Medpulse International Journal of Anatomy

Medpulse International Journal of Anatomy

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  • Publisher: MedPulse Publishing Corporation
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/07

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  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

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  • Year open access content began: 2017
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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This journal has '92' articles

A study of anthropometric measurements of the human scapula in Maharashtra, India

A study of anthropometric measurements of the human scapula in Maharashtra, India

Authors: Swapna Chavan, Mehera Bhoir, Shobha Verma
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

Introduction: The scapula (shoulder blade) is a triangular flat bone that lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax, overlying the 2nd to 7th ribs. The present study aimed to study the anthropometric measurements of the human scapula in Maharashtra, India. 50 intact and dry scapulae sourced from the bone banks of Medical colleges in Maharashtra were studied. The age and gender of the bones was not known. The measurements of bony dimensions of the scapula included the glenoid, coracoids process, acromion process, spine, and the body. Angles of the scapula and the various shapes of the suprascapular notch were also categorized. This anthropometric study of Scapula is helpful for referral of normal variation in many surgical procedures and in the radiological assessment related to shoulder especially the suprascapular notch.

Keywords: Anthropometric Measurements, Human Scapula
Morphometric analysis of mastoid process for sex determination among Marathwada population

Morphometric analysis of mastoid process for sex determination among Marathwada population

Authors: S B Sukre, P R Chavan, S N Shewale
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

Background: Sexing the human skull and skeletal remains has been an important task of the physical anthropologist, forensic anthropologist and archaeologist. It is achieved by using the knowledge of human anatomy concerning osteology. Mastoid process is one of the most dimorphic bone which remains least damaged due to its anatomical position at the basolateral region of skull. Its size varies; it is larger in male than in females. In present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the use of mastoid process measurement in the determination of sex in an unidentified skeleton and also to test the accuracy of sex determination using discriminant function analysis. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Aurangabad. A total 132 dried adult human skull (80 male, 52 female) of Marathwada region were studied to determine accuracy of mastoid process. The mastoid length, medio-lateral diameter, antero-posterior diameter were measured with vernier caliper to calculate mastoid process index. Also the distance between asterion to mastoidale, asterion to porion, and porion to mastoidale were studied. Results: We observed that, out of seven mastoid variables, except mastoid index the mean of all remaining variables were more in males than that of in females. The difference observed for six mastoid variables was statistically significant (p<0.005) except mastoid index. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the mastoid process correctly classified the sex in 76% of the subjects and mastoid length was found to be an excellent discriminant for sex. A discriminant function equation specific for Marathwada population has also been derived from mastoid process variables. The present study provides a baseline data for sex determination of mastoid process of skull in Marathwada population.

Keywords: Discriminant function analysis; mastoid process; sex determination.
Bilateral variant origin of deep femoral artery and its branches – A case report

Bilateral variant origin of deep femoral artery and its branches – A case report

Authors: Blessymol Joseph
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

Accurate knowledge of the course and ramification of the vessels of the lower limbs received attention from surgeons and clinicians, due to their successful procedures in the femoral triangle. Variations in the origin of profundafemoris artery and its branches are also important to avoid damage during accessing femoral artery. Accurate knowledge of anatomical variations regarding origins of the profundafemoris, medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries are important for clinicians in the present modern era of interventional radiology. During the routine cadaveric dissection, variations in the origin and branching pattern of profunda femoral artery and its branches were observed. Developmental arrest at different stages may lead to anatomical variations related to the division of the femoral artery. Knowledge of the variations of the site of origin and course of profundafemoris and its circumflex branches is of diagnostic significance and is important invarious surgical procedures and reduces chances of peri-operative complications.

Keywords: Femoral artery, Profundafemoris artery, Medial circumflex femoral artery, Lateral circumflex femoral artery and Midinguinal point.
Unilateral variant origin of first lumbrical

Unilateral variant origin of first lumbrical

Authors: A V Bhingardeo, S Khambatta
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

lumbricals, the wing tendons are the intrinsic muscles of hand. They perform flexion at metacarpophalangial joint and extension at interphalangial joint. During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, we observed unilateral variation in the origin of first lumbrical in the left hand. This variant firstlumbrical got composite origin from the first tendons of flexor digitorumprofundus (FDP) and flexor digitorumsuperficialis (FDS). Rest all lumbricals were normal taking origin solely from FDP tendons.

Keywords: lumbrical
Study on persistent metopic sutures in south Indian adult dry skulls

Study on persistent metopic sutures in south Indian adult dry skulls

Authors: J Jayarani
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

Objective: The present study aims at the presence of persistent metopic sutures in south Indian adult skulls in various forms. The two halves of frontal bones are separated by the persistence of frontal suture in the adult skulls are called Metopism. The fusion of metopic suture starts at around 18 months after birth and is completed by 8-9 years of age. Methods: This study was carried on 120 south Indian adult dry skulls, collected from the museum of anatomy department in Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli. The skulls were inspected at the normal frontalis for the presence of the metopic suture. The sutures were classified as complete and incomplete. The incomplete ones were classified as linear type, ‘V’ shape and ‘U’ type. Results: 95 out of 120 skulls were found to have no metopic sutures. Complete metopic sutures extending from bregma to glabella was observed in 7 skulls (5.8%) (Figure 1) and the incomplete form was noted in 18 skulls (15%). Among incomplete type 9 skulls (7.5%) were revealed midline linear metopic sutures (Figure 2), 3 skulls (2.5%) showed V shaped metopic sutures. U shaped and inverted U shaped was noted in 2 skulls (1.7%) respectively. Each skull (0.8%) showed the Y shaped & H shaped type respectively. Conclusion: 25 (20.8%) out of 120 skulls showed the persistent metopic sutures in various forms with increase incidence of incomplete type (15%) with predominant linear(7.5%) variety. This work was done to contribute the scientific literature, providing Anatomical data and comparison of results with different authors.

Keywords: fontanelle, nasion, bregma, metopism.
CT study of surgical anatomy of hepatic veins-application in liver transplantation surgery

CT study of surgical anatomy of hepatic veins-application in liver transplantation surgery

Authors: A V Bhingardeo, S Khambatta
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

Knowledge of surgical anatomy of liver and its associated variations is prerequisite in liver transplantation surgeries. In the right lobe transplantation, the hepatectomy line passes approximately 1 cm to the right side of the middle hepatic vein as a standard procedure. In surgery after transplantation of liver, venous reconstruction-anastomosis is done. Variations in the drainage pattern of hepatic veins have been reported from time to time. Awareness of associated anatomical variations is important for avoidance of potential surgical complications. We conducted a retrospective multi-slice spiral CT study of hepatic veins, whereby, we studied 100 abdominal CT scans which were reported as normal. We studied the length and the number of branches of hepatic veins and measured the distance of their peripheral-most branch from the nearest hepatic surface. We also studied if any accessory hepatic vein was present. We observed that right hepatic vein was longest (mean length-131.26mm) hepatic vein followed by middle (mean length-122.62mm) and last of all, the left (mean length- 93.15mm) hepatic vein. Most of the right (46%) and middle (45%) hepatic veins were visualized up to third order while most of the left (42%) hepatic veins were having less branches and were visualized up to second order. Most of the right (45) and left (49) hepatic veins were 10-15mm from the hepatic surface while most of the middle hepatic vein wasin the range of 15-20mm. We found Accessory hepatic veins in 18% of cases. Hence it is necessary to evaluate hepatic venous architecture preoperatively in surgeries like liver transplantation and hepatectomy.

Keywords: Accessory hepatic vein, hepatic veins, LDLT, multi-slice spiral CT scan.
A study of anomalies of renal arteries

A study of anomalies of renal arteries

Authors: K Ashalatha, Teresa Rani S, K V Pavana Kumari, Rayappa Hanok Sritej
Year: 2017, Volume: 1, Number: 3
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Abstract

Background: Variations in the origin and course of unilateral and/or bilateral renal arteries are common. But thoracic renal artery, originating in thorax above the diaphragmatic dome at the level of T11 vertebral body is rare. However knowledge of renal artery variations are important in vascular and interventional radiological procedures and in renal transplantations. Material and Method: The study was performed on 72 sides of 36 embalmed cadavers, which were used for routine dissection for medical students, over a period of two years in the department of anatomy, in Narayana Medical College, Nellore, in Guntur Medical College, Guntur and R.V.M. Institute of medical sciences and research centre, Siddipet, Telangana, India. Exposure of kidneys and renal arteries done following standard dissection procedure. The observations are noted and photographed. Results and Discussion: supernumerary Renal arteries were present in 23/36 (63.8%) cases (50% of Aortic origin and 13.8% of renal origin) on the right side and 21/36 (58.3%) cases (47.2% of Aortic origin and 11.1% of Renal origin) on the left side. An anomaly of the renal artery is presented in which the renal trunk supplying the left kidney arises from the Descending thoracic aorta. Conclusion: Variation in the course of renal arteries are common and are known causes of iatrogenic injuries. A thoracic origin of renal artery is rare and posses a greater risk during thoracic endovascular surgical interventions.

Keywords: Descending thoracic aorta, Renal artery, supernumerary renal artery, anatomical variation
Morphological study of lumbrical muscles in human cadaveric hands

Morphological study of lumbrical muscles in human cadaveric hands

Authors: Vrushali V Maindarkar, Santoshkumar A Dope, Pramod R Kulkarni
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

The lumbrical muscles of hand, by producing flexion at metacarpo phalangeal (MCP) joints and extension at interphalangeal joints help in writing, stitching and other forms of precision work. Hence philosophically, it may be said that the actions of lumbrical muscles of hand are indices of civilization of a race.1 The variations in origin, insertion and nerve supply may cause carpal tunnel syndrome. Their hypertrophy may cause compression of radial and ulnar collateral arteries leading to chronic subischemia. Also they may cause surgical complications in hand surgeries. So this study has been undertaken to know about morphology and morphometry of lumbrical muscles in human hands.

Keywords: lumbrical
Accessory spleen at hilum – A case report

Accessory spleen at hilum – A case report

Authors: Bhingardeo A V, Bhoir M
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Accessory spleens are congenital and incidental. They are formed as a result of failure of fusion of multiple buds of splenic tissue in the dorsal mesogastrium in the embryonic life. They can be misdiagnosed with pancreatic tumor or adenoma and can lead to recurrence of hematologic disorders even after splenectomy. The present case report is regarding the incidental finding of accessory spleen at the hilum during routine anatomical dissection. It was supplied by a separate branch from splenic artery and connected with the main splenic mass by a thin band of similar tissue.

Keywords: Accessory spleen, splenectomy, pancreatic tumor, hematologic disorders.
Morphological variation of thyroid gland in cadavers

Morphological variation of thyroid gland in cadavers

Authors: M B Saknure, C S Halnikar (Waghmare)
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: The thyroid gland, largest endocrine gland. Estimation of the size of the thyroid gland is clinically important in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorder. The current emphasis on the surgical management of the thyroid disease has necessitated the understanding of the embryology and anatomy of the thyroid gland and other vital structures in the neck, that helps the physician to perform proper physical examination and also to the surgeon to perform successful thyroid surgeries. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the thyroid gland, its morphology is a prerequisite for better understanding of the thyroid gland and its diseases. Aims and Objectives: To study the morphology of thyroid gland. Material and Methods: Present study includes total 100 thyroid glands from cadavers, embalmed with 10% formalin of known sex from Medical colleges. Study Periods and Designs: Between years DEC.2012 to JAN 2014. Results: Present study shows that, mean length of right lobe was 4.65 + 0.69 cm. and that of left lobe was 4.53 + 0.65 cm. mean length of right lobe of thyroid gland was significantly more than left lobe. The thickness of lobes on right side was 2.33+0.36cm and on left side of thyroid gland was 2.29+0.44 cm. There was no difference in thickness of right and left lobes of thyroid gland. Mean Width of isthmus of thyroid gland was 3.15 cm. Conclusion: Present study shows that, mean length of right lobe of thyroid gland was significantly more than left lobe. There was no difference in thickness of right and left lobes of thyroid gland.

Keywords: Morphological variation, thyroid gland, cadavers.
Study of essential parameters of foetal ovaries during intra uterine life

Study of essential parameters of foetal ovaries during intra uterine life

Authors: Teresa Rani S, T Prasuna
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: To determine the development and the localization of the ovaries during the fetal period. Material and Methods: The material studied consisted of 42 normal human fetuses of different gestational age starting from 20 weeks to full term, collected from the following Hospitals of Warangal, Andhra Pradesh Chandrakantha memorial hospital, Warangal. Govt. maternity hospital, Hanumakonda. The following parameters are considered for the present study: The shape of ovaries, the positions of the ovaries, the localization of the ovaries with respect to linea terminalis, ureters, and the iliac arteries, the dimensions and the weight of the ovaries. Results: In the fetal period, the ovaries were most commonly almond shaped and had an oblique orientation. In the 2nd, 3rd trimester and full-term fetuses, it was observed that the ovaries were not in ovarian fossa, suggesting that decent of ovary was in progression during these times. During the intrauterine period, the ovaries were most commonly located anterior to the ureters and over the common iliac artery, towards the end of the 40th week, migrate to its final location between the internal and external iliac arteries. Conclusion: We found that the ovaries did not assume the position of the adults at the end of the fetal period, rather continued its descent after the birth. The right ovaries are larger than the left. We believe our findings about the fetal ovaries will be useful in obstetrics, fetal pathology, and forensic pathology.

Keywords: Right (Rt), Left (Lt), Crown rump length (CRL), Weeks (Wks), Fullterm (FT).
Variations in the origin of the splenic artery and its clinical implications

Variations in the origin of the splenic artery and its clinical implications

Authors: K Shyamkishore, R R Bokan, P A Gawande
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Introduction: Splenic artery also known as lineal artery is the largest branch of celiac trunk in adults and is the second largest next to common hepatic artery in fetal life. Anatomy, Surgery and Radiology fields are intertwined. If a correct data of native population is available on the vascular anatomy it will be of excellent use for surgeons and radiologists. Aim: The aim of this study the variation in the site of origin of splenic artery in human cadavers. Objective: To study the variation in the site of origin of splenic artery. Materials and Methods: Fifty cadavers embalmed with 10% formalin were utilized in this study. Variations in the origin of the splenic artery were noted. Results: It was observed that the splenic artery originated from the celiac trunk in 48 cadavers (96%), in 1 cadaver (02%) it originated from the abdominal aorta and in 1 cadaver (02%) from superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the clinical importance and to add up more knowledge to the already existing literature, the present study was conducted to know the exact variations in origin of splenic arteryof native population.

Keywords: Abdominal aorta, celiac trunks, lineal artery, splenic artery.
Comparative study on anatomy lecture system chalk and board versus power point presentation to the first medical professional students

Comparative study on anatomy lecture system chalk and board versus power point presentation to the first medical professional students

Authors: J Jayarani
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Aim: Aimed to study the effective role of traditional chalk and board and Power point presentation as a Anatomy lecture delivery methods and analyses the preference of teaching aids to the 1st medical professional students. Materials and Methods: 120 out of 150 1st MBBS medical students of Tirunelveli Medical College were asked to fill anonymously a questionnaire about their perception of chalk and board and Power point presentation lecture delivery methods. The results were compared to see the preference of students for either chalk and board or power point presentation. Results and Discussion: Students perspectives for chalk –board and power point presentation, to deliver Anatomy lectures was tabulated based on grading of ten pre structured questions (Table-1). The post lecture test performance of students was also assessed and compared based on retention of lecture information in memory, understanding and reproducibility of diagrams (Table-2). More than 2/3rd (80%) of them opined that the traditional chalk and board lecture method is more useful than the Power point presentation (20%). Conclusion: Power point presentation should not replace the traditional chalk and board lecture method but be used as a supplementary to enhance the efficacy of teaching as combined method as per need of the lecture topic.

Keywords: Lectures, chalk and board, PowerPoint, Questionnaire.
A Horseshoe Kidney: A Case Report

A Horseshoe Kidney: A Case Report

Authors: R R Bokan, K Shyamkishore
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

During abdominal dissection carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Seth G.S.M.C. KEMH Parel, and Mumbai a horseshoe kidney was observed in 40-year-old male cadaver. The kidney was placed at lower position as compared to its normal position. The lower pole fused to form the isthmus against L4 vertebra. Relation of structures in hilum pelvis was anterior to vein and artery on both sides. The right and left renal arteries arose as lateral branches of the aorta just below the level of superior mesenteric artery. One accessory renal artery originated from the ventral aspect of aorta just above the isthmus. Right kidney was drained by 3 renal veins while the left kidney was drained by a 2 renal veins into IVC. Embryological basis and clinical significance of such anomaly is very important in planning and conducting surgeries.

Keywords: Accessory renal artery, anomalous kidney, Horseshoe kidney.
Evaluation of degenerative changes in lumbar spine by MRI in rural population

Evaluation of degenerative changes in lumbar spine by MRI in rural population

Authors: Walwante R D, Dhapate S S, Porwal S S
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background and Aims: Degeneration of inter vertebral disc is characterized by a loss of hydration of the nucleus pulposus and disruption of the annulus fibrosus resulting from a variety of mechanical and biochemical factors. Individuals with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, although commonly the disease is asymptomatic. The symptomatic individuals can present with back pain or radicular pain syndrome. Lumbar spine is the common area affected by degenerative changes, as it is a part of spine which is subjected to heavy mechanical stress. Material and Methods: This is a hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study. Study population included all patients above 20 years of age with LBP with/without radiculopathy who were referred for lumbar spine MRI at Radiology department.. Observations and Results: The study included 165 patients; the age range was from 20 to 80 years whereby 49.69% of them were females. On lumbar MRI, overall prevalence of lumbar degenerative findings was disc bulge 76%, nerve root compression 40%, and central canal stenosis 26%. The least common finding was disc herniation which was seen in 18%. 9% participants had normal lumbar MRI findings. Prevalence of various degenerative imaging findings was more common among males, only disc bulges were common among females, though the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Degenerative changes in lumbar spine increase with age, being more common among males than females and there is strong association between low back pain patients and degenerative changes observed on MRI.

Keywords: Back pain, disc degeneration, disc displacement.

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