International Journal of Korean History

International Journal of Korean History

Basic info

  • Publisher: Korea University, Center for Korean History
  • Country of publisher: korea, republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: History
  • Publisher's keywords: Korean History
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2000
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '224' articles

Recent Research Trends on the History of Kaya in Korea

Recent Research Trends on the History of Kaya in Korea

Authors: Young-sik Lee
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

Now the history of Kaya is not an 'Enigmatic History' any longer and it is recognized as one independent research field in the research of ancient Korean history. This paper will introduce, in five categories, the research trends actually debated among historians on Korean ancient history. Five categories are ① Early Kaya Theory vs. Pre-Kaya Theory. ② Theory of the Kaya League and its Criticism. ③ Problems with Early Kaya: ⓐ Society of Nine Leaders and the Foundation of Karak Chiefdom. ⓑ Maritime Kingdom and Iron Kingdom. ④ Problems with Late Kaya: Research on the history of Late Kaya, which developed with its center around Koryong area, is concentrated on the reconstitution of the history of Great Kayathrough ⓐ new interpretation of the twelve titles of Kayakum songs ⓑ interpretation of the diplomatic relationship between king Haji of Kara and NanQi ⓒ archeological interpretation of extension of pottery and cultural products of the Great Kaya style. ⑤ Relationship between Ancient Kaya and Yarnato: ⓐ The reality of MimanaNihonFu. ⓑ Kaya People's move to Japanese Archipelago.

Keywords: Recent Research, Trends, the History, Kaya in Korea
Koryo Politics under the Mongol Control : Dynastic Continuity during the Period of Royal Absense

Koryo Politics under the Mongol Control : Dynastic Continuity during the Period of Royal Absense

Authors: Hyon-ku Min
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

Koryŏ under Mongol control had unique political features. Despite the long struggle against the Mongols, Koryŏ eventually surrendered to them to become their "son-in-law" country and thus came to be dominated by the Mongols at the loss of their own political autonomy. However, Koryŏ ostensibly managed to maintain its status as an independent kingdom by preserving its own dynasty. This paper attempts to identify the nature and characteristics of Koryŏ under the strong Mongols hegemony. In other words, it will examine how Koryŏ was able to administer its own country despite the varied nature of Mongol intervention and contro!' Notably during the reign of King Ch'ungson(r.1308-1313), who reigned for only years and four months and spent most of that time at the Mongol court at yanjing. In this case, King Ch'ungson on the basis of his unique position as the foreign grandson of the Yuan emperor Shizu was able to have great influence in the politics of the Yuan empire while residing in Yanjing (Beijing), and autocratically ruled the Kory? dynasty through a system of messenger ordinances which was supported by the central hall (todang), organ of council led by prime ministers. His son, King Ch'ungsuk(r.1313-1330, 1332-1339), was also forced to remain at Yanjing for four years and a month. Because of the disintegration of the Koryŏ throne encroaching upon King Ch'ungson position as king, on the orders of the Yuan empire he went to Yuan China and while residing in Beijing lost his royal seal, inaugurating from that point on a vacuum of royal power in Koryŏ. Nevertheless, state administration was not stalled and a minimal system of rule was maintained through the steadfast existence of autocratic government organ of the Koryŏ central hall. Considering these facts, This paper has revealed aspects of late Koryŏ politics under Mongol control during the prolonged absence of its kings from the capital. Although the Koryŏ reigns King Ch'ungson and Ch'ungsuk were different in that the country was governed by an absentee king - unique circumstances marking a phase when Kory? became a Yuan son-in-law state - at the same time the continuation of self-sufficient Koryŏ government administration illustrates the independent nature of Koryŏ rule.

Keywords: Koryo Politics, the Mongol Control, Dynastic Continuity
Economic Features of Colonial Modernity in Modern Korea

Economic Features of Colonial Modernity in Modern Korea

Authors: Tae-hern Jung
( 27 downloads)
Abstract

The fundamental features of 'colonial modernity' had to be overcome during and after the colonial period can be classified as follows. Creation of a nation-state, eliminating the system of outflow or loss of resources instituted by 'colonial capitalism,' creation of the democratization process, and identification and recovery of its own cultural and historical tradition. Western modernity can be reached more efficiently by exploiting colonies and their accompanying 'colonial modernity' of The Third World. After all, the conquest of modernity in world history originated in the conquest of those contradictions of 'colonial modernity' that all the Third World countries have experienced. This paper has treated briefly the problems of the consequences of 'economic growth and development' under the rule of imperialists or 'colonial capitalism.' By my rough estimate, even though the flow of funds needs more accurate analysis, the amount of funds flowing out of and being lost within Korea were 4-5 times greater than its funds flowing into Korea from Japan. This outflow represents more than half of the estimated GDP of 55 billion yen during the colonial period. But this estimate excludes the exploitation of materials, mineral resources, and human beings, all of which is very difficult to measure quantitatively. Nevertheless, some historians confuse the current form of capitalism with the essence of 'colonial capitalism'. Since the economic prominence of South Korea in the last three decades, Western historians generally have a tendency to limit their focus to certain legacies - railroads, roads, harbors, civil registries, and so on - remained after Japan's withdrawal, never saying that South Korea had been filled with numerous poverty-stricken people for over 20 years after independence in 1945 despite aid from USA and colonial legacies. These interpretations assume that it was impossible for the colony to modernize by itself concealing the actual exploitation. Moreover, it must be considered that even these by-products of exploitation or strategic planning to execute war rather than products of charity, were demolished almost completely during the Korean War(1950-1953) in South and North Korea. And per capita income(it represents productivity or economic growth) of North Korea where the pro-Japanese group was eliminated and the degree of damage during the Korean War was more severe, higher than in South Korea until 1973.

Keywords: Economic Features, Colonial Modernity, Modern Korea
National Memory and Identity of the Working Class in Korea (1910~1950)

National Memory and Identity of the Working Class in Korea (1910~1950)

Authors: Moo-yong Kim
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

The Korean working class founded their construction of national memory and identity upon their resistance to Japanese domination. The origins of working class identity could be traced back to Korean perceptions of Japanese as lithe other" based on differences in tradition, culture and consciousness. During the colonial period however, workers continued to identify with nation over class as demonstrated by their widespread participation in national events such as the funeral of King Sunjong. This was also part of a process of reconstructing national memory. Although in the colonial period, the working class claimed a memory of resistance under modernity, they simultaneously constructed a memory of compliance through their voluntary labor and obedience to factory discipline. Modem memory changed rapidly once the working class were incorporated into a fascist war mobilization program. However, in spite of workers' strong resistance to colonial domination, they also developed a culture of submission founded on fear and terror. This duality interfered with the development of national memory and transformed national identity into one characterized by passive and tacit forms of working class resistance. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, memory was reconstructed around a "community of liberation" as workers focused on state building in their quest for independence, power, and escape from the humiliations of colonial rule. Memory was thus readjusted in order to tie memory to the period of liberation and eliminate negative memories of the past. However, the South Korean government, established in 1948, split this "community of liberation," executing and exercising various forms of physical violence and social discrimination against those dissidents who refused to accept the Rhee regime. The working class, coerced by ruling forces into forgetting existing memories and accepting an "official" memory, was thus forced to construct new national memory in response to national division. This was not only a part of the national formation process but also indicated an involuntary shift in the labor movement away from the left. It was this coercive process that erased working class memory and convinced them into complacency. Under such pressures, national memory of the working class could not resist change. The general workforce was forced into submitting to the Rhee regime this submission was ultimately represented in national memory as a culture of compliance, reflecting working class experiences under national division, anti-communism and dictatorship. Korean working class identity was thus gradually transformed by forced silence and submission and expressed as a new memory of defeat and frustration.

Keywords: National Memory, Identity, the Working Class, Korea
The Portrayal of Korea: A Critical Analysis of Korean History in American Secondary Schools

The Portrayal of Korea: A Critical Analysis of Korean History in American Secondary Schools

Authors: Seon-mee Kim
( 27 downloads)
Abstract

This paper attempts to review Korean history as depicted in world history textbooks for American secondary schools. Since Korean history presented within these textbooks will have a great influence on how students perceive Korea and understand Korean history, they should be written in an accurate and coherent manner, and well-integrated with supplementary texts to effectively promote reader comprehension. It is therefore essential to select and narratively reconstruct core historical events and to organize chapters in consideration of their educational impact on the comprehension of Korean history. This study thus attempts to analyze the depiction of Korean history in terms of coherence, topic selection, accuracy, and perspective with attention given to the coherence and effectiveness of supplementary sections, in contrast to previous studies that focused only on examining historical accuracy. The four world history textbooks examined are considered representative textbooks, are the most widely used in the U.S. secondary schools to date, and cover ancient through modem world history. Pedagogical problems proliferate in the historical accounts and supplementary sections on Korean history in textbooks. Outright errors and bias in the selection and interpretation of history have been noted that will unintentionally mislead students in their interpretation of the Korean past that may be largely determined by the Eurocentric perspective that informs the narration of Korean history.

Keywords: The Portrayal, A Critical Analysis, Korean History,
신라하대 농민항쟁의 특징

신라하대 농민항쟁의 특징

Authors: 이정신
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The first record in Korea's history of peasant resistance where the peasants themselves were agents of social change occurred during the later Silla period and has been carefully examined in its links to social change in Tang China, role of powerful local lineages, movements of non-elite classes and the historical position of the peasant. The first significant large-scale uprising in which the peasants were involved was the Kim H?n-ch'an uprising in 815. Although this commoner uprising, bearing the characteristics of a coup d'etat, had spread to the provinces because of the antagonisms and conflicts amongst the central true bone aristorcracy, it was not a genuine peasant resistance based upon peasant power. Despite the participation of roving 'brigands' (tojŏk) and 'grass brigands' (ch'ojŏk), they were not centralized forces thus making this resistance nothing more than a peasant power struggle against the central aristocracy using military force. A significant change occurred in the nature of the peasant armies after the Kim P?m-mun uprising in 825. The leader of the peasant army, Susin, a bandit from Kodarsan, consolidated forces with Kim Pŏm-mun and attempted to establish a new state capital. This was not simply an attempt by Susin to stop exploitation by regional officials and local landlords but rather an attempt to establish a new state. Thus it displayed characteristics distinct from the small-scale uprisings that occurred in reaction to exploitative taxation. Although the peasant armies had indeed allied themselves with the ruling strata to start the uprising, by the beginning of the 9th century, the uprising had already grown out of incipient forms and possessed the foundations of a statewide peasant resistance movement against the Silla state. During King Chinsŏng's reign (r. 887-896), the erupting peasant revolt swelled to a size that enabled the first step to be taken in the downfall of the Silla kingdom. The direct cause of this revolt was excessive taxation. Growing opposition against the state's taxation changed into a peasant uprising. Peasant uprisings in later Silla generally had occurred in Sangju, Chukchu, and W?nju, central transportation hubs, and erupted in each of these central regions. In addition to these areas, the peasant army appeared frequently in every comer of the country in Kangn?ng, Namhae, Kogsŏng, and Mungyŏng, and were called a variety of names such as Ch'ojŏk (grass brigands), Nokrim (green forest), Chŏkio (band of thieves), Sanj?k (mountain brigands). Some peasant armies were even known as the 'Red Trousered Banditti' (chŏkko chŏk). However, they were essentially interested only in pillaging, making it unlikely that any social contradictions could be resolved through their development and as a group necessary for basic production, their uprising would undoubtedly be shortlived. Rampant banditry was an unstabilizing force not only to the state but also to the lives of the people. These conditions were mainly caused by the failure of the Silla state to enact any government policies on behalf of the people. In the end, the peasants who had lost faith in the state developed forces to protect themselves, and this appears to be the most important factor in the gradual legitimization and dominance of powerful local lineages. Peasant revolts were not only the result of hostility towards irrational taxation, but also large-scale movements against the government that went beyond mere opposition to overtaxation by wealthy local families. Leading figures of the peasant army such as Wŏnjong, Aeno, Kihwŏn, and Yanggil, attracted peasants and developed their respective forces, ultimately causing Silla to crumble into a weakened state. Later Koguryŏ and Later Paekche were then founded by Kungye and Ky?nhwon who had championed equality and redistribution of land that peasants so greatly desired. Intensified mass exploitation in later Silla had increasingly fettered and interrupted peasant lives on a daily basis. Unequal conditions of income through the development of commerce and peasant self-awareness became the crucial factors underlying countrywide peasant uprisings. Impoverished peasants greatly desired to extricate themselves from poverty but the difference in their wealth in relation to the aristocracy or merchants made their own deprivation appear even more severe. As a result, peasants adhered blindly to yusa religion or myths such as the ch'amwi myth. In fact, although the peasants sought the redistribution of land, !hey believed that the only way to realize this was to eliminate the Silla dynasty and construct a new system entirely. Peasant self-awareness, by those who attempted to change traditions gone awry, functioned as an important impetus behind peasant resistance in later Silla. Sŏn buddhism also greatly influenced peasants peasants to participate in the uprising. S6n buddhist monks in later Silla strove to restore life to the masses, telling them that they possessed the same Buddha-nature as the ruling class. Therefore, although they did not support the peasant uprising per se, they had encouraged the development of peasant self-consciousness through the notion of differentiating between self and others, creating a theoretical foundation that supported the peasant rebellion. Although the later Three Kingdoms period was established through the peasant uprisings, some distance still remained to be traversed before they would realize the society that the peasants envisioned. Kungye and Kyŏhyŏn replaced the Silla dynasty with another exploitative ruling class. It was not until the Koryŏ kingdom unified the later Three kingdoms that the bone-rank system was abolished, excessive exploitation prohibited, and a tithe demanded as tax in a policy in an effort to win peasant support. Although no reforms were initiated to redistribute land for peasants in terms of landownership relations, there were however certain effects, such as the prevention of excessive taxation, that enabled the peasants to maintain a stable livelihood. Moreover, powerful local lineages make it possible to advance to official positions in the capital based on ability. Thus, there is no denying that the local powers and the role of peasants became an important foundation of Koryŏ society.

Keywords: 신라하대 농민항쟁의 특징

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