Knowledge International Journal

Knowledge International Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: KIJ
  • Country of publisher: macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Aug/02

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Education, Social Sciences, Medical Education , Environmental Biotechnology, Humanities
  • Publisher's keywords: Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Medical Sciences and Health, Social Sciences, Humanities
  • Language of fulltext: english, russian

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC-ND
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2009
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '103' articles

A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BULGARIA

A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BULGARIA

Authors: Venelin Terziev, Marin Georgiev
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Abstract

The social policy of a country is a set of specific activities aimed at regulating the social relations between different in their social status subjects. This approach to clarifying social policy is also called functional and essentially addresses social policy as an activity to regulate the relationship of equality or inequality in society. It provides an opportunity to look for inequalities in the economic positions of individuals in relation to ownership, labor and working conditions, distribution of income and consumption, social security and health, to look for the sources of these inequalities and their social justification or undue application. The modern state takes on social functions that seek to regulate imbalances, to protect weak social positions and prevent the disintegration of the social system. It regulates the processes in society by harmonizing interests and opposing marginalization. Every modern country develops social activities that reflect the specifics of a particular society, correspond to its economic, political and cultural status. They are the result of political decisions aimed at directing and regulating the process of adaptation of the national society to the transformations of the market environment. Social policy is at the heart of the development and governance of each country. Despite the fact that too many factors and problems affect it, it largely determines the physical and mental state of the population as well as the relationships and interrelationships between people. On the other hand, social policy allows for a more global study and solving of vital social problems of civil society. On the basis of the programs and actions of political parties and state bodies, the guidelines for the development of society are outlined. Social policy should be seen as an activity to regulate the relationship of equality or inequality between different individuals and social groups in society. Its importance is determined by the possibility of establishing on the basis of the complex approach: the economic positions of the different social groups and individuals, by determining the differences between them in terms of income, consumption, working conditions, health, etc .; to explain the causes of inequality; to look for concrete and specific measures to overcome the emerging social disparities.

Keywords: social assistance, social entrepreneurship, social policy
ACCOUNTING APPROACHES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE UNDERTAKING UNDER AMORTIZATION OF ASSETS

ACCOUNTING APPROACHES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE UNDERTAKING UNDER AMORTIZATION OF ASSETS

Authors: Valentina Staneva, Hristo Stanev
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Abstract

Accounting provides the bulk of the economic information used by management bodies at different levels of economic governance and the individual enterprise. Under market conditions, it forms the basis of the management process. The management of individual economic units requires knowledge of legislation and disclosure of patterns and trends in the process of their development. As a system of information, accounting is an element of the science-based system of business management. It justifies the specific human activity of creating information as feedback in managing the economic system. Viewed in a practical and applied aspect, accounting is a function of management, and is a means of implementing decisions. For internal information needs, an entity applies its internal organization, the aggregate of which reflects the accounting policies of its management. Any management decision to be motivated must be based on the principles set out therein. It is a legitimate model of the activity carried out during a certain reporting period. An enterprise's amortization policy is an integral part of its accounting policy and includes principles, bases, methods, policies and procedures to reflect the decrease or change in the carrying amount of the accounting entity over a reporting period. Its implementation is conditioned by the knowledge of specific features in the organization of the activity, the specifics of the activity, the adopted guidelines for development and renovation of the depreciable assets of the enterprise, as well as other similar factors and conditions, revealed on the basis of economic analysis. Amortization policy is conducted by the entity's management, taking into account specific economic conditions and applicable accounting standards. The purpose of this report is to present accounting approaches that provide options, instances, variants and alternative case solutions that determine the entity's amortization policy coupled with the use of accounting estimates in the entity's financial statements.

Keywords: depreciation, amortization policy, management, accounting estimate
MODERN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ARMIES

MODERN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ARMIES

Authors: Milenko Dzeletovic, Hatidza Berisha, Igor Barisic
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Abstract

Through contemporary international relations, a strategic environment is created that directly and to a large extent affects the organization and development of the security sector, and therefore the armed forces as well. "International relations can be seen in the context of state and interdependence through an analysis of the content and scope of basic categorical terms, such as the new world order, globalization, integration, disintegration and other lower terms." The paper starts from the definition of globalization and its impact on the new world order, as well as the ways in which it contributes to the development of the point of view that asymmetry is the only way to oppose the rising hegemony arriving from the west. It will point out the most important ways in which animosity is created between people, nations, the region and even entire parts of the world.

Keywords: asymmetry, globalization, international relations, modern armies, armed forces
MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT POSTION AND THE NET GOVERNMENT POSITION WITH THE BANKING SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT POSTION AND THE NET GOVERNMENT POSITION WITH THE BANKING SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

Authors: Drago Cvijanović, Ivan Milojević, Goran Makismović
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Abstract

The growth of claims of the Banking Sector from the State and the decline in the International Investment Position of the Republic of Serbia are conditioned by the illiquidity of the public sector, which further imposes a concrete conclusion that this phenomenon is in a negative correlation with the degree of budgetary balance. One of the activities of the National Bank of Serbia, is the implementation of banking and monetary policy measures, which is implemented through engagement in the realization of foreign exchange policy objectives, such as: ensuring the international liquidity of the country, maintaining the stability of the foreign exchange rate, smooth payment transactions, balances of the balance of payments, repayment of debts, monitoring and control of foreign operations, etc. On the other hand, the inflow of foreign capital causes a number of consequences for the national economy, such as: reducing the balance of payments deficit, reducing unemployment, and so on. Тhe illiquidity of the public sector, which is primarily reflected in the inability to pay off public debt, which records constant growth, but also in the deficit of budget funds, adversely affects the international investment position, as well as on claims of the Banking Sector from the Republic of Serbia. Banking loans activity is expressed using quantitative debt data the countries in the banking sector, and the decline in investment activity was presented through data on the international investment position of the Republic of Serbia. With the help of these data, the high negative coefficient of interdependence of these two parameters is observed, which is the subject of this research.

Keywords: banking, sector, investment, position, claims
ORGANIZED CRIME AND CORRUPTION AS FACTORS OF INTERNAL SECURITY THREATS

ORGANIZED CRIME AND CORRUPTION AS FACTORS OF INTERNAL SECURITY THREATS

Authors: Temelko Risteski, Gjorgi Tonovski, Vesna Sijic
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Abstract

The paper reviews the definitions of the concept of organized crime: legal, official and theoretical; of the emergent forms of this crime from the aspect of the manner of organizing the perpetrators of criminal activities and from the aspect of the type and content of those activities, with particular reference to corruption in the state’s organs. The authors believe that the great presence of organized crime in the social pathology of the Macedonian society imposes the need for immediate and precise definition of this term with a special provision as a separate criminal act in the Criminal Code. Organized crime is a serious attack on the stability of the legal order, which in fact constitutes by the constitution and the laws established organization order of the state. Mass organized crime in society means a massive violation of the constitution and the laws of the state. Respect for the constitution and laws means a situation of organization and order in the state. In contrast, their massive violation is a mass disruption of organization and order. The massive disruption of organization and order leads to a high degree of disorganization in the state as an organization of citizens. In conditions of disorganization, the citizen does not feel secure. Security is the basis of freedom as an absence of misgiving and fear for the future. Only the citizen who feels himself safe is free, who does not fear for his life, his existence, his property, for the life, the property and the livelihood of his family members. The connection of the government with organized crime produces nationalism and extreme radicalism. Criminalized ruling sets in order to keep as long as possible the ruling position in society apply the principle of divide et impera (separate and rule). In doing so, the government strives to control divisions and confrontations in order not to allow them to turn into ethnic or religious conflicts that would jeopardize its survival. But divisions and confrontations are a dangerous phenomenon. They can easily get out of control and thus jeopardize the survival of the state. The concluding statements state the measures that the social community should take on the prevention of organized crime.

Keywords: organized crime, corruption, nationalism, extremism, security
SPATIAL ASSYMETRIES IN THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF BULGARIA

SPATIAL ASSYMETRIES IN THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF BULGARIA

Authors: Margarita Bogdanova
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Abstract

Bulgaria's regional development has been the focus of attention over the last three decades. This is provoked both by external and internal factors. The great dilemma of regional development policies is how to stimulate the growth centers and at the same time give the chance for less developed regions to develop in a balanced, long-term perspective. This dilemma is solved in different countries in a different way. In Bulgaria, unfortunately, there are no visible successes in this respect. The main problem of territorial development in Bulgaria continues to be the existence of large internal imbalances and inequalities - as it is formulated in the National Strategy for Regional Development 2012-2022. However, by the middle of this period there are no indications for its overcoming. It even sharpened, and the effects of this can reach unprecedented dimensions. The most important priority of public policies for regional development should therefore be to implement instruments for territorial cohesion and balanced growth. The task is not easy. It requires political and managerial willingness and many resources over a long period to implement the chosen policy. In the same time, the lack of a territorial cohesion policy can lead to even more serious problems, the solution of which will require significantly more time and resources if possible to overcome. Achieving cohesion in a territorial aspect requires the implementation of policies for an integrated approach to spatial interaction. There is no territory which can develop itself in isolation from others. The processes in one municipality invariably influence the others - either in a positive or in a negative order. In its simplest version, spatial interaction takes place between nearby or neighboring units (municipalities, districts, organizations, etc.) and may have economic, social and other dimensions. English-language literature uses the term proximity, which is difficult to adapt to Bulgarian in the context of regional development. This is not necessarily geographic proximity, but rather is the manifestation of the effect of spatial interaction. The term is applied in research related to the innovation systems (national and regional), the links of universities with business and the public sector at local and regional level, new economic geography, labor market surveys, development of local economic development policies, etc. We distinguish several types of proximity in a spatial aspect: cognitive, organizational, social, institutional, geographic. Territorial coherence policies should take into account and stimulate the potential for spatial interaction. For this purpose, it is necessary to build institutional frameworks at the regional level to coordinate effectively the process of regional development. At present, such are regional and district development councils, but they fail to perform the role of facilitator, since they have no real power tools for impact and support. There are three possible ways of implementing decentralization. 1) the division between central and regional authorities is organized in clear and precise terms. Regional authorities have even their own resources and have wide-ranging planning rights. They can also subsidize or partially finance local problem solution. 2) only certain functions (planning, development, funding, project implementation) are transferred from the center to the regions, leaving the other regional policy tasks within the competence of the central government. This version is the best in the short term for countries with a unitary system, as the preparation for transferring power needs less effort. 3) the distribution of responsibilities between central and regional authorities is based on specific conditions. A joint managing authority for the development of peripheral, lagging regions is set up and the state provides some of its financial resources to this decision-making body, while the implementation of development programs is delegated to the territorial units.

Keywords: spatial asymmetries, regional development, cohesion policy
THE INFLUENCE OF ASIMETRY TO A MODERN MILITARY THEORY AND PRACTICE

THE INFLUENCE OF ASIMETRY TO A MODERN MILITARY THEORY AND PRACTICE

Authors: Zeljko Mushitic, Nikola Vidovic, Aleksandar Cirakovic
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Abstract

The paper will examine possible implications of asymmetry to military practice, that is, asymmetry as a means of war, and logically, through some of the most obvious examples from recent history, it has been attempted to demonstrate the effect of an incorrectly detected threat even by the largest military forces in the world, the United States and Russia. Also, the paper deals with the 1999 experience and "campaign" against the Republic of Serbia. A bitter experience of the people and society of the Republic of Serbia, but regarding the holder of the inferior role of our side in an asymmetrical conflict against a far superior opponent, presented as the best example of how the advantage of leading an asymmetric war can bring victory to the battlefield.

Keywords: asymmetry, globalization, theory, practice, war, military force, implications
THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE CITIZENS

THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE CITIZENS

Authors: Roberto Bruni, Siniša Zarić, Marcello Sansone
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Abstract

Considering the fast development of some countries and societies around the world and the complexity of markets and economies, technology and knowledge represent the main resources to involve place actors in generating opportunities for a sustainable development and a better quality of life for countries, cities and organizations. The aim of this work is to highlight the power of knowledge as a key resource to be shared, diffused and managed within territories and places, with a focus on the first stakeholders for a place: the citizens. Around the world, from the perspective of the quality of life and wellbeing of people, the geographical areas emerge as places to live when stakeholders perceive the opportunities to be involved as active actors in the place development at different levels. For this reason, governments, institutions, organizations and people should be interested in integration of their actions with territories and geographical areas that are involved by their activities. Citizens are the first category of stakeholders in territories and the knowledge is the key resource to make possible the involvement and participation, for instance in thinking, designing and shaping the place of the future; the citizens-sourcing is a key for this approach. Place marketing framework and SD-Logic approach are used to explain that the final goal in a place management activity is to stimulate the value co-creation and the generation of a strategic benefit for actors involved in a place; this could be the way to stimulate the emerging of sustainable development, improving the quality of life, co-creating value.

Keywords: Place, knowledge, citizens, citizens-sourcing, sustainability, value co-creation
THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

Authors: Irena Ashtalkoska, Savo Ashtalkoski, Nikolce Marinovski
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Abstract

Today, businesses are facing major challenges, resulting from rapid changes in technology, organizations and the overall business environment. These challenges include a number of aspects, such as economic, legal and regulatory issues, environmental and ethical dilemmas. That is exactly what imposes the need for effective leadership to lead the organization forward. Leadership is an influence on the behavior of others, so the leader directs employees towards the pursuit of goals. Here you can see the role of the leader, and this is his help and support in dealing with the changes. All employees participate in the implementation of the change, but the responsibility for successful implementation is the task of the leaders. The purpose of this paper is not only highlighting the importance of the problem, but offering more adequate ways and better management of organizational changes and developing the capacity of organizations for their long-term development.

Keywords: leadership, organizational changes, organizations
ESTABLISHMENT AND FUNCTIONALITY OF THE SYSTEM OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

ESTABLISHMENT AND FUNCTIONALITY OF THE SYSTEM OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Authors: Sonja Petrovska, Despina Sivevska, Jadranka Runceva
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Abstract

Taking into account the postmodern treatment of knowledge as a capital with the highest power and the fact that the school is still the most massive, most organized and most systematized form of education, raising the quality of schoolwork is a constant preoccupation of all countries in the world. The teacher is an important factor from which depends the quality of educational work. The intensive technical-technological and scientific development, as well as the expressed tendencies for democratization and humanization of school education, are serious challenges for the teacher. It is no longer required from the teacher to follow and accept innovations, but competently participate in their production. This is undoubtedly related to his professional development and his willingness to accept lifelong learning as a basic principle in his work. The paper is part of the project "Professional Development of Teachers in the Republic of Macedonia - Situations and Challenges" (2016-2018). The survey covers 398 teachers (primary school teachers from I till V grade and subject teachers) from 28 primary and secondary schools in the Republic of Macedonia. The survey's purpose is to study the attitudes and opinions of teachers about the position and functionality of the system of professional development of teachers in the Republic of Macedonia, in order to improve it. In this context, we tried to answer the following questions: who should determine the aims and contents of the teachers' professional development; who should perform the organized trainings, and what are the factors that can contribute to the promotion of the professional development of teachers. The obtained results point to the need for changes in the pedagogical-organizational setup of the system for professional development of teachers in the Republic of Macedonia.

Keywords: teachers, professional development, Republic of Macedonia
IMPROVEMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS IN SERBIA

IMPROVEMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS IN SERBIA

Authors: Tanja Stanišić, Marija Kostić
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Abstract

Knowledge and innovation are a key resource of modern economies in the era of the knowledge economy. A system that generates a high level of knowledge and the possibility of transforming it into innovation is the higher education system. Higher education has been recognized as the generator of growth and development of countries in contemporary conditions. Numerous researches have confirmed that if the country is more developed, higher education is becoming a growing important factor. However, its importance as the driving force of the development of less developed and developing countries should not be ignored. These countries, in the potential lack of other resources, can base their more dynamic development on the quality of education. Educated and professional staff is an important competitive advantage of countries in modern conditions. Higher education produces educated labour, characterized by higher productivity and innovative ideas. Such workforce contributes more to local economic development and the development of the country as a whole. Therefore, high-quality higher education can be a key factor for the economic development of developing countries and improving living standards. Bearing in mind the above, it is not surprising that higher education is recognized as a significant factor of the competitiveness of countries. Taking into account global trends, Serbia as a developing country should not ignore the importance of higher education. The aim of the paper is to examine the place and role of higher education as a factor of competitiveness in Serbia. The paper, based on the data of the World Economic Forum, analyzes key indicators of the quality of higher education in Serbia and examines their contribution to the competitiveness of the country. Five indicators were analyzed: Secondary education enrollment rate, Tertiary education enrollment rate, Quality of the education system, Quality of math and science education and Quality of management schools. The basic research methods applied in the paper are the method of analysis in the dynamics of time and regression analysis. The movement of the values of these indicators in a ten-year period are analysed by the first method. On this basis, a conclusion on a more or less successful policy of improving the quality of higher education in Serbia is drawn. The influence of the mentioned indicators of the quality of higher education on the competitiveness of Serbia is considered by the second method. It points to higher education segments that can be the key weapon in the competitive struggle of Serbia in the global market, as well as those in which Serbia does not record satisfactory results and which require improvement.

Keywords: knowledge, education, competitiveness
FAMILY-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP IN BULGARIA TWO POINTS OF VIEW

FAMILY-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP IN BULGARIA TWO POINTS OF VIEW

Authors: Bistra Mizova, Boncho Gospodinov, Siyka Chavdarova-Kostova
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Abstract

Family and school are the two main factors of children’s education and they have influence of young people’s learning, personal and social growth. Between family and school are interactions needed, based on collaboration and actives involving of parents, other family members and school stuff in the name of interest and successes of each child. Effective relationships means actually partnership between family and school, characterized by mutual trust, respect and shared responsibility for the education and development of the children and young people at the school. Research demonstrate (Wild, 2003; Hess, 2011), that partnership between both institutions is positive associated with school motivation and satisfaction, also with high academic outcomes. The present survey, conducted at the end of 2017, tries to explain what perceptions, representations and opinions the teachers (N=304) and parents (N=186) have towards the present status of the relationships between school and family in the socio-cultural context of Bulgaria. It was a part of the National survey carried out within grant from the Ministry of Education and Science. The analysis of the results confirms, that the relationships between teachers and parents as a key subjects in the interaction "school-family" are problematic. They are mutual negative attitudes and representations between parents and teachers and this indicate strongly reduced trust between them.

Keywords: family-school relationships, education, adolescent, parents, teachers
PROACTIVE ENVIRONMENT IN PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS (Monitoring and evaluation of the activities under the project "Municipality of Blagoevgrad - a place for ethno-innovation - OBMEN")

PROACTIVE ENVIRONMENT IN PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS (Monitoring and evaluation of the activities under the project "Municipality of Blagoevgrad - a place for ethno-innovation - OBMEN")

Authors: Sofiya Dermendzhieva, Veska Vardareva, Violin Vasilev
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Abstract

This report presents the results of the activities under the project "Municipality of Blagoevgrad - a place for ethno-innovation - Promenade", which is realized for 11 months in Blagoevgrad Municipality. The main participants in the project are the Municipality of Blagoevgrad, "Step by Step Program" Foundation - Sofia; Kindergarten 6 "Happy Childhood", Kindergarten 1 "Zdravets", 11th Hristo Botev Primary School, SOUCHE "Kliment Ohridski" - Blagoevgrad. The main objective of the "Promenade" project is to provide access to quality education and education of children and pupils in Blagoevgrad Municipality by providing municipal counseling and pedagogical teams with opportunities to apply the principles, methods and approaches of Intercultural Education. The main task of monitoring within the OBMEN project is to measure the effectiveness of activities that optimize the interaction between local authorities and educational institutions (kindergarten and school) in the implementation of a municipal policy for educational integration of children and students from ethnic minorities. As a result of the monitoring carried out, a gradual, systematic monitoring of the changes occurring in the SG and the schools in terms of: learning environment, individualization, working methods, planning and evaluation in the course of pedagogical interaction, family inclusion, institutional implementation policies in the field of intercultural education. Proactive learning environment is a more general concept, as the education, the learning, and training are aspects of the pedagogical process, and as components of didactics - they are the subject of the pedagogical research. Providing proactive learning environments in the classroom is a prerequisite for achieving learning and education effectiveness. Proactive people have a strong need for striving and development. These are people who need self-realization and constantly upgrade their knowledge and skills. These are people who are looking for ways to take advantage of any situation, not in the sense of benefiting someone else, but in the sense of becoming better people. They seek life lessons everywhere, they seek teachers among the people above and below them in the professional hierarchy. Combining the frontal work with the temporary group and especially with the individual is not an unfamiliar technique for didactics, but in this case the specificity comes from the specific tasks of opening to the other, the formation of skills to predict its behavior and the readiness to rely on it in a given situation. Homosexual and heterogeneous groups can be used by gender and cognitive levels, but in accordance with cooperative learning ideas, groups have to be heterogeneous by ethnicity in order to have interdependence and creativity in the work. By solving together learning problems, children will learn to solve life problems more easily by working together, responsibly and tolerant. Frontal forms of work are necessary in certain cases, especially at the beginning of schooling to overcome cognitive difficulties, fill gaps and oversights, complement the knowledge. However, they can not and should not be dominant or predominant. For the purpose of intercultural education, proactive group forms are the most valuable and appropriate and should be used at all times in educational and extra-curricular. Proactive learning environment is a more general concept, as the education, the learning, and training are aspects of the pedagogical process, and as components of didactics - they are the subject of the pedagogical research. Providing proactive learning environments in the classroom is a prerequisite for achieving learning and education effectiveness. Proactive people have a strong need for striving and development. These are people who need self-realization and constantly upgrade their knowledge and skills. These are people who are looking for ways to take advantage of any situation, not in the sense of benefiting someone else, but in the sense of becoming better people. They seek life lessons everywhere, they seek teachers among the people above and below them in the professional hierarchy. A proactive learning environment is a more general concept, as education, training and learning are aspects of the pedagogical process and as components of learning - they are the subject of pedagogical research.

Keywords: proactive education environment, pre-school age, primary school age, intercultural education, ethno-cultural competence
HIDDEN CURRICULUM OR THE POWER OF THE SIDE EFFECTS IN SCHOOL EDUCATION

HIDDEN CURRICULUM OR THE POWER OF THE SIDE EFFECTS IN SCHOOL EDUCATION

Authors: Silvia Varbanova
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Abstract

Every recurring characteristic of school life influences students’ beliefs, behavior, and attitudes towards education, norms and symbolic models in society. The unofficial, unwritten, often unintended or unconscious “messages” in educational environment, all things that are learnt in school in the process of relationships in addition to the official curriculum are defined as hidden curriculum. Hidden curriculum is acknowledged as the socialization process of schooling. Some of characteristic and the types of hidden curriculum as aspects of symbolic human environment are maintained over time; others have changed or are reconstructed. This paper is aimed to present some key aspects of hidden curriculum that play a major part in development of students and often contradict the officially declared goals for the development of originality, creativity, self-regulated learning. The analysis is focused on different features of the educational process that lead to passive acceptance and do not promote active learning and understanding. The negative cognitive and affective effects on outcome of students coming from “philosophy of collecting”, “right answerism” are discussed. The importance of powerful knowledge that develops critical awareness of the forces structuring the live is emphasizes. The teaching strategies, teachers’ expectations and their interpretive schemes, hidden curriculum of language, hidden criteria of assessment are discussed in the context of their effect on students’ living approach and attitudes to learning. The symbolic features of relationships and physical environment are analyzed. The silent messages from educational space are important not only for cognitive development, but also for socialization of students as active persons or as dependent followers of rules. Hidden curriculum occurs not only through the actions of teachers and the official institutions. Students’ attitudes to learning give additional characteristics of it, both with positive and negative effects. In the time of digital transformation of culture the changes coming from students’ activities and attitudes are very important. The analysis and conclusions are made on the base of key types of hidden curriculum described by different researchers, observations and focus groups involving students from Faculty of Education, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridsky”.

Keywords: hidden curriculum, socialization, culture of learning, cognitive and affective outcomes
SCHOOL PEDAGOGIST – THE CREATOR AND THE CORE OF THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE SCHOOL

SCHOOL PEDAGOGIST – THE CREATOR AND THE CORE OF THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE SCHOOL

Authors: Snezana Jovanova – Mitkovska, Biljana Popeska
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Abstract

As professional profile, if we consider the educational aspect in the school, without exceptions, the school pedagogist is the integral part of school team and from the team of professional service in the school. Who exact the school pedagogues are? What kind of competences do they have? What kind of competences they should have? What is their role in the school and school life? What are the challenges that they are facing? These are only the few of the questions at the list of many more that we will try to elaborate and answer in presented paper. Speaking about professional competences of the school pedagogues, we could underline following: conceptual competences, technical, integrative, adaptive competences and competences for interpersonal communication. Related with roles of the pedagogues in school and school life, following roles could be underlined as priority: role in planning and programming of the work in the school, work with students, work with parents and teachers as well as roles such as programming, evaluation, research etc. The numerous area of work, different roles that school pedagogues has, number of working tasks as well as the number of people that the pedagogue is in contact with, makes this profession full with challenges and responsibilities. Some of them are elaborated in this paper. All listed challenges could be overcome with personal education, continuouse process of self education and life – long learning, investment in personal and professional development, critical and self – critical views upon the work and continuouse searching for new and innovative approaches and solutions in everyday work.

Keywords: pedagogues, competences, school management, development

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