study, the effect of different parameters including pH (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), initial concentration of pollutant (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l), absorbent dose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/L), mixing speed (0, 100, 200, and 300 rpm), and temperature (10, 15, 25, 35, 45°C) were investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, BET, Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and adsorption kinetics of the first- and second-order equations were determined. Results: The results showed that the efficiency of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the removal of penicillin G was 68.25% and 56.37%, respectively, and adsorption capacity of the nanotubes was 141 mg/g and 119 mg/g at initial concentration of 50 mg/l and pH=5 with adsorption dose of 0.8 g/L for 105 minutes at 300 rpm and temperature of 10°C from aqueous solutions. Also, it was revealed that the adsorption process had the highest correlation with the Langmuir model and secondorder kinetics, and the maximum adsorption capacity based on Langmuir model was 373.80 mg/g. Conclusion: According to the results, it was found that single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be used as effective absorbents in the removal of penicillin G from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Single-walled carbon, Multi-walled carbon, Adsorption, Penicillin G, Antibiotics
Study of the effectiveness of the third generation polyamideamine and polypropylene imine dendrimers in removal of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions

Study of the effectiveness of the third generation polyamideamine and polypropylene imine dendrimers in removal of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions

Authors: Sepideh Sadeghi , Ghazal Raki , Asrin Amini , Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh , Mohammad Mehdi Amin , Majid Hashemi
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Dye and colored materials cause health risks in water and therefore, must be removed from water supplies and wastewater. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the third generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and poly (propylene imine) dendrimers (PPI-G3) in the removal of reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from aqueous solutions and determine the optimum conditions for the removal. Methods: This study was performed in a laboratory and batch scale. In this study, synthetic wastewater was examined with three different concentrations of RB19 (25, 50, and 100 mg/L), different pHs (3, 7, and 10), various amounts of dendrimer (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 g/L), and at different times (15, 30, and 60 minutes) during the adsorption process. The remaining amount of dye was measured by spectrophotometer at 592 nm wavelength. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were also tested. Results: The results showed that by increasing the reaction time and adsorbent dosage, the rate of dye removal increased while by increasing the initial dye concentration and pH, the dye removal efficiency was significantly decreased. In this study, with increase of pH from 3 to 10, dye removal efficiency at a concentration of 25 mg/L, decreased from 72% to 20% and 88% to 17% by PAMAM and PPI dendrimers, respectively. Excel software was used for data analysis. Conclusion: Both adsorbents had a good dye removal efficiency, but PPI dendrimer was more effective in removing RB19. Adsorption data followed the Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: Adsorption, Wastewater, Dendrimer, Polyamide amine, Polypropylene imine
Behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by sublethal exposure to chlorpyrifos: a case study in Twin Lakes of West Sumatra

Behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by sublethal exposure to chlorpyrifos: a case study in Twin Lakes of West Sumatra

Authors: Taufiq Ihsan , Tivany Edwin, Winna Anggraeni
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: The most commonly used insecticide by 99.8% farmers in West Sumatra, is chlorpyrifos which contains organophosphates. Chlorpyrifos is used to kill insects and other pests and works as the contact poison, gastric toxins, and inhalation. It is very useful for farmers in keeping the plants such as corn, citrus, peanuts, and so forth. Chlorpyrifos can enter the water body with direct application to control pests or indirectly through either spraying or washing during high rainfall in spray applications for plant leaves. Chlorpyrifos is also used in farming in the region of Twin Lakes (Diatas Lake and Dibawah Lake), West Sumatra, Indonesia. One of the most important fish that is cultivated in this region is Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Methods: The acute toxicity (LC50-96 h) of chlorpyrifos for Nile tilapia in studies was 0.076 mg/L. Sublethal concentrations used for the studies were one-seventh (0.011 mg/L) and one-fourteenth (0.005 mg/L) of the LC50-96 h. The test animal was exposed to the both sublethal concentrations for 1, 7 and 14 days. Behavioral responses were studied in the experimental periods. Tilapia that exposed chlorpyrifos exposure was exhibited irregular body movements, gills and fins motion, mucus secretion, breathing at the surface, and anal excretion. Results: It was revealed that the longer the exposure time, the more visible behavioral changes in fish, as well as the concentration variations, it means that the higher the concentration, the more visible changes in physiological behavior of fish. Correlation values (R) were was 0.75–0.99. Conclusion: These behavioral responses can be used as a tool in biomonitoring program to monitor ecotoxicity risk of chlorpyrifos to the test species, especially in the region of Twin Lakes, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Lakes, Animals, Farmers, Environmental monitoring
Risk assessment of noise pollution by analyzing the level of sound loudness resulting from central traffic in Shiraz

Risk assessment of noise pollution by analyzing the level of sound loudness resulting from central traffic in Shiraz

Authors: Hadi Negahdari , Sirus Javadpour , Faramarz Moattar, Hashem Negahdari
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Today, the effects of environmental pollution on human life and human needs, which reduces the level of community health caused by traffic noise in large cities, are clearly visible by creating irritation and pathogenic conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of noise pollution resulted from central traffic in Shiraz by analyzing its indicators and related components. Methods: By specifying the high traffic jam in Shiraz, the sound and its frequency in 156 points of the city were analyzed using a sound analyzer (Tes-1358C model). The sound pressure levels (LA and LP) and the one and one-third octave band were continuously measured in A and C networks. Then, data were extracted and analyzed using Excel 2016 and Minitab 18.1. Eventually, phon and sone indexes were calculated for the heavy traffic jam in some of the central streets of Shiraz and the results were statistically calculated and their charts were prepared with comfort disturbance ranges. Results: The highest harmful frequency of traffic in Shiraz was 50 Hz and 83.3 dB. The sound pressure level ranged from 70 to 92.7 dB in network A and 87.8 dB in network C. The maximum sound level was 87 phon and the maximum sone was 26 at 14 stations. Conclusion: According to the results, the sound pressure levels exceeded the environmental standards of Iran and the values of phon and sone were higher than the standard of comfort at night and day.

Keywords: Noise pollution, Environmental pollution, Loudness perception, Health risk assessment, Shiraz
Organoleptic and palatability properties of drinking water sources and its health implications in Ethiopia: a retrospective study during 2010-2016

Organoleptic and palatability properties of drinking water sources and its health implications in Ethiopia: a retrospective study during 2010-2016

Authors: Sisay Derso Mengesha , Abel Weldetinsae, Kirubel Tesfaye, Girum Taye
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties of drinking water sources in Ethiopia and compare the water quality with the health-based target. For this purpose, the water quality database of Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) from 2010 to 2016 was used. Methods: The concentration and other properties of the water samples were analyzed according to the Standard Methods of Water and Wastewater analysis. Quality control and quality assurance were applied in all stages following our laboratory standard operation procedures (SOPs). Results: The concentration of the selected parameters varied based on the type of water sources. The mean concentration of turbidity was higher in spring water (21.3 NTU) compared to tap (12.6 NTU) and well (3.9 NTU) water sources. The mean concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), and sulfate (SO4-2) was found to be higher in spring water sources than tap and well water sources. Comparably, the concentration of hardness, calcium, and magnesium was found to be higher in well water sources than spring and tap water sources. The bivariate analysis indicated that out of 845 analyzed water samples, more than 50% of the samples from Oromia region had turbidity, pH, TDS, hardness, Ca++, K+, and Na+ within an acceptable limit. In addition, the logistic regression analysis showed that water quality parameters were strongly associated with the type of water sources and regional administration at P < 0.05. Conclusion: More than 80% of the samples analyzed from drinking water sources were in agreement with WHO guidelines and national standards. However, the remaining 20% specifically, pH (25%), calcium (20%), hardness (18.1%), TDS (15.5%), and turbidity (13.3%) analyzed from improved water sources did not comply with these recommendations. Due to objectionable or unpleasant taste, people may force to look for alternative unprotected water sources that lead to health concerns.

Keywords: Drinking water, Water quality, Water sources, Taste, Physicochemical properties, Retrospective study, Ethiopia, Logistic models
Kinetic study of the regeneration of spent caustic via the genetic algorithm method

Kinetic study of the regeneration of spent caustic via the genetic algorithm method

Authors: Asadollah Karimi , Esmaeil Fatehifar , Reza Alizadeh, Hadi Soltani
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Spent caustic contains noxious components such as sulfide species and also high chemical oxygen demand content (COD). Oxidation of these materials to caustic and sulfate species is mostly the rate-controlling step within catalytic oxidation of spent caustic. Methods: In this study, the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of spent caustic and the regeneration methodology of the sulfidic spent caustic were investigated. The kinetics of catalytic oxidation of spent caustic was studied in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst. The developed mathematical model was verified via the batch bubble column reactor. The elementary and non-elementary models based on the genetic algorithm were used to obtain the rate coefficient and kinetic order. Results: The experiments were carried out at various conditions. The results indicated that the error of objective function of the non-elementary and elementary models was 3.01% and 134.96%, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, the non-elementary model had rational outcome compared to the elementary one. Also, non-elemental model is more concordance with experimental results.

Keywords: Caustic, Kinetic, Regeneration, Catalysis
Application of Taguchi’s experimental design method for optimization of Acid Red 18 removal by electrochemical oxidation process

Application of Taguchi’s experimental design method for optimization of Acid Red 18 removal by electrochemical oxidation process

Authors: Zabihollah Yousefi , Ali Zafarzadeh, Abdolaziz Ghezel
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Background: Electro-oxidation is developed as an electrochemical method to overcome the problems of the conventional decolorization technologies and is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of colored wastewater from various industries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process in removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Acid Red 18 (AR18) dye from aqueous solutions. Methods: In this research, a laboratory scale of electro-coagulation reactor for the treatment of synthetic wastewater was made and studied. The effects of different variables including pH, current density, dye concentration, and electrolysis time were investigated. The experiment steps were designed by Design-Expert 10 software using the selected variables. Finally, the dye and COD analysis was performed by spectrophotometer. The optimization was performed using Taguchi fractional factorial design during the removal of dye and COD. Results: Maximum removal of dye (89%) and COD (72.2%) were obtained at pH=3, current density=20 mA/cm2, initial dye concentration=100 mg/L, and reaction time=45 min. ANOVA test showed a significant relationship between statistical model and test data. Also, the results indicate that the distribution of the residues of the model was normal. Conclusion: By designing experiments through Taguchi method, the removal process will be optimized and by decreasing the number of experiments, the optimal conditions for pollutant removal will be prepared. The results suggest that the Electro-oxidation system is a very suitable technique for the enhancement of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Electrolysis, Wastewater, Azo compounds, Models, Statistical, Analysis of variance

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.